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Disease surveillance

Jacques Klein, Arachk de Górski, Daniel Benamran, Jean-Paul Vallee, Thomas De Perrot, Gregory J Wirth, Christophe E Iselin
INTRODUCTION: The study aimed to evaluate 3 different modalities of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsies (PBs; 2D-, 3D- and targeted 3D-TRUS with fusion to MRI - T3D). Primary end point was the detection rate of prostate cancer (PC). Secondary end point was the detection rate of insignificant PC according to the Epstein criteria. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Inclusion of 284 subsequent patients who underwent 2D-, 3D- or T3D PB from 2011 to 2015. All patients having PB for initial PC detection with a serum prostate-specific antigen value ≤20 ng/ml were included...
October 27, 2016: Urologia Internationalis
Margaret Peggy Adamo, Jessica A Boten, Linda M Coyle, Kathleen A Cronin, Clara J K Lam, Serban Negoita, Lynne Penberthy, Jennifer L Stevens, Kevin C Ward
BACKGROUND: Researchers have used prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values collected by central cancer registries to evaluate tumors for potential aggressive clinical disease. An independent study collecting PSA values suggested a high error rate (18%) related to implied decimal points. To evaluate the error rate in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program, a comprehensive review of PSA values recorded across all SEER registries was performed. METHODS: Consolidated PSA values for eligible prostate cancer cases in SEER registries were reviewed and compared with text documentation from abstracted records...
October 26, 2016: Cancer
Huan He, Cheng Tang, Xinnuo Chen, Hua Yue, Yupeng Ren, Yan Liu, Bin Zhang
An enterovirus (EV) strain, designated as SWUN-AB001, was isolated in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau from a yak with severe diarrheal disease. The complete genome of strain SWUN-AB001 was 7,382 bp in length and shared 35.1-68.5% nt identities with bovine EVs belonging to a candidate new type EV-F7. Using the sequence difference values in the VP1 gene as a criterion for demarcating a new serotype/genotype in the Enterovirus genus, strain SWUN-AB001 had only a 71.1% nt and a 79.2% aa identity, in the VP1 region, with the most closely matched EV, further indicating that a new type of EV had been identified...
October 25, 2016: Archives of Virology
Daniel Ricklin, Edimara S Reis, Dimitrios C Mastellos, Piet Gros, John D Lambris
As a preformed defense system, complement faces a delicate challenge in providing an immediate, forceful response to pathogens even at first encounter, while sparing host cells in the process. For this purpose, it engages a tightly regulated network of plasma proteins, cell surface receptors, and regulators. Complement component C3 plays a particularly versatile role in this process by keeping the cascade alert, acting as a point of convergence of activation pathways, fueling the amplification of the complement response, exerting direct effector functions, and helping to coordinate downstream immune responses...
November 2016: Immunological Reviews
Christoph Q Schmidt, John D Lambris, Daniel Ricklin
The complement cascade is an ancient immune-surveillance system that not only provides protection from pathogen invasion but has also evolved to participate in physiological processes to maintain tissue homeostasis. The alternative pathway (AP) of complement activation is the evolutionarily oldest part of this innate immune cascade. It is unique in that it is continuously activated at a low level and arbitrarily probes foreign, modified-self, and also unaltered self-structures. This indiscriminate activation necessitates the presence of preformed regulators on autologous surfaces to spare self-cells from the undirected nature of AP activation...
November 2016: Immunological Reviews
Adriaan J van der Meer, Jordan J Feld, Harald Hofer, Piero L Almasio, Vincenza Calvaruso, Conrado M Fernández-Rodríguez, Soo Aleman, Nathalie Ganne-Carrié, Roberta D'Ambrosio, Stanislas Pol, Maria Trapero-Marugan, R Maan, Ricardo Moreno-Otero, Vincent Mallet, Rolf Hultcrantz, Ola Weiland, Karoline Rutter, Vito Di Marco, Sonia Alonso, Savino Bruno, Massimo Colombo, Robert J de Knegt, Bart J Veldt, Bettina E Hansen, Harry L A Janssen
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is reduced but not eradicated among patients with HCV-induced advanced hepatic fibrosis who attained sustained viral response (SVR). We aimed to assess the risk of cirrhosis-related complications in this specific group of patients. METHODS: Data from previously reported Western cohort studies including patients with chronic HCV infection and bridging fibrosis or cirrhosis who attained SVR were pooled for survival analyses on the individual patient level...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
Peter J Zavitsanos, Kara L Leonard
PURPOSE: We examined the radiotherapy patterns of care over an 8-year period during which the PORTEC-2 trial and other series were published. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients diagnosed with Stage I endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EA) between 2004 and 2011 were identified in the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Adjuvant radiation treatments were analyzed by year. Patterns of care from 2004 to 2008 were compared to those from 2009 to 2011 using the χ(2) test...
October 22, 2016: Brachytherapy
Ray Borrow, Jin-Soo Lee, Julio A Vázquez, Godwin Enwere, Muhamed-Kheir Taha, Hajime Kamiya, Hwang Min Kim, Dae Sun Jo
The Global Meningococcal Initiative (GMI) is a global expert group that includes scientists, clinicians, and public health officials with a wide range of specialties. The purpose of the Initiative is to promote the global prevention of meningococcal disease (MD) through education, research, and cooperation. The first Asia-Pacific regional meeting was held in November 2014. The GMI reviewed the epidemiology of MD, surveillance, and prevention strategies, and outbreak control practices from participating countries in the Asia-Pacific region...
October 22, 2016: Vaccine
M K Win, A Chow, H J Ho, S Y Tay, Y S Leo
Since the emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), Singapore has enhanced its national surveillance system to detect the potential importation of this novel pathogen. Using the guidelines from the Singapore Ministry of Health, a suspect case was defined as a person with clinical signs and symptoms suggestive of pneumonia or severe respiratory infection with breathlessness, and with an epidemiological link to countries where MERS-CoV cases had been reported within the preceding 14 days...
October 26, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
S J Chai, D Cole, A Nisler, B E Mahon
As poultry consumption continues to increase worldwide, and as the United States accounts for about one-third of all poultry exports globally, understanding factors leading to poultry-associated foodborne outbreaks in the United States has important implications for food safety. We analysed outbreaks reported to the United States' Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System from 1998 to 2012 in which the implicated food or ingredient could be assigned to one food category. Of 1114 outbreaks, poultry was associated with 279 (25%), accounting for the highest number of outbreaks, illnesses, and hospitalizations, and the second highest number of deaths...
October 26, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
Karen H Keddy, Arvinda Sooka, Anthony M Smith, Alfred Musekiwa, Nomsa P Tau, Keith P Klugman, Frederick J Angulo
BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever remains an important disease in Africa, associated with outbreaks and the emerging multidrug resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (Salmonella Typhi) haplotype, H58. This study describes the incidence of, and factors associated with mortality due to, typhoid fever in South Africa, where HIV prevalence is high. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Nationwide active laboratory-based surveillance for culture-confirmed typhoid fever was undertaken from 2003-2013...
2016: PloS One
Jason Echavez Abello, Julita Gil Cuesta, Boyd Roderick Cerro, Debarati Guha-Sapir
In cases of Dengue fever, late hospital admission can lead to treatment delay and even death. In order to improve early disease notification and management, it is essential to investigate the factors affecting the time of admission of Dengue cases. This study determined the factors associated with the time of admission among notified Dengue cases. The study covered the period between 2008 and 2014 in Region VIII, Philippines. The factors assessed were age, sex, hospital sector, hospital level, disease severity based on the 1997 WHO Dengue classification, and period of admission (distinguishing between the 2010 Dengue epidemic and non-epidemic time)...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Michael B Cook, Jennifer Drahos, Shannon Wood, Lindsey Enewold, Ruth Parsons, Neal D Freedman, Philip R Taylor, Winnie Ricker, Christian C Abnet
BACKGROUND: The absolute risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) among individuals with Barrett's oesophagus (BE) is low and a majority of EA cases are diagnosed among individuals with no prior BE diagnosis. To ensure that insights from EA case-control studies are transferable to clinical management of BE populations, we conducted a case-case study to compare the clinical presentation, medical history and survival of EA cases with and without a prior BE diagnosis in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Medicare database...
October 25, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
Andrzej Zieliński, Jolanta Rudowska
: For many years the number of tetanus cases reported in Poland remaing below fifty with marked random variations. Almost all disease occur in people unvaccinated. Some of them, especially in people over age 60, are fatal. THE AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of the study is to present the data of epidemiological surveillance of tetanus in Poland in 2014. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analyzed material are the individual reports of cases of tetanus sent to the Department of Epidemiology at NIPH-PZH and bulletin data “Infectious diseases and poisoning in Poland in 2014”...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
Małgorzata Stępień, Katarzyna Piwowarow, Mirosław P Czarkowski
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the epidemiological situation of hepatitis B in Poland in 2014 in comparison with the previous years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The evaluation of the epidemiological situation was carried out on a basis of analysis of data from case-based reports on acute hepatitis B registered by sanitary and epidemiological stations, aggregate data derived from annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland”, data from annual bulletin “Vaccinations in Poland” and data on locally registered HBsAg carriers...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
Piotr Polański
AIM: The aim of this article is to assess the epidemiological situation of hepatitis A in Poland in 2014 with the regard to the recent years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The assessment was conducted based on the results of the analysis of data from the bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Vaccinations in Poland in 2014”, as well as information from the individual cases questionnaires and reports of epidemiological investigations in outbreaks of hepatitis A, submitted by the sanitary-epidemiological stations to the Department of Epidemiology in NIPH-NIH...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
Michał Czerwiński, Mirosław P Czarkowski, Barbara Kondej
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is to assess the epidemiology of foodborne botulism in Poland in 2014 compared to previous years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed (1) surveillance data published in the annual bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and in previous publications, and (2) unpublished data retrieved from botulism case reports for 2014 sent to the Department of Epidemiology NIPH-NIH by Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
Małgorzata Sadkowska-Todys, Bożena Kucharczyk
THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Evaluation of the epidemiological situation of campylobacteriosis in Poland in 2013 and 2014 in comparison with the situation in the previous years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The evaluation of the epidemiological situation was carried out on the basis of the analysis of the data contained in the annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland” for the years 2012- 2014, extended by the information from the individual questionnaires of diseases and forms of the epidemiological investigations of outbreaks of campylobacteriosis, sent by the sanitary-epidemiological stations to the Department of Epidemiology and also on data from the Department of Demographic Studies of the Central Statistical Office...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
Hanna Stypułkowska-Misiurewicz, Michał Czerwiński
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the epidemiological situation of legionellosis in Poland in 2014. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We reviewed data published in the annual bulletin: “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and its prior versions along with the legionellosis case reports sent to the Department of Epidemiology of NIPH - NIH. RESULTS: In Poland, both two forms of legionellosis - Legionnaires’ disease (a severe form of disease accompanied by pneumonia) and Pontiac fever (mild, influenza-like form of infection) - are routinely reported to the surveillance...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
Ewa Staszewska-Jakubik, Mirosław P Czarkowski, Barbara Kondej
OBJECTIVE: Assessment of the epidemiological situation of scarlet fever in Poland in 2014. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The evaluation was performed by reviewing surveillance data published in the bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” as well as in previous bulletins, and unpublished data collected under Statistical survey program of official statistics. These data relate to cases of scarlet fever registered by health sanitary inspection on the basis of statutory notification of scarlet fever reported by physicians...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
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