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Disease surveillance

Lynn Jakobs
BACKGROUND: Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a rare cancer that has historically been managed by endocrinologists. In 2011, the first of several multi- targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors was approved as treatment for MTC. These drugs have changed the management of MTC to teams that include oncologists and oncology nurses. OBJECTIVES: This article illustrates MTC diagnostics, surveillance, management of adverse drug reactions, and disease progression through a case study...
April 1, 2018: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
Yang Feng, Weixing Dai, Yaqi Li, Shaobo Mo, Qingguo Li, Sanjun Cai
OBJECTIVE: Marital status has been found as an independent prognostic factor for survival in colorectal cancer (CRC). However, it is unclear whether patients with different marital status have benefited the same from the treatment improvement. METHODS: We queried the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 9 database for patients diagnosed with CRC from 1975 to 2009. Yearly survival data was presented with overlying loess smoothing lines, stratifying by marital status...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Rupert R A Bourne, Jost B Jonas, Alain M Bron, Maria Vittoria Cicinelli, Aditi Das, Seth R Flaxman, David S Friedman, Jill E Keeffe, John H Kempen, Janet Leasher, Hans Limburg, Kovin Naidoo, Konrad Pesudovs, Tunde Peto, Jinan Saadine, Alexander J Silvester, Nina Tahhan, Hugh R Taylor, Rohit Varma, Tien Y Wong, Serge Resnikoff
BACKGROUND: Within a surveillance of the prevalence and causes of vision impairment in high-income regions and Central/Eastern Europe, we update figures through 2015 and forecast expected values in 2020. METHODS: Based on a systematic review of medical literature, prevalence of blindness, moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI), mild vision impairment and presbyopia was estimated for 1990, 2010, 2015, and 2020. RESULTS: Age-standardised prevalence of blindness and MSVI for all ages decreased from 1990 to 2015 from 0...
March 15, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
A J Ullmann, J M Aguado, S Arikan-Akdagli, D W Denning, A H Groll, K Lagrou, C Lass-Flörl, R E Lewis, P Munoz, P E Verweij, A Warris, F Ader, M Akova, M C Arendrup, R A Barnes, C Beigelman-Aubry, S Blot, E Bouza, R J M Brüggemann, D Buchheidt, J Cadranel, E Castagnola, A Chakrabarti, M Cuenca-Estrella, G Dimopoulos, J Fortun, J-P Gangneux, J Garbino, W J Heinz, R Herbrecht, C P Heussel, C C Kibbler, N Klimko, B J Kullberg, C Lange, T Lehrnbecher, J Löffler, O Lortholary, J Maertens, O Marchetti, J F Meis, L Pagano, P Ribaud, M Richardson, E Roilides, M Ruhnke, M Sanguinetti, D C Sheppard, J Sinkó, A Skiada, M J G T Vehreschild, C Viscoli, O A Cornely
The European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, the European Confederation of Medical Mycology and the European Respiratory Society Joint Clinical Guidelines focus on diagnosis and management of aspergillosis. Of the numerous recommendations, a few are summarized here. Chest computed tomography as well as bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in patients with suspicion of pulmonary invasive aspergillosis (IA) are strongly recommended. For diagnosis, direct microscopy, preferably using optical brighteners, histopathology and culture are strongly recommended...
March 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Bakary Sanneh, Alhagie Papa Sey, Minesh Shah, Jacqueline Tate, Mariama Sonko, Sheriffo Jagne, ModouLamin Jarju, Dawda Sowe, Makie Taal, Adam Cohen, Umesh Parashar, Jason M Mwenda
INTRODUCTION: Rotavirus vaccines protect against the leading cause of severe childhood diarrhoea, and have been introduced in many low-income African countries. The Gambia introducedRotateq® (RV5) into their national immunization program in 2013. We revieweddata from an active rotavirus sentinel surveillancesitefor early evidence of vaccine impact. METHODS: We compared rotavirus prevalence in diarrhoeal stool in children< 5 years of age admittedat the Edward Francis Small Teaching Hospital sentinel surveillance site before (2013) andafterRV5 introduction (2015-2016) in the Gambia...
March 12, 2018: Vaccine
Daniel Barros de Castro, Vanderson Souza Sampaio, Bernardino Cláudio de Albuquerque, Rosemary Costa Pinto, Megumi Sadahiro, Ricardo Augusto Dos Passos, Cristiano Fernandes da Costa, José Ueleres Braga
BACKGROUND: Dengue is the most prevalent arboviral disease affecting humans. The frequency and magnitude of dengue epidemic have significantly increased over recent decades. This study aimed to identify dengue epidemic types and risk factors for the extensive epidemics that occurred in 2010-2011, across the municipalities of Amazonas state, Brazil. METHODS: Using an ecological approach, secondary data were obtained from the dengue fever surveillance system. Epidemic waves were classified according to three indices: duration, intensity, and coverage...
March 15, 2018: BMC Public Health
Ramon Roca-Tey, José Ibeas, Teresa Moreno, Enrique Gruss, José Luis Merino, Joaquín Vallespín, David Hernán, Patricia Arribas
The Spanish Multidisciplinary Group on Vascular Access (GEMAV), which includes experts from the five scientific societies involved (nephrology (S.E.N.), vascular surgery (SEACV), interventional radiology (SERAM-SERVEI), infectious diseases (SEIMC), and nephrology nursing (SEDEN)), along with the methodological support of the Iberoamerican Cochrane Centre, has developed the Spanish Clinical Guidelines on Vascular Access for Hemodialysis. This article summarizes the main issues from the guideline's chapter entitled "Monitoring and surveillance of arteriovenous access...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vascular Access
Julie Rivière, Yann Le Strat, Pascal Hendrikx, Barbara Dufour
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a common disease of cattle and wildlife, with economic repercussions and implications for animal and human health. The surveillance of bTB in wildlife is particularly important, to shed light on the epidemiological role of wild species and for the adaptation of control measures. In France, a bTB surveillance system for free-ranging wildlife, the Sylvatub system, was launched in 2011 on wild boars, red deer, roe deer and badgers. It relies on active and passive surveillance activities, constrained by practical difficulties, such as the accessibility of wild animals, and regulatory rules for the trapping of badgers, for example...
2018: PloS One
Mary M Alleman, Rohit Chitale, Cara C Burns, Jane Iber, Naomi Dybdahl-Sissoko, Qi Chen, Djo-Roy Van Koko, Raimi Ewetola, Yogolelo Riziki, Hugo Kavunga-Membo, Cheikh Dah, Rija Andriamihantanirina
The last confirmed wild poliovirus (WPV) case in Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) had paralysis onset in December 2011 (1). DRC has had cases of vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) documented since 2004 (Table 1) (1-6). After an outbreak of 30 circulating VDPV type 2 (cVDPV2) cases during 2011-2012, only five VDPV2 cases were reported during 2013-2016 (Table 1) (1-6). VDPVs can emerge from oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV types 1, 2, or 3; Sabin) polioviruses that have genetically mutated resulting in reversion to neurovirulence...
March 16, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Kara N Durski, Andrea M McCollum, Yoshinori Nakazawa, Brett W Petersen, Mary G Reynolds, Sylvie Briand, Mamoudou Harouna Djingarey, Victoria Olson, Inger K Damon, Asheena Khalakdina
The recent apparent increase in human monkeypox cases across a wide geographic area, the potential for further spread, and the lack of reliable surveillance have raised the level of concern for this emerging zoonosis. In November 2017, the World Health Organization (WHO), in collaboration with CDC, hosted an informal consultation on monkeypox with researchers, global health partners, ministries of health, and orthopoxvirus experts to review and discuss human monkeypox in African countries where cases have been recently detected and also identify components of surveillance and response that need improvement...
March 16, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Francisco S Barreto, Adriano J M Chaves Filho, Márcia C C R de Araújo, Manoel O de Moraes, Maria E A de Moraes, Michael Maes, David F de Lucena, Danielle S Macedo
Both depression and cancer are related to a dysregulation of inflammatory and immune pathways. Indeed, depression is associated with increased expression of interferon-γ, interleukin-1β, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). In contrast, reductions of the activity of major histocompatibility complex protein molecules - class I and class II and natural killer cells are also observed. Similarly, cancers present elevated levels of TNF-α, reduced major histocompatibility complex class I and II, and natural killer cells...
April 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Susan Kane Patton, Bailey Phillips
Evidence-based strategies for nurses. ABSTRACT: Lyme disease is recognized as the most common vector-borne disease in the United States. Surveillance data indicate both increasing numbers of Lyme disease cases and geographic expansion of areas where the causative spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, can be found. With prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment in the acute stage, most patients will recover fully. Without treatment, however, the infecting pathogen remains within the body, often producing long-term complications, including musculoskeletal, neurologic, and cardiovascular effects...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Nursing
Sevim Meşe, Aysun Uyanik, Alev Özakay, Serdar Öztürk, Selim Badur
Human influenza is predominantly caused by influenza A virus (IAV) - A/H1N1 and/or A/H3N2 - and influenza B virus (IBV) - B/Victoria and/or B/Yamagata, which co-circulate each season. Influenza surveillance provides important information on seasonal disease burden and circulation, and vaccine content for the following season. To study the circulating influenza subtypes/lineages in western Turkey. Community-based sentinel surveillance results during 2003-2016 (weeks 40-20 each season; but week 21, 2009 through week 20, 2010 during the pandemic) were analyzed...
March 15, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Rafael E de la Hoz, Jonathan Weber, Dongming Xu, John T Doucette, Xiaoyu Liu, Deborah A Carson, Juan C Celedón
We examined the chest CT scans of 1,453 WTC responders using the International Classification of High-resolution CT for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases. Univariate and bivariate analyses of potential work-related pleural abnormalities were performed with pre-WTC and WTC-related occupational exposure data, spirometry, demographics and quantitative CT measurements. Logistic regression was used to evaluate occupational predictors of those abnormalities. Chest CT scans were performed first at a median of 6...
March 15, 2018: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
Madan Upadhyay, Ranju Kharel Sitaula, Bharat Shrestha, Bhaiya Khanal, Bishnu Psd Upadhyay, Jeevan B Sherchand, Prakash Ghimire
PURPOSE: This review aims to provide a detailed update in Seasonal hypercute panuveitis (SHAPU) which is a blinding disease of unknown etiology reported only from Nepal, occurring every odd year since 1975 predominantly in children. METHODS: Data sources were literature reviewed using PubMed, Medline, and ISI Databases (since 1975 to late 2017). Search items included SHAPU, seasonal endophthalmitis, hypopyon uveitis, caterpillar induced uveitis alone or in combination with white moth, panuveitis, and review...
March 15, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Lisa M Sharkey, Sarah Peacock, Neil K Russell, Stephen J Middleton, Andrew J Butler
Graft versus host disease (GVHD) following transplantation of an intestine-containing graft occurs more frequently than with other solid organ transplants and is known to have a poor outcome. The presentation differs from other solid organ transplants, as the gastrointestinal tract is not involved following intestinal transplant. Diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms arising due to native tissue damage and the detection of donor T lymphocytes in circulating blood (T cell chimerism). The ideal treatment strategy has not been defined, with advocates for both increased or decreased immunosuppression...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Transplantation
A K Malik, R Filobbos, A Manoharan, N Harvey, D A O'Reilly, N de Liguori Carino
Angiomyxomas are uncommon myxoid tumours arising most commonly from the pelvis. A 46-year-old woman with a history of polycystic kidney disease presented asymptomatically for surveillance ultrasonography; changes were noted in the size and morphology of her liver cysts. Subsequent radiological assessment displayed features suspicious of malignancy and a right hemihepatectomy was performed with curative intent. Pathological examination of the resected specimen found histology consistent with an angiomyxoma arising primarily from the liver parenchyma...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
Marc A Furrer, Antoni Vilaseca, Renato B Corradi, Silvan Boxler, George N Thalmann, Daniel P Nguyen
BACKGROUND: A growing number of men undergo repeat biopsies prior to radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer. However, the long-term impact of repeat biopsies on functional outcomes in this patient population remains unelucidated. Thus, we compared functional outcomes between patients who underwent single biopsy versus repeat biopsies before radical prostatectomy. METHODS: From 1996 to 2015, 1015 consecutive patients underwent radical prostatectomy, and subsequently had urinary continence and erectile function assessed for >2 years follow-up...
March 14, 2018: Prostate
Ben Lariviere, Katherine S Garman, N Lynn Ferguson, Deborah A Fisher, Nan M Jokerst
Early detection and surveillance of disease progression in epithelial tissue is key to improving long term patient outcomes for colon and esophageal cancers, which account for nearly a quarter of cancer related mortalities worldwide. Spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (SRDRS) is a non-invasive optical technique to sense biological changes at the cellular and sub-cellular level that occur when normal tissue becomes diseased, and has the potential to significantly improve the current standard of care for endoscopic gastrointestinal (GI) screening...
March 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
T S Ravikumar, R Kanagarethinam, Divya Nair, Sitanshu S Kar
Background: Prevalence of cardiovascular diseases are reported to be high in police force, which constitute a special occupational group. "Partners in Prevention" was a special surveillance activity carried out among the personnel of the Department of Police, Government of Puducherry by JIPMER, Puducherry. The present study reports the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and other cardiovascular risk factors in this group. Materials and Methods: The design was cross-sectional analytical study covering 1618 policemen during 2013-15...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
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