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Disease surveillance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331944/liver-sampling-a-vital-window-into-hbv-pathogenesis-on-the-path-to-functional-cure
#1
REVIEW
Upkar S Gill, Laura J Pallett, Patrick T F Kennedy, Mala K Maini
In order to optimally refine the multiple emerging drug targets for hepatitis B virus (HBV), it is vital to evaluate virological and immunological changes at the site of infection. Traditionally liver biopsy has been the mainstay of HBV disease assessment, but with the emergence of non-invasive markers of liver fibrosis, there has been a move away from tissue sampling. Here we argue that liver biopsy remains an important tool, not only for the clinical assessment of HBV but also for research progress and evaluation of novel agents...
January 13, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331670/circulation-of-alphacoronavirus-betacoronavirus-and-paramyxovirus-in-hipposideros-bat-species-in-zimbabwe
#2
Mathieu Bourgarel, Davies M Pfukenyi, Vanina Boué, Loïc Talignani, Ngoni Chiweshe, Fodé Diop, Alexandre Caron, Gift Matope, Dorothée Missé, Florian Liégeois
Bats carry a great diversity of zoonotic viruses with a high-impact on human health and livestock. Since the emergence of new coronaviruses and paramyxoviruses in humans (e.g. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Nipah virus), numerous studies clearly established that bats can maintain some of these viruses. Improving our understanding on the role of bats in the epidemiology of the pathogens they harbour is necessary to prevent cross-species spill over along the wild/domestic/human gradient...
January 10, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331622/value-of-serial-multiparametric-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-guided-biopsies-in-men-with-low-risk-prostate-cancer-on-active-surveillance-after-1-yr-follow-up
#3
Esther Hendrika Johanna Hamoen, Caroline M A Hoeks, Diederik M Somford, Inge M van Oort, Henk Vergunst, Jorg R Oddens, Geert A Smits, Leonard P Bokhorst, J Alfred Witjes, Maroeska M Rovers, Christina A Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Jelle O Barentsz
BACKGROUND: Active surveillance (AS) aims to reduce overtreatment of low-risk prostate cancer (PC). Incorporating multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) and MR-guided biopsy (MRGB) in an AS protocol might contribute to more accurate identification of AS candidates. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the value of 3T mp-MRI and MRGB in PC patients on AS at inclusion and after 12-mo follow-up. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Patients with cT1c-cT2 PC, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≤10ng/ml, PSA density <0...
January 10, 2018: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330583/utilization-of-active-surveillance-and-watchful-waiting-for-localized-prostate-cancer-in-the-daily-practice
#4
Jan Herden, Lothar Weissbach
PURPOSE: To analyze the utilization of Active Surveillance (AS) and Watchful Waiting (WW) in the daily routine setting, since both are non-invasive treatment options for localized prostate cancer (PCa), which are used in a curative (AS) or palliative (WW) setting. Since differentiation of both strategies is not always clear, patients were compared with respect to the inclusion criteria, frequency of follow-up examinations (Prostate Specific Antigen = PSA tests, rebiopsies), and initiation of a deferred treatment...
January 12, 2018: World Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330212/early-and-locally-advanced-metaplastic-breast-cancer-presentation-and-survival-by-receptor-status-in-surveillance-epidemiology-and-end-results-seer-2010-2014
#5
Mary C Schroeder, Priya Rastogi, Charles E Geyer, Lance D Miller, Alexandra Thomas
BACKGROUND: Metaplastic breast cancer (MBC) is a rare disease subtype characterized by an aggressive clinical course. MBC is commonly triple negative (TN), although hormone receptor (HR) positive and human epidermal growth receptor 2 (HER2) positive cases do occur. Previous studies have reported similar outcomes for MBC with regard to HR status. Less is known about outcomes for HER2 positive MBC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program data were used to identify women diagnosed 2010-2014 with MBC or invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC)...
January 12, 2018: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329975/risk-of-suicide-and-non-fatal-self-harm-after-bariatric-surgery-results-from-two-matched-cohort-studies
#6
Martin Neovius, Gustaf Bruze, Peter Jacobson, Kajsa Sjöholm, Kari Johansson, Fredrik Granath, Johan Sundström, Ingmar Näslund, Claude Marcus, Johan Ottosson, Markku Peltonen, Lena M S Carlsson
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery reduces mortality, but might have adverse effects on mental health. We assessed the risk of suicide and self-harm after bariatric surgery compared with non-surgical obesity treatment. METHODS: Suicide and non-fatal self-harm events retrieved from nationwide Swedish registers were examined in two cohorts. The non-randomised, prospective Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study compared bariatric surgery (n=2010; 1369 vertical-banded gastroplasty, 376 gastric banding, and 265 gastric bypass) with usual care (n=2037; recruitment 1987-2001)...
January 9, 2018: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329916/impact-of-the-international-nosocomial-infection-control-consortium-s-multidimensional-approach-on-rates-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-14-intensive-care-units-in-11-hospitals-of-5-cities-within-argentina
#7
Victor Daniel Rosenthal, Javier Desse, Diego Marcelo Maurizi, Gustavo Jorge Chaparro, Pablo Wenceslao Orellano, Viviana Chediack, Rafael Cabrera, Daniel Golschmid, Cristina Graciela Silva, Julio Cesar Vimercati, Juan Pablo Stagnaro, Ivanna Perez, María Laura Spadaro, Adriana Miriam Montanini, Dina Pedersen, Teresa Laura Paniccia, Ana María Ríos Aguilera, Raul Cermesoni, Juan Ignacio Mele, Ernesto Alda, Analía Edith Paldoro, Agustín Román Ortta, Bettina Cooke, María Cecilia García, Mora Nair Obed, Cecilia Verónica Domínguez, Pablo Alejandro Saúl, María Cecilia Rodríguez Del Valle, Alberto Claudio Bianchi, Gustavo Alvarez, Ricardo Pérez, Carolina Oyola
BACKGROUND: To analyze the impact of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) multidimensional approach (IMA) on ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) rates in 11 hospitals within 5 cities of Argentina from January 2014-April 2017. METHODS: A multicenter, prospective, before-after surveillance study was conducted through the use of International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium Surveillance Online System. During baseline, we performed outcome surveillance of VAP applying the definitions of the Centers for Disease Control andPrevention's National Healthcare Safety Network...
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329545/use-of-epidemiological-and-entomological-tools-in-the-control-and-elimination-of-malaria-in-ethiopia
#8
REVIEW
Abebe Animut, Bernt Lindtjørn
Malaria is the leading public health problem in Ethiopia where over 75% of the land surface is at risk with varying intensities depending on altitude and season. Although the mortality because of malaria infection has declined much during the last 15-20 years, some researchers worry that this success story may not be sustainable. Past notable achievements in the reduction of malaria disease burden could be reversed in the future. To interrupt, or even to eliminate malaria transmission in Ethiopia, there is a need to implement a wide range of interventions that include insecticide-treated bed nets, indoor residual spraying, improved control of residual malaria transmission, and improved diagnostics, enhanced surveillance, and methods to deal with the emergence of resistance both to drugs and to insecticides...
January 12, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329534/a-large-scale-study-of-a-poultry-trading-network-in-bangladesh-implications-for-control-and-surveillance-of-avian-influenza-viruses
#9
N Moyen, G Ahmed, S Gupta, T Tenzin, R Khan, T Khan, N Debnath, M Yamage, D U Pfeiffer, G Fournie
BACKGROUND: Since its first report in 2007, avian influenza (AI) has been endemic in Bangladesh. While live poultry marketing is widespread throughout the country and known to influence AI dissemination and persistence, trading patterns have not been described. The aim of this study is to assess poultry trading practices and features of the poultry trading networks which could promote AI spread, and their potential implications for disease control and surveillance. Data on poultry trading practices was collected from 849 poultry traders during a cross-sectional survey in 138 live bird markets (LBMs) across 17 different districts of Bangladesh...
January 12, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329299/multi-drug-resistant-non-typhoidal-salmonella-associated-with-invasive-disease-in-western-kenya
#10
Adam Akullian, Joel M Montgomery, Grace John-Stewart, Samuel I Miller, Hillary S Hayden, Matthew C Radey, Kyle R Hager, Jennifer R Verani, John Benjamin Ochieng, Jane Juma, Jim Katieno, Barry Fields, Godfrey Bigogo, Allan Audi, Judd Walson
Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is a leading cause of bloodstream infections in Africa, but the various contributions of host susceptibility versus unique pathogen virulence factors are unclear. We used data from a population-based surveillance platform (population ~25,000) between 2007-2014 and NTS genome-sequencing to compare host and pathogen-specific factors between individuals presenting with NTS bacteremia and those presenting with NTS diarrhea. Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 and Salmonella Enteritidis ST11 were the most common isolates...
January 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328683/fatigue-and-related-comorbidities-active-component-u-s-armed-forces-2007-2016
#11
Robert M Guido, Shauna Stahlman, Saixia Ying
Fatigue is a common complaint in the civilian population and may be a presenting symptom of more serious physical and mental disorders. Data from the Defense Medical Surveillance System (DMSS) were utilized to characterize the incidence and burden of fatigue in active component military members from 1 January 2007 through 31 December 2016. A subanalysis of 3 years within this surveillance period (2012-2014) was also conducted to assess the burden of comorbidities related to incident fatigue and the strength of the association between fatigue and selected comorbidities...
December 2017: MSMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326110/contemporary-management-and-outcomes-in-congenitally-corrected-transposition-of-the-great-arteries
#12
REVIEW
Shelby Kutty, David A Danford, Gerhard-Paul Diller, Oktay Tutarel
Congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (ccTGA) can occur in isolation, or in combination with other structural cardiac anomalies, most commonly ventricular septal defect, pulmonary stenosis and tricuspid valve disease. Clinical recognition can be challenging, so echocardiography is often the means by which definitive diagnosis is made. The tricuspid valve and right ventricle are on the systemic arterial side of the ccTGA circulation, and are therefore subject to progressive functional deterioration...
January 11, 2018: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325696/urinary-mrna-analysis-of-biomarkers-to-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-of-renal-allograft
#13
Imen Mezni, Pierre Galichon, Mohammed Mongi Bacha, Yi-Chun Xu-Dubois, Imen Sfar, David Buob, Sabrina Benbouzid, Rim Goucha, Yousr Gorgi, Ezzedine Abderrahim, Mondher Ounissi, Karine Dahan, Nacera Ouali, Alexandre Hertig, Isabelle Brocheriou, Aly Raies, Taieb Ben Abdallah, Éric Rondeau
Renal allograft loss is most often a chronic process, irrespective of the mechanism at stake. In this prospective study, we studied the expression of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers vimentin and β-catenin by immunohistochemistry in the surveillance biopsy and measured the mRNA encoding vimentin (VIM), CD45, GAPDH and uroplakin 1a (UPK) by quantitative PCR in urinary cells in 75 renal transplant patients. The aim is to establish a simple screening test for chronic renal allograft dysfunction...
January 8, 2018: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325687/clinical-significance-and-epidemiologic-analyses-of-mycobacterium-avium-and-mycobacterium-intracellulare-lung-disease-from-post-marketing-surveillance
#14
Katsuhiro Suzuki, Atsuyuki Kurashima, Kinji Tatsuno, Jun-Ichi Kadota
BACKGROUND: In Japan, nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease is mostly attributable to Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), i.e., M. avium or M. intracellulare. However, clinical features of the disease caused by these two pathogens have not been studied sufficiently yet. METHODS: A post-marketing survey of clarithromycin was performed at 130 facilities across Japan. The data on patients with M. avium infection and patients with M. intracellulare infection were selected from this survey for comparison of background variables and clinical features of the two pathogens...
January 2018: Respiratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325564/engineered-recombinant-protein-products-of-the-avian-paramyxovirus-type-1-nucleocapsid-and-phosphoprotein-genes-for-serological-diagnosis
#15
Na Zhao, Christian Grund, Martin Beer, Timm C Harder
BACKGROUND: Virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV, avian Avulavirus-1, APMV-1) induces a highly contagious and lethal systemic disease in gallinaceous poultry. APMV-1 antibody detection is used for surveillance and to control vaccination, but is hampered by cross-reactivity to other subtypes of avian Avulaviruses. Data are lacking concerning the applicability of NDV V proteins as differential diagnostic marker to distinguish vaccinated from virus-infected birds (DIVA strategy). METHODS: Full length and C-terminally truncated nucleocapsid (NP) protein, and the unique C-terminal regions of the phospho- (P) and V proteins of the NDV LaSota strain were bacterially expressed as fusion proteins with the multimerization domain of the human C4 binding protein, and used as diagnostic antigens in indirect ELISA...
January 11, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325562/increased-epicardial-adipose-tissue-thickness-is-a-predictor-of-new-onset-diabetes-mellitus-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease-treated-with-high-intensity-statins
#16
Jeehoon Kang, Young-Chan Kim, Jin Joo Park, Sehun Kim, Si-Hyuck Kang, Young Jin Cho, Yeonyee E Yoon, Il-Young Oh, Chang-Hwan Yoon, Jung-Won Suh, Young-Seok Cho, Tae-Jin Youn, In-Ho Chae, Dong-Ju Choi
BACKGROUND: Statins are widely used for lipid lowering in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), but increasing evidence indicates an association between statin use and new-onset of diabetes mellitus (NODM). Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) refers to the visceral fat surrounding the heart, which is associated with metabolic diseases. We sought to determine the association between EAT thickness and NODM in CAD patients treated with high-intensity statins. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective medical record review of CAD patients treated with high-intensity statins for at least 6 months after percutaneous coronary intervention performed between January 2009 and June 2013 at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital...
January 11, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325516/brucellosis-remains-a-neglected-disease-in-the-developing-world-a-call-for-interdisciplinary-action
#17
K A Franc, R C Krecek, B N Häsler, A M Arenas-Gamboa
BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is an endemic zoonotic disease in most of the developing world that causes devastating losses to the livestock industry and small-scale livestock holders. Infected animals exhibit clinical signs that are of economic significance to stakeholders and include reduced fertility, abortion, poor weight gain, lost draught power, and a substantial decline in milk production. In humans, brucellosis typically manifests as a variety of non-specific clinical signs. Chronicity and recurring febrile conditions, as well as devastating complications in pregnant women are common sequelae...
January 11, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324903/korean-survey-data-reveals-an-association-of-chronic-laryngitis-with-tinnitus-in-men
#18
Myung Jin Ban, Won Shik Kim, Ki Nam Park, Jae Wook Kim, Seung Won Lee, Kyungdo Han, Jae Won Chang, Hyung Kwon Byeon, Yoon Woo Koh, Jae Hong Park
The association between chronic laryngitis and tinnitus is not a well-studied topic, unlike the association of these two conditions with many other disorders. Cross-sectional data of 11,347 adults (males: 4,934; females: 6,413), who completed the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2010 to 2012 were used to investigate this association. Lifestyle patterns, including smoking and alcohol habits, regular exercise, physical and mental health status, socioeconomic status, nutritional status, and other chronic diseases, were analyzed...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324858/mapping-the-geographical-distribution-of-podoconiosis-in-cameroon-using-parasitological-serological-and-clinical-evidence-to-exclude-other-causes-of-lymphedema
#19
Kebede Deribe, Amuam Andrew Beng, Jorge Cano, Abdel Jelil Njouendo, Jerome Fru-Cho, Abong Raphael Awah, Mathias Esum Eyong, Patrick W Chounna Ndongmo, Emanuele Giorgi, David M Pigott, Nick Golding, Rachel L Pullan, Abdisalan M Noor, Fikre Enquselassie, Christopher J L Murray, Simon J Brooker, Simon I Hay, Peter Enyong, Melanie J Newport, Samuel Wanji, Gail Davey
BACKGROUND: Podoconiosis is a non-filarial elephantiasis, which causes massive swelling of the lower legs. It was identified as a neglected tropical disease by WHO in 2011. Understanding of the geographical distribution of the disease is incomplete. As part of a global mapping of podoconiosis, this study was conducted in Cameroon to map the distribution of the disease. This mapping work will help to generate data on the geographical distribution of podoconiosis in Cameroon and contribute to the global atlas of podoconiosis...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324760/bionomics-of-phlebotomus-argentipes-in-villages-in-bihar-india-with-insights-into-efficacy-of-irs-based-control-measures
#20
David M Poché, Rajesh B Garlapati, Shanta Mukherjee, Zaria Torres-Poché, Epco Hasker, Tahfizur Rahman, Aakanksha Bharti, Vishnu P Tripathi, Suman Prakash, Rahul Chaubey, Richard M Poché
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a deadly vector-borne disease. Approximately 90% of Indian VL cases occur in Bihar, where the sand fly, Phlebotomus argentipes, is the principal vector. Sand fly control in Bihar consists of indoor residual spraying (IRS), the practice of spraying the inner walls of village dwellings with insecticides. Prior researchers have evaluated success of IRS-control by estimating vector abundance in village houses, but the number of sampling periods (n = 2-3) were minimal, and outdoor-resting P...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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