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Disease surveillance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783049/thermopuncture-for-the-diagnosis-monitoring-and-treatment-of-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#1
Valery Muzhikov, Elena Vershinina, Ruslan Muzhikov, Kirill Nikitin
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a socially significant disease that affects millions of patients. There were an estimated 366 million people with this disease in 2011, and, according to the forecast, approximately 552 million will be affected by this disease in 2030. It is well known that the primary diagnosis and treatment of a patient with this disease are quite expensive. What should be done to make it possible for a patient to monitor his own state and provide treatment in his own home using telemedicine? To solve this problem, an alternative concept for the diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment at the basis of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) combined with mathematical methods of data processing has been used...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782246/precision-medicine-and-radiogenomics-in-breast-cancer-new-approaches-toward-diagnosis-and-treatment
#2
Katja Pinker, Joanne Chin, Amy N Melsaether, Elizabeth A Morris, Linda Moy
Precision medicine is medicine optimized to the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of an individual and, when present, his or her disease. It has a host of targets, including genes and their transcripts, proteins, and metabolites. Studying precision medicine involves a systems biology approach that integrates mathematical modeling and biology genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. Moreover, precision medicine must consider not only the relatively static genetic codes of individuals, but also the dynamic and heterogeneous genetic codes of cancers...
June 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781837/recommendations-on-rectal-surveillance-for-colorectal-cancer-after-subtotal-colectomy-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#3
Lauranne A A P Derikx, Michiel E de Jong, Frank Hoentjen
Approximately 30% of patients with ulcerative colitis require a colectomy during their disease course. This substantially reduces colorectal cancer risk, although it is still possible to develop colorectal neoplasia in the remaining rectum. Although clear and well-accepted surveillance guidelines exist for patients with inflammatory bowel disease with an intact colon, specific surveillance recommendations following colectomy are less clear. Here, we aim to summarize the prevalence, incidence, and risk factors for developing colorectal cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel disease who underwent subtotal colectomy with a permanent end ileostomy and rectal stump, or with ileorectal anastomosis...
May 17, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780850/canada-wide-epidemic-of-emm74-group-a-streptococcus-invasive-disease
#4
Sarah Teatero, Allison McGeer, Gregory J Tyrrell, Linda Hoang, Hanan Smadi, Marc-Christian Domingo, Paul N Levett, Michael Finkelstein, Ken Dewar, Agron Plevneshi, Taryn B T Athey, Jonathan B Gubbay, Michael R Mulvey, Irene Martin, Walter Demczuk, Nahuel Fittipaldi
Background: The number of invasive group A Streptococcus (iGAS) infections due to hitherto extremely rare type emm74 strains has increased in several Canadian provinces since late 2015. We hypothesized that the cases recorded in the different provinces are linked and caused by strains of an emm74 clone that recently emerged and expanded explosively. Methods: We analyzed both active and passive surveillance data for iGAS infections and used whole-genome sequencing to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of the emm74 strains responsible for these invasive infections country-wide...
May 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780595/early-detection-of-ulcerative-colitis-associated-colorectal-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Yu Zhen, Chengxin Luo, Hu Zhang
Colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CACC) is one of the most serious complications of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), particularly in ulcerative colitis (UC); it accounts for approximately 15% of all-causes mortality among IBD patients. Because CACC shows a worse prognosis and higher mortality than sporadic colorectal cancer, early detection is critical. Colonoscopy is primarily recommended for surveillance and several advanced endoscopic imaging techniques are emerging. In addition, recent studies have reported on attempts to develop clinically relevant biomarkers for surveillance using various biosamples, which may become high-performance screening tools in the future, so the best approach and technique for cancer surveillance in long-standing UC patients remain under debate...
May 2018: Gastroenterology Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780594/role-of-endoscopy-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#6
REVIEW
Shishira Bharadwaj, Neeraj Narula, Parul Tandon, Mohammad Yaghoobi
Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) constitute the two most common phenotypes of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Ileocolonoscopy with biopsy has been considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of IBD. Differential diagnosis of CD and UC is important, as their medical and surgical treatment modalities and prognoses can be different. However, approximately 15% of patients with IBD are misdiagnosed as IBD unclassified due to the lack of diagnostic certainty of CD or UC. Recently, there has been increased recognition of the role of the therapeutic endoscopist in the field of IBD...
May 2018: Gastroenterology Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780381/interferon-gamma-at-the-crossroads-of-tumor-immune-surveillance-or-evasion
#7
REVIEW
Flávia Castro, Ana Patrícia Cardoso, Raquel Madeira Gonçalves, Karine Serre, Maria José Oliveira
Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is a pleiotropic molecule with associated antiproliferative, pro-apoptotic and antitumor mechanisms. This effector cytokine, often considered as a major effector of immunity, has been used in the treatment of several diseases, despite its adverse effects. Although broad evidence implicating IFN-γ in tumor immune surveillance, IFN-γ-based therapies undergoing clinical trials have been of limited success. In fact, recent reports suggested that it may also play a protumorigenic role, namely, through IFN-γ signaling insensitivity, downregulation of major histocompatibility complexes, and upregulation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and of checkpoint inhibitors, as programmed cell-death ligand 1...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779724/the-emerging-use-of-social-media-for-health-related-purposes-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-scoping-review
#8
Emily Hagg, V Susan Dahinten, Leanne M Currie
BACKGROUND: Social media allows for instant access to, and dissemination of, information around the globe. Access to social media in low- and middle-income countries has increased exponentially in recent years due to technological advances. Despite this growth, the use of social media in low- and middle-income countries is less well-researched than in high-income countries. OBJECTIVE: To identify, explore and summarize the current state of the literature on the use of social media for health in low- and middle-income countries...
July 2018: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779697/usefulness-of-controlled-attenuation-parameter-for-detecting-increased-arterial-stiffness-in-general-population
#9
Hyo Eun Park, Heesun Lee, Su-Yeon Choi, Min-Sun Kwak, Jong In Yang, Jeong Yoon Yim, Goh Eun Chung
BACKGROUND: Liver fibroscan has recently been suggested as an alternative method to measure liver steatosis noninvasively. In this study, we evaluated usefulness of controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) for detecting increased arterial stiffness in general population. METHODS: A total of 515 asymptomatic patients without potential cause of liver disease who had liver fibroscan and cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) during their health check-up exams were included...
May 4, 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779674/forecasting-respiratory-infectious-outbreaks-using-ed-based-syndromic-surveillance-for-febrile-ed-visits-in-a-metropolitan-city
#10
Tae Han Kim, Ki Jeong Hong, Sang Do Shin, Gwan Jin Park, Sungwan Kim, Nhayoung Hong
BACKGROUND: Monitoring and detecting sudden outbreaks of respiratory infectious disease is important. Emergency Department (ED)-based syndromic surveillance systems have been introduced for early detection of infectious outbreaks. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a forecasting model of respiratory infectious disease outbreaks based on a nationwide ED syndromic surveillance using daily number of emergency department visits with fever. METHODS: We measured the number of daily ED visits with body temperature ≥ 38...
May 10, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779505/herd-level-infectious-disease-surveillance-of-livestock-populations-using-aggregate-samples
#11
Marisa L Rotolo, Rodger G Main, Jeffrey J Zimmerman
All sectors of livestock production are in the process of shifting from small populations on many farms to large populations on fewer farms. A concurrent shift has occurred in the number of livestock moved across political boundaries. The unintended consequence of these changes has been the appearance of multifactorial diseases that are resistant to traditional methods of prevention and control. The need to understand complex animal health conditions mandates a shift toward the collection of longitudinal animal health data...
May 21, 2018: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779301/updates-on-aaa-screening-and-surveillance
#12
Mayo Theivendran, Jason Chuen
BACKGROUND: Screening and diagnostic surveillance of latent conditions have a profound impact on public healthcare expenditure and clinical outcomes. Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) remains one of the hallmark pathologies in vascular surgery and an area of intense research interest. OBJECTIVE: This article is the second of two that will outline current areas of controversy and research in AAA disease in order to support a more detailed understanding of issues in managing patients with this condition, and inform the development of Australasian clinical guidelines and health policy...
May 2018: Australian journal of general practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778514/conditional-admission-religious-exemption-type-and-nonmedical-vaccine-exemptions-in-california-before-and-after-a-state-policy-change
#13
Alison M Buttenheim, Malia Jones, Caitlin Mckown, Daniel Salmon, Saad B Omer
Recent measles and pertussis outbreaks in the US have focused national attention on state laws governing exemptions from mandatory vaccines for school entry. After several years of increases in nonmedical exemptions in California, the state assembly passed Assembly Bill 2109 in 2012, making nonmedical exemptions more difficult to obtain by requiring parents to obtain a signature from a health care provider. We used data from the California Department of Public Health to describe changes in the overall prevalence of personal belief exemptions and compositional changes in immunization status for the school years 2012-2013 through 2015-2016...
May 16, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778474/a-longitudinal-observational-study-of-the-dynamics-of-mycoplasma-bovis-antibodies-in-naturally-exposed-and-diseased-dairy-cows
#14
Mette B Petersen, Jeanette Pedersen, Dinah L Holm, Matthew Denwood, Liza R Nielsen
Mycoplasma bovis is an important pathogen causing disease and substantial economic losses in cattle. However, knowledge of the dynamics of antibody responses in individual cows in the face of an outbreak is currently extremely limited. The use of commercial antibody tests to support clinical decision-making and for surveillance purposes is therefore challenging. Our objective was to describe the dynamics of M. bovis antibody responses in 4 Danish dairy herds experiencing an acute outbreak of M. bovis-associated disease, and to compare the antibody dynamics between dairy cows with different disease manifestations...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778403/the-cf-sputum-induction-trial-cf-spit-to-assess-lower-airway-bacterial-sampling-in-young-children-with-cystic-fibrosis-a-prospective-internally-controlled-interventional-trial
#15
Katherine Ronchetti, Jo-Dee Tame, Christopher Paisey, Lena P Thia, Iolo Doull, Robin Howe, Eshwar Mahenthiralingam, Julian T Forton
BACKGROUND: Pathogen surveillance is challenging but crucial in children with cystic fibrosis-who are often non-productive of sputum even if actively coughing-because infection and lung disease begin early in life. The role of sputum induction as a diagnostic tool for infection has not previously been systematically addressed in young children with cystic fibrosis. We aimed to assess the pathogen yield from sputum induction compared with that from cough swab and single-lobe, two-lobe, and six-lobe bronchoalveolar lavage...
May 16, 2018: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778399/may-measurement-month-2017-an-analysis-of-blood-pressure-screening-results-worldwide
#16
Thomas Beaney, Aletta E Schutte, Maciej Tomaszewski, Cono Ariti, Louise M Burrell, Rafael R Castillo, Fadi J Charchar, Albertino Damasceno, Ruan Kruger, Daniel T Lackland, Peter M Nilsson, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Agustin J Ramirez, Markus P Schlaich, Jiguang Wang, Michael A Weber, Neil R Poulter
BACKGROUND: Increased blood pressure is the biggest contributor to the global burden of disease and mortality. Data suggest that less than half of the population with hypertension is aware of it. May Measurement Month was initiated to raise awareness of the importance of blood pressure and as a pragmatic interim solution to the shortfall in screening programmes. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey included volunteer adults (≥18 years) who ideally had not had their blood pressures measured in the past year...
May 16, 2018: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778211/serological-survey-for-antibodies-against-pestiviruses-in-wyoming-domestic-sheep
#17
S Silveira, S M Falkenberg, M J Elderbrook, K S Sondgeroth, R P Dassanayake, J D Neill, J F Ridpath, C W Canal
Pestiviruses including Bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (BVDV-1), BVDV-2 and Border disease virus (BDV) have been reported in both sheep and cattle populations, together with the HoBi-like, an emerging group of pestiviruses. Pestivirus control programs in the United States have focused on the control of BVDV-1 and 2. The incidence of pestivirus infection in sheep in the United States and the risk of transmission between cattle and sheep populations are unknown. The aim of this study was to perform serological surveillance for pestivirus exposure in sheep from an important sheep producing state in the Unites States, Wyoming...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778188/national-surveillance-plan-for-infectious-bovine-rhinotracheitis-ibr-in-autochthonous-italian-cattle-breeds-results-of-first-year-of-activity
#18
Carmen Maresca, Eleonora Scoccia, Annalisa Dettori, Andrea Felici, Roberta Guarcini, Stefano Petrini, Andrea Quaglia, Giovanni Filippini
Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR)/infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (IPV) caused by Bovine alphaherpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) is a significant disease in domestic and wild cattle. In June 2015, the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry in Italy approved a national surveillance plan to control and eradicate IBR in beef cattle breeds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of the first year of the IBR voluntary surveillance plan in Italy. The aim of the plan is to eradicate IBR in all bovines recorded in the National Herd Book for Italian beef cattle breeds over six years...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777564/the-importance-of-non-regional-lymph-nodes-in-assigning-risk-in-primary-metastatic-prostate-cancer
#19
Adnan Ali, Alexander Hoyle, Hitesh Mistry, Noel W Clarke
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prognostic relevance of non-regional lymph nodes (NRLN) metastases presenting synchronously with bone metastases in metastatic prostate cancer (mPCa) for guiding treatment decisions based on oligometastatic definitions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients diagnosed with mPCa between 2004 and 2013 were identified from the surveillance, epidemiology and end-results (SEER) database and were grouped by metastatic sites into only NRLN, only bone, bone + NRLN and other sites ± bone/NRLN metastases...
May 19, 2018: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777092/seroprevalence-of-brucellosis-in-butchers-veterinarians-and-slaughterhouse-workers-in-hamadan-western-iran
#20
Mojgan Mamani, Mohammad Mehdi Majzoobi, Fariba Keramat, Nesa Varmaghani, Abbas Moghimbeigi
BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella species via infected domestic animals. In endemic areas, certain occupations such as veterinarians, butchers, and slaughterhouse workers are considered high risk regarding brucellosis. We evaluated the seroprevalence of brucellosis in high-risk occupations in Hamadan, West of Iran. STUDY DESIGN: a cross-sectional study. METHODS: Overall, 218 participants from 2014 to 2015 were enrolled...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Research in Health Sciences
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