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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793062/functional-mri-of-brain-physiology-in-aging-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#1
J Jean Chen
Brain aging and associated neurodegeneration constitute a major societal challenge as well as one for the neuroimaging community. A full understanding of the physiological mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration still eludes medical researchers, fuelling the development of in vivo neuroimaging markers. Hence it is increasingly recognized that our understanding of neurodegenerative processes likely will depend upon the available information provided by imaging techniques. At the same time, the imaging techniques are often developed in response to the desire to observe certain physiological processes...
May 21, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792926/prediction-of-midlife-hand-osteoarthritis-in-young-men
#2
Karin Magnusson, Aleksandra Turkiewicz, Simon Timpka, Martin Englund
OBJECTIVES: Improved prediction modeling in osteoarthritis (OA) may encourage risk reduction through calculation of individual and population lifetime risks. There are currently no prediction models for hand OA. Thus, we aimed to i) develop a prediction model for hand OA in men and ii) to contrast its discriminative performance to a prediction model for lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: We included 40 118 men aged 18 years undergoing mandatory conscription in Sweden 1969-70...
May 21, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792920/inner-ear-drug-delivery-recent-advances-challenges-and-perspective
#3
Jinsong Hao, S Kevin Li
Effective and safe treatment of auditory and vestibular diseases has become increasingly dependent on inner ear drug delivery systems. This review highlights recent advances in inner ear drug delivery research and technologies. The focus is on strategies to overcome delivery barriers and to improve drug residence and targeting, with special attention to in vivo animal and human studies. The research in gene and stem cell delivery to the inner ear is briefly reviewed. Newly developed research tools to address experimental challenges and safety issues are discussed...
May 21, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792890/the-visual-cortex-and-visual-cognition-in-huntington-s-disease-an-overview-of-current-literature
#4
REVIEW
Emma M Coppen, Jeroen van der Grond, Ellen P Hart, Egbert A J F Lakke, Raymund A C Roos
The processing of visual stimuli from retina to higher cortical areas has been extensively studied in the human brain. In Huntington's disease (HD), an inherited neurodegenerative disorder, it is suggested that visual processing deficits are present in addition to more characteristic signs such as motor disturbances, cognitive dysfunction, and behavioral changes. Visual deficits are clinically important because they influence overall cognitive performance and have implications for daily functioning. The aim of this review is to summarize current literature on clinical visual deficits, visual cognitive impairment, and underlying visual cortical changes in HD patients...
May 21, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792849/the-role-and-mechanism-of-k-ca-3-1-channels-in-human-monocyte-migration-induced-by-palmitic-acid
#5
Xiao-Zhen Ma, Zheng-Da Pang, Jun-Hong Wang, Zheng Song, Li-Mei Zhao, Xiao-Jun Du, Xiu-Ling Deng
Monocyte migration into diseased tissues contributes to the pathogenesis of diseases. Intermediate-conductance Ca2+ -activated K+ (KCa 3.1) channels play an important role in cell migration. However, the role of KCa 3.1 channels in mediating monocyte migration induced by palmitic acid (PA) is still unclear. Using cultured THP-1 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy subjects, we investigated the role and signaling mechanisms of KCa 3.1 channels in mediating the migration induced by PA. Using methods of Western blotting analysis, RNA interference, cell migration assay and ELISA, we found that PA-treated monocytes exhibited increment of the protein levels of KCa 3...
May 21, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792351/peroxiredoxin-6-inhibits-osteogenic-differentiation-and-bone-formation-through-human-dental-pulp-stem-cells-and-induces-delayed-bone-development
#6
Kyung-Ran Park, Hyung-Mun Yun, In Jun Yeo, Sehyung Cho, Jin Tae Hong, Yong Seok Jeong
AIMS: Peroxiredoxins (PRDXs) are thiol-specific antioxidant enzymes that regulate redox balance that are critical for maintaining the cellular potential for self-renewal and stemness. Stem cell-based regenerative medicine is a promising approach in tissue reconstruction. However, to obtain functional cells for use in clinical applications, stem cell technology still requires improvements. RESULTS: In the present study, we found that PRDX6 levels were decreased during osteogenic differentiation in human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs)...
May 24, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792221/sex-differences-in-cardiovascular-epigenetics-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Robin J G Hartman, Sarah E Huisman, Hester M den Ruijter
BACKGROUND: Differences in cardiovascular diseases are evident in men and women throughout life and are mainly attributed to the presence of sex hormones and chromosomes. Epigenetic mechanisms drive the regulation of the biological processes that may lead to CVD and are possibly influenced by sex. In order to gain an overview of the status quo on sex differences in cardiovascular epigenetics, we performed a systematic review. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic search was performed on PubMed and Embase for studies mentioning cardiovascular disease, epigenetics, and anything related to sex differences...
May 23, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792199/nanoparticle-delivery-of-grape-seed-derived-proanthocyanidins-to-airway-epithelial-cells-dampens-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation
#8
S Castellani, A Trapani, A Spagnoletta, L di Toma, T Magrone, S Di Gioia, D Mandracchia, G Trapani, E Jirillo, M Conese
BACKGROUND: Chronic respiratory diseases, whose one of the hallmarks is oxidative stress, are still incurable and need novel therapeutic tools and pharmaceutical agents. The phenolic compounds contained in grape are endowed with well-recognized anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-aging activities. Considering that natural anti-oxidants, such as proanthocyanidins, have poor water solubility and oral bioavailability, we have developed a drug delivery system based on solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN), apt to encapsulate grape seed extract (GSE), containing proanthocyanidins...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792126/neuropathological-profile-of-the-pentylenetetrazol-ptz-kindling-model
#9
E Samokhina, Alexander Samokhin
Epilepsy is a complex neurological disease characterized by spontaneous episodes of abnormal, simultaneous firing of a neuronal population and disturbances of consciousness (so-called seizures) of unknown cause. Antiepileptic drugs are only symptomatic treatment, and there is a strong demand for the search of an alternative treatment of epilepsy. For this purpose, animal models of epilepsy are an important prerequisite. There are various animal models with chronic brain dysfunctions thought to reflect the processes underlying human epilepsy...
May 23, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791985/-management-of-acute-cholecystitis
#10
REVIEW
Seung Ok Lee, Sung Kyun Yim
Acute cholecystitis is a common serious complication of gallstones. The reported mortality of acute cholecystitis is approximately 3%, but the rate increases with age or comorbidity of the patient. If appropriate treatment is delayed, complications can develop as a consequence with a grave prognosis. The current standard of care in acute cholecystitis is an early laparoscopic cholecystectomy with the appropriate administration of fluid, electrolyte, and antibiotics. On the other hand, the severity of the disease and patient's operational risk must be considered...
May 25, 2018: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791944/the-global-burden-of-headache
#11
Deanna Saylor, Timothy J Steiner
At the turn of the century, most of the world's population lived in regions where the prevalence of headache was unknown and its impact poorly understood. Lifting The Burden (LTB), a nonprofit organization in official relations with the World Health Organization, established the Global Campaign against Headache, with the ultimate purpose of reducing the burden of headache worldwide. First, the scope and scale of this burden had to be known. LTB embarked upon a program of population-based studies in countries in all world regions in order to achieve its aim...
April 2018: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791766/protein-regulation-by-intrinsically-disordered-regions-a-role-for-subdomains-in-the-idr-of-the-hiv-1-rev-protein
#12
Ofrah Faust, Dana Grunhaus, Odelia Shimshon, Eylon Yavin, Assaf Friedler
Intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) in proteins are highly abundant, but they are still commonly viewed as long stretches of polar, solvent accessible residues. Here we show that the disordered C-terminal domain of HIV-1 Rev has two sub-regions that carry out two distinct complementary roles of regulating oligomerization and contributing to stability. We propose this is carried out by a delicate balance between charged and hydrophobic residues within the IDR. We suggest that intrinsically disordered regions in proteins should be divided to sub domains similarly to structured regions, rather than being viewed as a long flexible stretches...
May 23, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791592/pathogenesis-of-gallbladder-adenomyomatosis-and-its-relationship-with-early-stage-gallbladder-carcinoma-an-overview
#13
Liwei Pang, Yan Zhang, Yuwen Wang, Jing Kong
The exact pathogenesis of gallbladder adenomyomatosis is still lacking and some controversies over its diagnosis and treatment exist. Originally recognized as a precancerous lesion, adenomyomatosis is currently recognized by recent studies as a benign alteration of the gallbladder that is often associated with cholecystitis and cholecystolithiasis. Gallbladder carcinoma is an extremely malignant disease with a 5-year survival rate of less than 5%. Therefore, it is important to diagnose, differentiate, and confirm the relationship between adenomyomatosis and early-stage gallbladder carcinoma...
2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791553/epidemiological-aspects-clinical-manifestations-and-prevention-of-pediatric-tuberculosis-from-the-perspective-of-the-end-tb-strategy
#14
Anna Cristina Calçada Carvalho, Claudete Aparecida Araújo Cardoso, Terezinha Miceli Martire, Giovanni Battista Migliori, Clemax Couto Sant'Anna
Tuberculosis continues to be a public health priority in many countries. In 2015, tuberculosis killed 1.4 million people, including 210,000 children. Despite the recent progress made in the control of tuberculosis in Brazil, it is still one of the countries with the highest tuberculosis burdens. In 2015, there were 69,000 reported cases of tuberculosis in Brazil and tuberculosis was the cause of 4,500 deaths in the country. In 2014, the World Health Organization approved the End TB Strategy, which set a target date of 2035 for meeting its goals of reducing the tuberculosis incidence by 90% and reducing the number of tuberculosis deaths by 95%...
April 2018: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791484/combining-r-gene-and-quantitative-resistance-increases-effectiveness-of-cultivar-resistance-against-leptosphaeria-maculans-in-brassica-napus-in-different-environments
#15
Yong-Ju Huang, Georgia K Mitrousia, Siti Nordahliawate M Sidique, Aiming Qi, Bruce D L Fitt
Using cultivar resistance against pathogens is one of the most economical and environmentally friendly methods for control of crop diseases. However, cultivar resistance can be easily rendered ineffective due to changes in pathogen populations or environments. To test the hypothesis that combining R gene-mediated resistance and quantitative resistance (QR) in one cultivar can provide more effective resistance than use of either type of resistance on its own, effectiveness of resistance in eight oilseed rape (Brassica napus) cultivars with different R genes and/or QR against Leptosphaeria maculans (phoma stem canker) was investigated in 13 different environments/sites over three growing seasons (2010/2011, 2011/2012 and 2012/2013)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791260/assessment-of-the-power-required-for-optimal-use-of-current-inhalation-devices
#16
Gerhard Pohlmann, Jens M Hohlfeld, Peter Haidl, Jelena Pankalla, Rolf Michael Cloes
BACKGROUND: Inhalation of medications is the cornerstone in the treatment of patients with lung diseases. A variety of inhalation devices exists and each device has specific requirements to achieve optimum inhalation of the drug. The goal of this study was to establish a clear overview on performance requirements of standard inhalation devices that should be met by the patient's breathing power and to develop a new method to measure the individual performance data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An optimum and still acceptable required breathing power (P in watts) was calculated for each device with the aid of individual device flow rates (determined by a literature search) and the flow resistances (by measuring the pressure drop over the different inhalation devices)...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790964/evidence-of-evolutionary-history-and-selective-sweeps-in-the-genome-of-meishan-pig-reveals-its-genetic-and-phenotypic-characterization
#17
Pengju Zhao, Ying Yu, Wen Feng, Heng Du, Jian Yu, Huimin Kang, Xianrui Zheng, Zhiquan Wang, George E Liu, Catherine W Ernst, Xueqin Ran, Jiafu Wang, Jian-Feng Liu
Background: Meishan is a pig breed indigenous to China and famous for its high fecundity. The traits of Meishan are strongly associated with its distinct evolutionary history and domestication. However, the genomic evidence linking the domestication of Meishan pigs with the unique features are still poorly understood. The goal of this study is to investigate the genomic signatures and evolutionary evidence related to phenotypic traits of Meishan by large-scale sequencing. Results: We found the unique domestication of Meishan pigs happened at the Taihu Basin area between the Majiabang and the Liangzhu culture, during which 300 protein-coding genes have undergone positive selection...
May 22, 2018: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790946/a-microbial-endocrinology-based-simulated-small-intestinal-medium-for-the-evaluation-of-neurochemical-production-by-gut-microbiota
#18
Daniel N Villageliú, Sharon Rasmussen, Mark Lyte
Microbial endocrinology represents the union of microbiology and neurobiology and is concerned with the ability of neurochemicals to serve as an evolutionary-based language between host and microbiota in health and disease. The recognition that microorganisms produce, modify and respond to the same neurochemicals utilized in the various signaling pathways of their mammalian hosts is increasingly being recognized as a mechanism by which the host and microbiota may interact to influence the progression of infectious disease as well as influence behavior through the microbiota-gut-brain axis...
May 21, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790396/biosensor-for-the-detection-of-listeria-monocytogenes-emerging-trends
#19
Dharmendra Kumar Soni, Rafiq Ahmad, Suresh Kumar Dubey
The early detection of Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) and understanding the disease burden is of paramount interest. The failure to detect pathogenic bacteria in the food industry may have terrible consequences, and poses deleterious effects on human health. Therefore, integration of methods to detect and trace the route of pathogens along the entire food supply network might facilitate elucidation of the main contamination sources. Recent research interest has been oriented towards the development of rapid and affordable pathogen detection tools/techniques...
May 23, 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789783/mir-142-5p-in-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-promotes-osteoporosis-involving-targeting-adhesion-molecule-vcam-1-and-inhibiting-cell-migration
#20
Zhaowei Teng, Xueguan Xie, Yun Zhu, Jianping Liu, Xingbo Hu, Qiang Na, Xiongwen Zhang, Guojun Wei, Shen Xu, Yugang Liu, Xiguang Zhang, Cory J Xian
Osteoporosis is a systemic bone metabolic disease that is highly prevalent in the elderly population, particularly in postmenopausal women, which results in enhanced bone fragility and an increased susceptibility to fractures. However, the underlying molecular pathogenesis mechanisms still remain to be further elucidated. In this study, in a rat ovariectomy- (OVX-) induced postmenopausal osteoporosis model, aberrant expression of a microRNA miR-142-5p and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) was found by RNA sequencing analysis and qRT-PCR...
2018: BioMed Research International
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