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Autonomic dysregulation

Zuzana Visnovcova, Michal Mestanik, Michal Gala, Andrea Mestanikova, Ingrid Tonhajzerova
The aim of this study was to evaluate potential changes in the electrodermal activity (EDA) to enable the detection of variations in the sympathetic nervous system during mental load and recovery period. Several EDA parameters were used: SCA (skin conductance amplitude), frequency of NS-EDR (nonspecific electrodermal responses), SIE (symbolic information entropy), and ApEn (approximate entropy). The cohort consisted of 50 healthy students (average age: 23.33±0.24yr., 25 women). The stress profile consisted of five phases: baseline (P1), Stroop test (P2), recovery (P3), mental arithmetic test (P4), and recovery (P5)...
October 14, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Muhammad Abid Azam, Joel Katz, Vina Mohabir, Paul Ritvo
BACKGROUND: Current research suggests that associations between headache conditions (migraine, tension) and imbalances in the autonomic nervous system (ANS) are due to stress-related dysregulation in the activity of the parasympathetic-sympathetic branches. Mindfulness meditation has demonstrated effectiveness in reducing pain-related distress, and in enhancing heart rate variability-a vagal-mediated marker of ANS balance. This study examined HRV during cognitive stress and mindfulness meditation in individuals with migraine and tension headaches...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Xiuqing Tian, Rui Guo, Yujiao Zhang, Lingling Xu, Xianbing Liu, Yinglong Hou
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of sympathetic overactivity on the immune system involved in the imbalance of T helper (Th) lymphocytes, we investigated the correlation between autonomic dysregulation and the generation of regulatory T (Treg) and Th1 chemokines in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). METHODS: Blood samples obtained from patients with coronary artery disease and controls were analyzed for levels of Th1 and Treg cells and their associated cytokines by flow cytometry...
October 21, 2016: Neuroimmunomodulation
Adel S Al-Harbi, Abdullah Al-Shamrani, Baha A Al-Shawwa
Rapid-onset obesity, hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation, and autonomic dysregulation (ROHHAD) is a rare disease, but could be fatal if not diagnosed early. It mimics many other diseases and it may take few years after the onset of rapid obesity to have the other clinical features. Therefore, any patient with rapid-onset obesity after the age of 2 years should have high index of suspicion and long term follow up. We report a case of ROHHAD in Saudi Arabia and we highlight the clinical features and the importance of early diagnosis and management...
November 2016: Saudi Medical Journal
Suzana Cvijetic, Valeria Bortolotto, Marcello Manfredi, Elia Ranzato, Emilio Marengo, Rita Salem, Pier Luigi Canonico, Mariagrazia Grilli
In previous work, we demonstrated that NF-κB p50 acts as crucial regulator of adult hippocampal neural progenitor cells (ahNPC). Indeed, NF-κB p50 knockout (KO) mice are characterized by remarkably reduced hippocampal neurogenesis. As a follow up to that work, herein we show that when cultured in vitro, ahNPC from wild type (WT) and p50KO mice are not significantly different in their neurogenic potential. This observation prompted us to investigate cell-autonomous and noncell-autonomous consequences of p50 absence on neuronal fate specification of ahNPC...
October 19, 2016: Glia
Satoshi Umemura
Primary aldosteronism (PA) is a heterogeneous group of disorders including both sporadic and familial forms (familial hyperaldosteronism type I, II and III). PA is the most frequent endocrine cause of secondary hypertension and associated with a higher rate of cardiovascular complications, compared with essential hypertension.Here I review the recent progress in understanding of the genetic and molecular mechanisms leading to autonomous aldosterone production in PA.Systematic screening detects primary aldosteronism in 5 to 10% of all patients with hypertension and in approximately 20% of patients with resistant hypertension...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Joshua J Joseph, Sherita H Golden
Controversy exists over the role of stress and depression in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Depression has been shown to increase the risk for progressive insulin resistance and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus in multiple studies, whereas the association of stress with diabetes is less clear, owing to differences in study designs and in forms and ascertainment of stress. The biological systems involved in adaptation that mediate the link between stress and physiological functions include the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous and immune systems...
October 17, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Benjamin L Hankin, Hannah R Snyder, Lauren D Gulley, Tina H Schweizer, Patricia Bijttebier, Sabine Nelis, Gim Toh, Michael W Vasey
It is well known that comorbidity is the rule, not the exception, for categorically defined psychiatric disorders, and this is also the case for internalizing disorders of depression and anxiety. This theoretical review paper addresses the ubiquity of comorbidity among internalizing disorders. Our central thesis is that progress in understanding this co-occurrence can be made by employing latent dimensional structural models that organize psychopathology as well as vulnerabilities and risk mechanisms and by connecting the multiple levels of risk and psychopathology outcomes together...
November 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Rowena Ng, Ursula Bellugi, Anna Järvinen
BACKGROUND: Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic condition characterized by an unusual "hypersocial" personality juxtaposed by high anxiety. Recent evidence suggests that autonomic reactivity to affective face stimuli is disorganised in WS, which may contribute to emotion dysregulation and/or social disinhibition. METHODS: Electrodermal activity (EDA) and mean interbeat interval (IBI) of 25 participants with WS (19 - 57 years old) and 16 typically developing (TD; 17-43 years old) adults were measured during a passive presentation of affective face and voice stimuli...
October 5, 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
A L Breeden, G J Siegle, M E Norr, E M Gordon, C J Vaidya
Autonomic activity in neurological and psychiatric disorders is often dysregulated, particularly in the context of attentional behaviors. This suggests that interplay between the autonomic nervous system and aspects of the central nervous system subserving attention may be disrupted in these conditions. Better understanding these interactions and their relationship to individual variation in attentional behaviors could facilitate development of mechanistic biomarkers. We identified brain regions defined by trait-sensitive central-autonomic coupling as a first step in this process...
October 6, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Vernon Bond, Bryan H Curry, Krishna Kumar, Sudhakar Pemminati, Vasavi R Gorantla, Kishan Kadur, Richard M Millis
OBJECTIVES: Acupuncture treatments are safe and effective for a wide variety of diseases involving autonomic dysregulation. Heart rate variability (HRV) is a noninvasive method for assessing sympathovagal balance. The low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) spectral power ratio is an index of sympathovagal influence on heart rate and of cardiovascular health. This study tests the hypothesis that from rest to 30% to 50% of peak oxygen consumption, the nonlinear Conte-Zbilut-Federici (CZF) method of computing the LF/HF ratio is a more reliable index of changes in the HRV than linear methods are...
September 2016: Journal of Pharmacopuncture
Stavroula Tsitkanou, Paul A Della Gatta, Aaron P Russell
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neuron disease (MND), is a fatal motor neuron disorder. It results in progressive degeneration and death of upper and lower motor neurons, protein aggregation, severe muscle atrophy and respiratory insufficiency. Median survival with ALS is between 2 and 5 years from the onset of symptoms. ALS manifests as either familial ALS (FALS) (~10% of cases) or sporadic ALS (SALS), (~90% of cases). Mutations in the copper/zinc (CuZn) superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene account for ~20% of FALS cases and the mutant SOD1 mouse model has been used extensively to help understand the ALS pathology...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Debra E Weese-Mayer, Casey M Rand, Amy Zhou, Michael S Carroll, Carl E Hunt
The "bedside-to-bench" CCHS research journey has led to increased phenotypic-genotypic knowledge regarding autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulation, and improved clinical outcomes. CCHS is a neurocristopathy characterized by hypoventilation and ANS dysregulation. Initially described in 1970, timely diagnosis and treatment remained problematic until the first large cohort report (1992), delineating clinical presentation and treatment options. A central role of ANS dysregulation (2001) emerged, precipitating evaluation of genes critical to ANS development, and subsequent 2003 identification of PHOX2B as the disease-defining gene for CCHS...
September 27, 2016: Pediatric Research
Concetta Potenza, Gianfranco Raimondi, Riccardo Pampena, Nicoletta Bernardini, Giorgio La Viola, Ersilia Tolino, Sara Zuber, Beatrice Scordamaglia, Nevena Skroza
The association between psoriasis and cardiovascular diseases has been indicated by epidemiological studies. The sub-inflammatory systemic state that characterizes both psoriasis and atherosclerosis has been proposed as the link between these conditions; it cannot, however, explain the increased incidence of sudden cardiac death reported in young patients with severe psoriasis without common cardiovascular risk factors. In a previous study, we reported higher levels of autonomic dysregulation in patients with psoriasis, concluding that the prevalence of the sympathetic arm over the parasympathetic could increase cardiovascular risk...
August 2016: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
Malligurki Raghurama Rukmani, Shekhar P Seshadri, Kandavel Thennarasu, Trichur R Raju, Talakad N Sathyaprabha
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood neuropsychiatric disorder. Autonomic nervous system plays a vital role in attention, self-regulation, emotional stability and social affiliation, which are affected in ADHD. The prefrontal cortex, which is vital for attention, motor control, emotional regulation and higher order autonomic control, is hypofunctional in ADHD. In addition, catecholamine dysregulation is there. PURPOSE: We hypothesized that there is autonomic dysfunction: reduction in overall heart rate variability (HRV) and sympathovagal imbalance in children with ADHD...
July 2016: Annals of Neurosciences
Janine Thome, Maria Densmore, Paul A Frewen, Margaret C McKinnon, Jean Théberge, Andrew A Nicholson, Julian Koenig, Julian F Thayer, Ruth A Lanius
OBJECTIVES: Although dysfunctional emotion regulatory capacities are increasingly recognized as contributing to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), little work has sought to identify biological markers of this vulnerability. Heart rate variability (HRV) is a promising biomarker that, together with neuroimaging, may assist in gaining a deeper understanding of emotion dysregulation in PTSD. The objective of the present study was, therefore, to characterize autonomic response patterns, and their related neuronal patterns in individuals with PTSD at rest...
September 20, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Satoshi Umemura
Primary aldosteronism (PA) is a heterogeneous group of disorders including both sporadic and familial forms (familial hyperaldosteronism type I, II and III). PA is the most frequent endocrine cause of secondary hypertension and associated with a higher rate of cardiovascular complications, compared with essential hypertension.Here I review the recent progress in understanding of the genetic and molecular mechanisms leading to autonomous aldosterone production in PA.Systematic screening detects primary aldosteronism in 5 to 10% of all patients with hypertension and in approximately 20% of patients with resistant hypertension...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Benoit D Roussel, David A Lomas, Damian C Crowther
Familial encephalopathy with neuroserpin inclusion bodies (FENIB) is a conformational proteinopathy characterised by neuronal inclusion bodies composed of the serine protease inhibitor (SERPIN), neuroserpin. Presenting clinically as a familial dementia-epilepsy syndrome, the molecular mechanism of the pathogenic abnormalities in neuroserpin has been characterised at atomic resolution. There is a remarkable genotype-phenotype correlation between the degree of molecular destabilisation of the several variants of the neuroserpin protein, their propensity to self-associate and the age of onset of the dementia-epilepsy complex...
September 1, 2016: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Manish Kalla, Neil Herring, David J Paterson
A hallmark of cardiovascular disease is cardiac autonomic dysregulation. The phenotype of impaired parasympathetic responsiveness and sympathetic hyperactivity in experimental animal models is also well documented in large scale human studies in the setting of heart failure and myocardial infarction, and is predictive of morbidity and mortality. Despite advances in emergency revascularisation strategies for myocardial infarction, device therapy for heart failure and secondary prevention pharmacotherapies, mortality from malignant ventricular arrhythmia remains high...
August 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Eóin N McNamee, Jesús Rivera-Nieves
Organized lymphoid tissues like the thymus first appeared in jawed vertebrates around 500 million years ago and have evolved to equip the host with a network of specialized sites, strategically located to orchestrate strict immune-surveillance and efficient immune responses autonomously. The gut-associated lymphoid tissues maintain a mostly tolerant environment to dampen our responses to daily dietary and microbial products in the intestine. However, when this homeostasis is perturbed by chronic inflammation, the intestine is able to develop florid organized tertiary lymphoid tissues (TLT), which heralds the onset of regional immune dysregulation...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
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