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Autonomic dysregulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642690/autonomy-in-depressive-patients-undergoing-dbs-treatment-informed-consent-freedom-of-will-and-dbs-potential-to-restore-it
#1
Timo Beeker, Thomas E Schlaepfer, Volker A Coenen
According to the World Health Organization, depression is one of the most common and most disabling psychiatric disorders, affecting at any given time approximately 325 million people worldwide. As there is strong evidence that depressive disorders are associated with a dynamic dysregulation of neural circuits involved in emotional processing, recently several attempts have been made to intervene directly in these circuits via deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD)...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630243/quad-fever-beware-of-non-infectious-fever-in-high-spinal-cord-injuries
#2
Jyoti Goyal, Rakesh Jha, Paramjeet Bhatia, Raj Kumar Mani
A case of cervical spinal cord injury and quadriparesis with prolonged fever is being described. Initially, the patient received treatment for well-documented catheter-related bloodstream infection. High spiking fever returned and persisted with no obvious evidence of infection. The usual non-infectious causes too were carefully excluded. QUAD fever or fever due to spinal cord injury itself was considered. The pathogenetic basis of QUAD fever is unclear but could be attributed to autonomic dysfunction and temperature dysregulation...
June 18, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625674/regional-cerebral-cortical-thickness-correlates-with-autonomic-outflow
#3
REVIEW
Katelyn N Wood, Mark B Badrov, Mark R Speechley, J Kevin Shoemaker
Dysregulation of autonomic control often develops with advancing age, favoring a chronic state of heightened sympathetic outflow with parasympathetic withdrawal. However, the mechanisms of this age-related autonomic impairment are not known. This study tested the hypothesis that inter-individual differences in autonomic outflow across the adult age-span are related to cerebral cortex thickness. A total of 55 healthy, active individuals participated in this study (21-73years; 18 female). Physical fitness was treated as a possible covariate (VO2peak: 26-81mL/kg/min)...
June 7, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611475/murine-lrba-deficiency-causes-ctla-4-deficiency-in-tregs-without-progression-to-immune-dysregulation
#4
Deborah Burnett, Ian Parish, Etienne Masle-Farquhar, Robert Brink, Christopher Goodnow
Inherited mutations in Lipopolysaccharide Responsive Beige-like Anchor (LRBA) cause a recessive human immune dysregulation syndrome with memory B cell and antibody deficiency (common variable immunodeficiency, CVID), inflammatory bowel disease, enlarged spleen and lymph nodes, accumulation of activated T cells, and multiple autoimmune diseases. To understand the pathogenesis of the syndrome, C57BL/6 mice carrying a homozygous truncating mutation in Lrba were produced using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene targeting...
June 14, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570433/trauma-and-autonomic-dysregulation-episodic-versus-systemic-negative-affect-underlying-cardiovascular-risk-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#5
Paul A Dennis, Nathan A Kimbrel, Andrew Sherwood, Patrick S Calhoun, Lana L Watkins, Michelle F Dennis, Jean C Beckham
OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been linked to elevated heart rate (HR) and reduced heart rate variability (HRV) in cross-sectional research. Recent evidence suggests that this link may be driven by individual differences in autonomic arousal associated with momentary negative affect (NA). Using ecological momentary assessment (EMA) of NA and minute-to-minute HR/HRV monitoring, we examined whether NA-related HR/HRV mediated the association of PTSD symptom severity with 24-hour HRV and endothelial functioning...
June 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542469/biophysical-markers-of-the-peripheral-vasoconstriction-response-to-pain-in-sickle-cell-disease
#6
Patjanaporn Chalacheva, Maha Khaleel, John Sunwoo, Payal Shah, Jon A Detterich, Roberta M Kato, Wanwara Thuptimdang, Herbert J Meiselman, Richard Sposto, Jennie Tsao, John C Wood, Lonnie Zeltzer, Thomas D Coates, Michael C K Khoo
Painful vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC), a complication of sickle cell disease (SCD), occurs when sickled red blood cells obstruct flow in the microvasculature. We postulated that exaggerated sympathetically mediated vasoconstriction, endothelial dysfunction and the synergistic interaction between these two factors act together to reduce microvascular flow, promoting regional vaso-occlusions, setting the stage for VOC. We previously found that SCD subjects had stronger vasoconstriction response to pulses of heat-induced pain compared to controls but the relative degrees to which autonomic dysregulation, peripheral vascular dysfunction and their interaction are present in SCD remain unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528288/cancer-atrial-fibrillation-and-stroke
#7
REVIEW
Tess Fitzpatrick, Marc Carrier, Grégoire Le Gal
Cancer patients appear to be at increased risk for atrial fibrillation. Although surgery and chemotherapy exacerbate this risk, this association is observed even in the absence of any cancer-specific treatment. The underlying mechanism of this is likely multifactorial, but systemic inflammation and autonomic dysregulation are hypothesized to play critical roles. Cancer and atrial fibrillation are both independent risk factors for ischemic stroke; however, it is not clear whether this translates to an increased risk of stroke in patients with both comorbidities...
May 9, 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515558/a-rare-case-of-complicated-opioid-withdrawal-in-delirium-without-convulsions
#8
B Neeraj Raj, N Manamohan, Divya Hegde, Chandrashekar B Huded, Johnson Pradeep
Opioids are one of the commonly abused substances in India. Opioid withdrawal symptoms classically include severe muscle cramps, bone aches, autonomic symptoms, anxiety, restlessness, insomnia, and temperature dysregulation. However, reports of cases with delirium during withdrawal are few. A 25-year-old male with severe opioid withdrawal symptoms developed delirium. Investigations were normal. There were no comorbidities, no significant past history and family history. Patient treated for opioid dependence with tapering doses of lorazepam and clonidine...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515112/impact-of-the-metabolic-syndrome-on-mortality-is-modified-by-objective-short-sleep-duration
#9
Julio Fernandez-Mendoza, Fan He, Caitlin LaGrotte, Alexandros N Vgontzas, Duanping Liao, Edward O Bixler
BACKGROUND: To examine whether objective sleep duration is an effect modifier of the impact of metabolic syndrome (MetS) on all-cause and cardiovascular disease/cerebrovascular mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: We addressed this question in the Penn State Adult Cohort, a random, general population sample of 1344 men and women (48.8±14.2 years) who were studied in the sleep laboratory and followed up for 16.6±4.2 years. MetS was defined by the presence of 3 or more of obesity (≥30 kg/m(2)), elevated total cholesterol (≥200 mg/dL), triglycerides (≥150 mg/dL), fasting glucose (≥100 mg/dL), and blood pressure (≥130/85 mm Hg)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514792/autonomic-dysregulation-in-burnout-and-depression-evidence-for-the-central-role-of-exhaustion
#10
Magdalena K Kanthak, Tobias Stalder, LaBarron K Hill, Julian F Thayer, Marlene Penz, Clemens Kirschbaum
Objectives Given the important role of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in stress regulation, astonishingly little is known about ANS functioning in burnout, a condition arising after prolonged exposure to work-related stress. The current study sought to investigate ANS modulation, as indexed by vagally-mediated heart rate variability (HRV), in relation to burnout symptomatology to (i) distinguish associations between the three dimensions of burnout [emotional exhaustion (EE), cynicism, reduced personal accomplishment] and (ii) investigate overlap in associations with depressive symptomatology...
May 18, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508298/stability-of-control-networks-in-autonomous-homeostatic-regulation-of-stem-cell-lineages
#11
Natalia L Komarova, P van den Driessche
Design principles of biological networks have been studied extensively in the context of protein-protein interaction networks, metabolic networks, and regulatory (transcriptional) networks. Here we consider regulation networks that occur on larger scales, namely the cell-to-cell signaling networks that connect groups of cells in multicellular organisms. These are the feedback loops that orchestrate the complex dynamics of cell fate decisions and are necessary for the maintenance of homeostasis in stem cell lineages...
May 15, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489693/dysfunctional-autonomic-regulation-of-the-choroid-in-central-serous-chorioretinopathy
#12
C Nathaniel Roybal, Elisabeth Sledz, Yasser Elshatory, Li Zhang, David R P Almeida, Eric K Chin, Brice Critser, Michael D Abramoff, Stephen R Russell
PURPOSE: To study the effect of changing perfusion pressures on retinal and choroidal structure in central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). METHODS: This prospective observational case series included seven healthy volunteers (14 eyes) and seven patients (14 eyes) with CSC. Each patient underwent spectral domain optical coherence tomography with enhanced depth imaging in the upright (sitting) and supine positions. Image segmentation focused on central macular thickness, subretinal fluid, total macular volume, choroidal thickness, and choriocapillaris thickness...
May 9, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486694/differential-microrna-expression-in-cultured-palatal-fibroblasts-from-infants-with-cleft-palate-and-controls
#13
Christian Schoen, Jeffrey C Glennon, Shaghayegh Abghari, Marjon Bloemen, Armaz Aschrafi, Carine E L Carels, Johannes W Von den Hoff
Background: The role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in animal models of palatogenesis has been shown, but only limited research has been carried out in humans. To date, no miRNA expression study on tissues or cells from cleft palate patients has been published. We compared miRNA expression in palatal fibroblasts from cleft palate patients and age-matched controls. Material and Methods: Cultured palatal fibroblasts from 10 non-syndromic cleft lip and palate patients (nsCLP; mean age: 18 ± 2 months), 5 non-syndromic cleft palate only patients (nsCPO; mean age: 17 ± 2 months), and 10 controls (mean age: 24 ± 5 months) were analysed with next-generation small RNA sequencing...
May 9, 2017: European Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469730/reduced-vagal-tone-in-women-with-the-fmr1-premutation-is-associated-with-fmr1-mrna-but-not-depression-or-anxiety
#14
Jessica Klusek, Giuseppe LaFauci, Tatyana Adayev, W Ted Brown, Flora Tassone, Jane E Roberts
BACKGROUND: Autonomic dysfunction is implicated in a range of psychological conditions, including depression and anxiety. The fragile X mental retardation-1 (FMR1) premutation is a common genetic mutation that affects ~1:150 women and is associated with psychological vulnerability. This study examined cardiac indicators of autonomic function among women with the FMR1 premutation and control women as potential biomarkers for psychological risk that may be linked to FMR1. METHODS: Baseline inter-beat interval and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (a measure of parasympathetic vagal tone) were measured in 35 women with the FMR1 premutation and 28 controls...
2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467805/paraoxonase-1-pon1-induces-metastatic-potential-and-apoptosis-escape-via-its-antioxidative-function-in-lung-cancer-cells
#15
Mark Borris D Aldonza, Yeon Sung Son, Hye-Jin Sung, Jung-Mo Ahn, Young-Jin Choi, Yong-In Kim, Sukki Cho, Je-Yoel Cho
Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) gene polymorphisms have been closely associated with the development of advanced cancers while PON1 secretion to the serum is linked with inhibition of oxidized high-density lipoprotein by its antioxidative function. Our group previously demonstrated that post-translational modification of serum PON1 in form of fucosylated PON1 is a potential biomarker of small cell lung cancer. Here, we interrogated the role of PON1 in the pathobiology of lung cancer (LC) by addressing cell-autonomous mechanisms using gain-of-function and loss-of-function approaches and protein expression profiling of tissue samples in our clinical biobank...
April 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461477/opposing-roles-of-primate-areas-25-and-32-and-their-putative-rodent-homologs-in-the-regulation-of-negative-emotion
#16
Chloe U Wallis, Rudolf N Cardinal, Laith Alexander, Angela C Roberts, Hannah F Clarke
Disorders of dysregulated negative emotion such as depression and anxiety also feature increased cardiovascular mortality and decreased heart-rate variability (HRV). These disorders are correlated with dysfunction within areas 25 and 32 of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), but a causal relationship between dysregulation of these areas and such symptoms has not been demonstrated. Furthermore, cross-species translation is limited by inconsistent findings between rodent fear extinction and human neuroimaging studies of negative emotion...
May 16, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460516/neuroendocrine-dysregulation-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-patients-a-pilot-study
#17
Cristina Stasi, Massimo Bellini, Dario Gambaccini, Emiliano Duranti, Nicola de Bortoli, Bernardo Fani, Eleonora Albano, Salvatore Russo, Isabella Sudano, Giacomo Laffi, Stefano Taddei, Santino Marchi, Rosa Maria Bruno
Background/Aims: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a multifactorial disorder, involving dysregulation of brain-gut axis. Our aim was to evaluate the neuroendocrine activity in IBS. Methods: Thirty IBS and 30 healthy subjects were enrolled. Psychological symptoms were evaluated by questionnaires. Urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), plasma serotonin, endothelin, neuropeptide Y (NPY), plasma, and urinary cortisol levels were evaluated. Fourteen IBS subjects underwent microneurography to obtain multiunit recordings of efferent postganglionic muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA)...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457885/genome-engineering-of-stem-cells-for-autonomously-regulated-closed-loop-delivery-of-biologic-drugs
#18
Jonathan M Brunger, Ananya Zutshi, Vincent P Willard, Charles A Gersbach, Farshid Guilak
Chronic inflammatory diseases such as arthritis are characterized by dysregulated responses to pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Pharmacologic anti-cytokine therapies are often effective at diminishing this inflammatory response but have significant side effects and are used at high, constant doses that do not reflect the dynamic nature of disease activity. Using the CRISPR/Cas9 genome-engineering system, we created stem cells that antagonize IL-1- or TNF-α-mediated inflammation in an autoregulated, feedback-controlled manner...
May 9, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456915/reversible-cerebral-vasoconstriction-syndrome-recognition-and-treatment
#19
REVIEW
Cecilia Cappelen-Smith, Zeljka Calic, Dennis Cordato
Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is a rare but increasingly recognized disorder with over 500 cases published in the literature. The condition is characterized by recurrent severe thunderclap headaches with or without other neurological symptoms and diffuse segmental narrowing of the cerebral arteries which is reversible within 3 months. RCVS may occur spontaneously but in over 50% of cases, it is associated with various other conditions, including vasoactive medications or illicit drugs and the post-partum state...
June 2017: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456497/smoking-before-isometric-exercise-amplifies-myocardial-stress-and-dysregulates-baroreceptor-sensitivity-and-cerebral-oxygenation
#20
Panagiota Anyfanti, Eleftheria Triantafyllidou, Stavros Papadopoulos, Areti Triantafyllou, Michalis G Nikolaidis, Antonios Kyparos, Ioannis S Vrabas, Stella Douma, Andreas Zafeiridis, Konstantina Dipla
This crossover study examined whether acute cardiovascular responses, baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS), and brain oxygenation during isometric exercise are altered after cigarette smoking. Twelve young, habitual smokers randomly performed a smoking and a control protocol, during which participants smoked one cigarette (0.9 mg nicotine) or a sham cigarette, before exercise. Testing involved baseline, a 5-minute smoking, a 10-minute post-smoking rest, 3-minute handgrip exercise (30% maximum voluntary contraction), and recovery...
April 14, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
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