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Autonomic dysregulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103058/emotion-dysregulation-across-emotion-systems-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#1
Erica D Musser, Joel T Nigg
Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) display alterations in both emotion reactivity and regulation. One mechanism underlying such alternations may be reduced coherence among emotion systems (i.e., autonomic, facial affect). The present study sought to examine this. One hundred children (50 with ADHD combined presentation), 7-11 years of age (62% male, 78% White), completed an emotion induction and suppression task. This task was coded for facial affect behavior across both negative and positive emotion eliciting task conditions...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099875/sustained-attention-and-heart-rate-variability-in-children-and-adolescents-with-adhd
#2
Kristi R Griffiths, Daniel S Quintana, Daniel F Hermens, Chris Spooner, Tracey W Tsang, Simon Clarke, Michael R Kohn
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) plays an important role in attention and self-regulation by modulating physiological arousal to meet environmental demands. Core symptoms of ADHD such as inattention and behavioral disinhibition may be related to dysregulation of the ANS, however previous findings have been equivocal. We examined autonomic activity and reactivity by assessing heart rate variability (HRV) in a large sample of un-medicated children and adolescents (6-19 years) with ADHD (n=229) compared to typically-developing controls (n=244) during rest and sustained attention...
January 15, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074859/identifying-a-gene-expression-signature-of-cluster-headache-in-blood
#3
Else Eising, Nadine Pelzer, Lisanne S Vijfhuizen, Boukje de Vries, Michel D Ferrari, Peter A C 't Hoen, Gisela M Terwindt, Arn M J M van den Maagdenberg
Cluster headache is a relatively rare headache disorder, typically characterized by multiple daily, short-lasting attacks of excruciating, unilateral (peri-)orbital or temporal pain associated with autonomic symptoms and restlessness. To better understand the pathophysiology of cluster headache, we used RNA sequencing to identify differentially expressed genes and pathways in whole blood of patients with episodic (n = 19) or chronic (n = 20) cluster headache in comparison with headache-free controls (n = 20)...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067667/excessive-expression-of-mir-27-impairs-treg-mediated-immunological-tolerance
#4
Leilani O Cruz, Somaye Sadat Hashemifar, Cheng-Jang Wu, Sunglim Cho, Duc T Nguyen, Ling-Li Lin, Aly Azeem Khan, Li-Fan Lu
MicroRNAs (miRs) are tightly regulated in the immune system, and aberrant expression of miRs often results in hematopoietic malignancies and autoimmune diseases. Previously, it was suggested that elevated levels of miR-27 in T cells isolated from patients with multiple sclerosis facilitate disease progression by inhibiting Th2 immunity and promoting pathogenic Th1 responses. Here we have demonstrated that, although mice with T cell-specific overexpression of miR-27 harbor dysregulated Th1 responses and develop autoimmune pathology, these disease phenotypes are not driven by miR-27 in effector T cells in a cell-autonomous manner...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065222/the-effect-of-sleep-deprivation-on-coronary-heart-disease
#5
Yuan Rong, Wang Jie, Guo Li-Li
Sleep deprivation (SD) has been associated with an increased morbidity and mortality of coronary heart disease (CHD). SD could induce autonomic nervous dysfunction, hypertension, arrhythmia, hormonal dysregulation, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation and metabolic disorder in CHD patients. This paper reviewed the study results of SD in clinical trials and animal experiments and concluded that SD was associated with cardiovascular risk factors, which aggravated CHD in pathogenesis and outcomes...
November 20, 2016: Chinese Medical Sciences Journal, Chung-kuo i Hsüeh K'o Hsüeh Tsa Chih
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049831/mobile-zinc-increases-rapidly-in-the-retina-after-optic-nerve-injury-and-regulates-ganglion-cell-survival-and-optic-nerve-regeneration
#6
Yiqing Li, Lukas Andereggen, Kenya Yuki, Kumiko Omura, Yuqin Yin, Hui-Ya Gilbert, Burcu Erdogan, Maria S Asdourian, Christine Shrock, Silmara de Lima, Ulf-Peter Apfel, Yehong Zhuo, Michal Hershfinkel, Stephen J Lippard, Paul A Rosenberg, Larry Benowitz
Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the projection neurons of the eye, cannot regenerate their axons once the optic nerve has been injured and soon begin to die. Whereas RGC death and regenerative failure are widely viewed as being cell-autonomous or influenced by various types of glia, we report here that the dysregulation of mobile zinc (Zn(2+)) in retinal interneurons is a primary factor. Within an hour after the optic nerve is injured, Zn(2+) increases several-fold in retinal amacrine cell processes and continues to rise over the first day, then transfers slowly to RGCs via vesicular release...
January 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045562/parasympathetic-baroreflexes-and-heart-rate-variability-during-acute-stage-of-sport-concussion-recovery
#7
Scott Bishop, Ryan Dech, Taylor Baker, Matthew Butz, Kaishan Aravinthan, J Patrick Neary
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To assess and compare the parasympathetic state of individuals in healthy vs concussion groups, by measuring cardiovascular metrics under resting and baroreflex conditions using a squat-stand manoeuvre. RESEARCH DESIGN: This was a retrospective mixed-method study, with participants who sustained a medically diagnosed sport concussion (n = 12), being tested within 72-hours post-injury. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Participant's heart rate (Electrocardiogram, ECG) and blood pressure (finger plethysmography) data was collected during rest and during 10-second squat-stands (10SS, 0...
January 3, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007503/low-spontaneous-variability-in-cerebral-blood-flow-velocity-in-non-survivors-after-cardiac-arrest
#8
J M D van den Brule, E J Vinke, L M van Loon, J G van der Hoeven, C W E Hoedemaekers
OBJECTIVE: To investigate spontaneous variability in the time and frequency domain in mean flow velocity (MFV) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) in comatose patients after cardiac arrest, and determine possible differences between survivors and non-survivors. METHODS: A prospective observational study was performed at the ICU of a tertiary care university hospital in the Netherlands. We studied 11 comatose patients and 10 controls. MFV in the middle cerebral artery was measured with simultaneously recording of MAP...
December 19, 2016: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006949/autism-spectrum-disorder-is-associated-with-autonomic-underarousal
#9
I Bujnakova, I Ondrejka, M Mestanik, Z Visnovcova, A Mestanikova, I Hrtanek, D Fleskova, A Calkovska, I Tonhajzerova
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a serious neurodevelopmental disorder, associated with autonomic dysregulation. However, the pathomechanism leading to autonomic abnormalities is still unclear. The aim of this study was to assess autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity during baseline in homogenous group of autistic children using electrodermal activity (EDA), as an index of sympathetic activity and short-term heart rate variability (HRV) reflecting predominantly cardiac vagal control. Fifteen ASD boys and 15 healthy age-matched boys at the age of 7-15 years were examined...
December 22, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000236/optimism-moderates-psychophysiological-responses-to-stress-in-older-people-with-type-2-diabetes
#10
S Puig-Perez, R A Hackett, A Salvador, A Steptoe
Optimism is thought to be beneficial for health, and these effects may be mediated through modifications in psychophysiological stress reactivity. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with reduced cardiovascular responses to stress and heightened cortisol over the day. This study assessed the relationships between optimism, stress responsivity, and daily cortisol output in people with T2D. A total of 140 participants with T2D were exposed to laboratory stress. Heart rate (HR), systolic (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and cortisol were measured throughout the session...
December 21, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988965/ictal-asystole-a-systematic-review
#11
Dalma Tényi, Csilla Gyimesi, Péter Kupó, Réka Horváth, Beáta Bóné, Péter Barsi, Norbert Kovács, Tamás Simor, Zsuzsa Siegler, László Környei, András Fogarasi, József Janszky
OBJECTIVE: To comprehensively analyze ictal asystole (IA) on a large number of subjects. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of case report studies of patients diagnosed with IA (1983-2016). Each included case was characterized with respect to patient history, IA seizure characteristics, diagnostic workup, and therapy. In addition, comparative analyses were also carried out: two alignments were developed based on the delay between epilepsy onset and IA onset ("new-onset" if <1 year, "late-onset" if ≥1 year) and asystole duration (asystole was "very prolonged" if lasted >30 s)...
December 18, 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987241/major-depressive-disorder-and-generalized-anxiety-disorder-show-different-autonomic-dysregulations-revealed-by-heart-rate-variability-analysis-in-first-onset-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-without-comorbidity
#12
Toshikazu Shinba
AIM: The aim of the present study was to examine whether depression and anxiety disorder manifest different autonomic dysregulations using heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate (HR) measurements. METHODS: HRV and HR were recorded both at rest and during task execution (random number generation) in the first-onset drug-naïve patients with major depressive disorder (MDD, n = 14) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD, n = 11) as well as in healthy controls (n = 41)...
December 17, 2016: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981611/grb14-inhibition-triggers-insulin-induced-mouse-hepatocyte-proliferation-and-is-associated-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#13
Lucille Morzyglod, Michèle Caüzac, Lucie Popineau, Pierre-Damien Denechaud, Luis Fajas, Bruno Ragazzon, Véronique Fauveau, Julien Planchais, Mireille Vasseur-Cognet, Laetitia Fartoux, Olivier Scatton, Olivier Rosmorduc, Sandra Guilmeau, Catherine Postic, Chantal Desdouets, Christèle Desbois-Mouthon, Anne-Françoise Burnol
: Metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes are recognized as independent risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hyperinsulinemia, a hallmark of these pathologies, is suspected to be involved in HCC development. The molecular adapter Grb14 is an inhibitor of insulin receptor (IR) catalytic activity, highly expressed in the liver. To study its involvement in hepatocyte proliferation we specifically inhibited its liver expression using an shRNA strategy in mice. Enhanced insulin signaling upon Grb14 downregulation (Grb14i) was accompanied by a transient induction of S phase entrance by quiescent hepatocytes, indicating that Grb14 is a potent repressor of cell division...
December 16, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975209/critical-role-for-glp-1-in-symptomatic-post-bariatric-hypoglycaemia
#14
Colleen M Craig, Li-Fen Liu, Carolyn F Deacon, Jens J Holst, Tracey L McLaughlin
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Post-bariatric hypoglycaemia (PBH) is a rare, but severe, metabolic disorder arising months to years after bariatric surgery. It is characterised by symptomatic postprandial hypoglycaemia, with inappropriately elevated insulin concentrations. The relative contribution of exaggerated incretin hormone signalling to dysregulated insulin secretion and symptomatic hypoglycaemia is a subject of ongoing inquiry. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that PBH and associated symptoms are primarily mediated by glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)...
December 14, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957701/autonomic-cardiovascular-control-and-executive-function-in-chronic-hypotension
#15
Stefan Duschek, Alexandra Hoffmann, Gustavo A Reyes Del Paso, Ulrich Ettinger
BACKGROUND: Chronic low blood pressure (hypotension) is characterized by complaints such as fatigue, reduced drive, dizziness, and cold limbs. Additionally, deficits in attention and memory have been observed. Autonomic dysregulation is considered to be involved in the origin of this condition. PURPOSE: The study explored autonomic cardiovascular control in the context of higher cognitive processing (executive function) in hypotension. METHODS: Hemodynamic recordings were performed in 40 hypotensive and 40 normotensive participants during execution of four classical executive function tasks (number-letter task, n-back task, continuous performance test, and flanker task)...
December 12, 2016: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941578/trauma-and-autonomic-dysregulation-episodic-versus-systemic-negative-affect-underlying-cardiovascular-risk-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#16
Paul A Dennis, Nathan A Kimbrel, Andrew Sherwood, Patrick S Calhoun, Lana L Watkins, Michelle F Dennis, Jean C Beckham
OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been linked to elevated heart rate (HR) and reduced heart-rate variability (HRV) in cross-sectional research. Recent evidence suggests that this link may be driven by individual differences in autonomic arousal associated with momentary negative affect (NA). Using ecological momentary assessment (EMA) of NA and minute-to-minute HR/HRV monitoring, we examined whether NA-related HR/HRV mediated the association of PTSD symptom severity with 24-hour HRV and endothelial functioning...
December 9, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938459/recent-advances-in-the-understanding-of-the-mechanisms-underlying-postural-tachycardia-syndrome-in-children-practical-implications-for-treatment
#17
Xiaochun Zheng, Yonghong Chen, Junbao Du
Postural tachycardia syndrome is defined by a heart rate increment of 40 beats/minute (bpm) (or a heart rate that exceeds 125 bpm) within 10 minutes of change from the supine position to an upright position in the absence of obvious orthostatic hypotension. There are multiple pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie postural tachycardia syndrome, including peripheral denervation, β-receptor supersensitivity, hypovolaemia, and impaired muscle pump. Some children afflicted with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and hypovolaemic dysregulation have been found to have perturbed renin-angiotensin-aldosterone profile, disturbed vascular endothelial function, and abnormal vasodilation...
December 12, 2016: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933366/deficits-in-autonomic-indices-of-emotion-regulation-and-reward-processing-associated-with-prescription-opioid-use-and-misuse
#18
Eric L Garland, Craig J Bryan, Yoshio Nakamura, Brett Froeliger, Matthew O Howard
RATIONALE: Prescription opioid misuse and high-dose opioid use may result in allostatic dysregulation of hedonic brain circuitry, leading to reduced emotion regulation capacity. In particular, opioid misuse may blunt the ability to experience and upregulate positive affect from natural rewards. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine associations between opioid use/misuse and autonomic indices of emotion regulation capability in a sample of chronic pain patients receiving prescription opioid pharmacotherapy...
December 8, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892932/reciprocal-regulation-of-carbon-monoxide-metabolism-and-the-circadian-clock
#19
Roman Klemz, Silke Reischl, Thomas Wallach, Nicole Witte, Karsten Jürchott, Sabrina Klemz, Veronika Lang, Stephan Lorenzen, Miriam Knauer, Steffi Heidenreich, Min Xu, Jürgen A Ripperger, Michael Schupp, Ralf Stanewsky, Achim Kramer
Circadian clocks are cell-autonomous oscillators regulating daily rhythms in a wide range of physiological, metabolic and behavioral processes. Feedback of metabolic signals, such as redox state, NAD(+)/NADH and AMP/ADP ratios, or heme, modulate circadian rhythms and thereby optimize energy utilization across the 24-h cycle. We show that rhythmic heme degradation, which generates the signaling molecule carbon monoxide (CO), is required for normal circadian rhythms as well as circadian metabolic outputs. CO suppresses circadian transcription by attenuating CLOCK-BMAL1 binding to target promoters...
November 28, 2016: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885874/post-translational-regulation-of-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-implications-for-sympathoexcitatory-states
#20
Neeru M Sharma, Kaushik P Patel
Nitric oxide (NO) synthesized via neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) plays a significant role in regulation/modulation of autonomic control of circulation. Various pathological states are associated with diminished nNOS expression and blunted autonomic effects of NO in the central nervous system (CNS) including heart failure, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure etc. Therefore, elucidation of the molecular mechanism/s involved in dysregulation of nNOS is essential to understand the pathogenesis of increased sympathoexcitation in these diseased states...
January 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
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