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Autonomic dysregulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892932/reciprocal-regulation-of-carbon-monoxide-metabolism-and-the-circadian-clock
#1
Roman Klemz, Silke Reischl, Thomas Wallach, Nicole Witte, Karsten Jürchott, Sabrina Klemz, Veronika Lang, Stephan Lorenzen, Miriam Knauer, Steffi Heidenreich, Min Xu, Jürgen A Ripperger, Michael Schupp, Ralf Stanewsky, Achim Kramer
Circadian clocks are cell-autonomous oscillators regulating daily rhythms in a wide range of physiological, metabolic and behavioral processes. Feedback of metabolic signals, such as redox state, NAD(+)/NADH and AMP/ADP ratios, or heme, modulate circadian rhythms and thereby optimize energy utilization across the 24-h cycle. We show that rhythmic heme degradation, which generates the signaling molecule carbon monoxide (CO), is required for normal circadian rhythms as well as circadian metabolic outputs. CO suppresses circadian transcription by attenuating CLOCK-BMAL1 binding to target promoters...
November 28, 2016: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885874/post-translational-regulation-of-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-implications-for-sympathoexcitatory-states
#2
Neeru M Sharma, Kaushik P Patel
Nitric oxide (NO) synthesized via neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) plays a significant role in regulation/modulation of autonomic control of circulation. Various pathological states are associated with diminished nNOS expression and blunted autonomic effects of NO in the central nervous system (CNS) including heart failure, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure etc. Therefore, elucidation of the molecular mechanism/s involved in dysregulation of nNOS is essential to understand the pathogenesis of increased sympathoexcitation in these diseased states...
December 2, 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881824/two-tissue-resident-progenitor-lineages-drive-distinct-phenotypes-of-heterotopic-ossification
#3
Devaveena Dey, Jana Bagarova, Sarah J Hatsell, Kelli A Armstrong, Lily Huang, Joerg Ermann, Ashley J Vonner, Yue Shen, Agustin H Mohedas, Arthur Lee, Elisabeth M W Eekhoff, Annelies van Schie, Marie B Demay, Charles Keller, Amy J Wagers, Aris N Economides, Paul B Yu
Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), a congenital heterotopic ossification (HO) syndrome caused by gain-of-function mutations of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type I receptor ACVR1, manifests with progressive ossification of skeletal muscles, tendons, ligaments, and joints. In this disease, HO can occur in discrete flares, often triggered by injury or inflammation, or may progress incrementally without identified triggers. Mice harboring an Acvr1(R206H) knock-in allele recapitulate the phenotypic spectrum of FOP, including injury-responsive intramuscular HO and spontaneous articular, tendon, and ligament ossification...
November 23, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876089/rapid-onset-obesity-hypoventilation-hypothalamic-dysfunction-autonomic-dysregulation-and-neuroendocrine-tumor-syndrome-with-a-homogenous-enlargement-of-the-pituitary-gland-a-case-report
#4
Lama Aljabban, Lina Kassab, Nour Alhuda Bakoura, Mohammad Fayez Alsalka, Ismaeil Maksoud
BACKGROUND: Rapid-onset obesity with hypoventilation, hypothalamic dysfunction, and autonomic dysregulation syndrome is a rare pediatric disorder with a variable sequence of clinical presentations, undefined etiology, and high risk of mortality. Our patient presented an unusual course of the disease accompanied by a homogenous mild enlargement of her pituitary gland with an intact pituitary-endocrine axis which, to the best of our knowledge, represents a new finding in rapid-onset obesity with hypoventilation, hypothalamic dysfunction, and autonomic dysregulation syndrome...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865628/the-genesis-and-presentation-of-anxiety-in-disorders-of-autonomic-over-excitation
#5
Andrew P Owens, David A Low, Valeria Iodice, Hugo D Critchley, Christopher J Mathias
INTRODUCTION: We investigated the genesis and presentation of previously-reported anxiety in disorders of autonomic overexcitation in relation to interoception, body vigilance and trauma to test our hypothesis that patients with the postural tachycardia syndrome (PoTS), vasovagal syncope (VVS) and essential hyperhidrosis (EH) represent atypical anxiety phenotypes in whom affective symptoms are more related to apprehension and vigilance of physiological (interoceptive) feedback than neurotic or trauma-related factors...
October 19, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836526/influences-of-lifestyle-factors-on-cardiac-autonomic-nervous-system-activity-over-time
#6
Mandy Xian Hu, Femke Lamers, Eco J C de Geus, Brenda W J H Penninx
Physical activity, alcohol use and smoking might affect cardiovascular disease through modifying autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. We investigated: 1) whether there are consistent relationships between lifestyle factors and cardiac ANS activity over time, and 2) whether 2-year changes in lifestyle factors relate to 2-year changes in cardiac activity. Baseline (n=2618) and 2-year follow-up (n=2010) data of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety was combined. Baseline data was collected in the Netherlands from 2004-2007...
November 9, 2016: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834292/mesenteric-vascular-dysregulation-and-intestinal-inflammation-accompanies-experimental-spinal-cord-injury
#7
Emily M Besecker, Gina M Deiter, Nicole Pironi, Timothy K Cooper, Gregory Michael Holmes
Cervical and high thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI) drastically impairs autonomic nervous system function. Individuals with SCI at thoracic spinal-level 5 (T5) or higher often present cardiovascular disorders that include resting systemic arterial hypotension. Gastrointestinal (GI) tissues are critically dependent upon adequate blood flow and even brief periods of visceral hypoxia triggers GI dysmotility. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that T3-SCI induces visceral hypoperfusion, diminished postprandial vascular reflexes and concomitant visceral inflammation...
November 9, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830572/inflammation-associated-co-morbidity-between-depression-and-cardiovascular-disease
#8
Angelos Halaris
Morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is exceedingly high worldwide. Depressive illness is a serious psychiatric illness that afflicts a significant portion of the world population. Epidemiological studies have confirmed the high co-morbidity between these two disease entities. The co-morbidity is bidirectional and the mechanisms responsible for it are complex and multifaceted. In addition to genetic, biological systems, psychosocial, and behavioral factors that are involved include the central and autonomic nervous systems, the neuroendocrine, immune, and the vascular and hematologic systems...
November 10, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821431/developmental-wiring-of-specific-neurons-is-regulated-by-ret-1-nogo-a-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#9
Nanna Torpe, Steffen Nørgaard, Anette M Høye, Roger Pocock
Nogo-A is a membrane-bound protein that functions to inhibit neuronal migration, adhesion and neurite outgrowth during development. In the mature nervous system, Nogo-A stabilizes neuronal wiring to inhibit neuronal plasticity and regeneration after injury. Here, we show that RET-1, the sole Nogo-A homolog in Caenorhabditis elegans, is required to control developmental wiring of a specific subset of neurons. In ret-1 deletion mutant animals, specific ventral nerve cord axons are misguided where they fail to respect the ventral midline boundary...
November 7, 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809785/association-between-autonomic-nervous-dysfunction-and-cellular-inflammation-in-end-stage-renal-disease
#10
Eric Seibert, Kristina Zohles, Christof Ulrich, Alexander Kluttig, Sebastian Nuding, Jan A Kors, Cees A Swenne, Karl Werdan, Roman Fiedler, Matthias Girndt
BACKGROUND: Alterations in autonomic nervous function are common in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Sympathetic as well as parasympathetic activation may be associated with immune and inflammatory responses. We intended to confirm a role of autonomous dysregulation for inflammation in HD patients. METHODS: 30 HD patients (including 15 diabetics) and 15 healthy controls were studied for heart rate variability (HRV) using 5 min ECG recordings. Heart rate variability was estimated by time-domain parameters (the standard deviation of the RR intervals (SDNN) and the percentage of pairs of adjacent RR intervals differing by >50 ms (pNN50)) and frequency-domain-analysis (high- and low-frequency variation of RR intervals, HF and LF)...
November 3, 2016: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790154/ovarian-hormone-deprivation-reduces-oxytocin-expression-in-paraventricular-nucleus-preautonomic-neurons-and-correlates-with-baroreflex-impairment-in-rats
#11
Vitor U De Melo, Rayssa R M Saldanha, Carla R Dos Santos, Josiane De Campos Cruz, Vitor A Lira, Valter J Santana-Filho, Lisete C Michelini
The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases including hypertension increases dramatically in women after menopause, however the mechanisms involved remain incompletely understood. Oxytocinergic (OTergic) neurons are largely present within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Several studies have shown that OTergic drive from PVN to brainstem increases baroreflex sensitivity and improves autonomic control of the circulation. Since preautonomic PVN neurons express different types of estrogen receptors, we hypothesize that ovarian hormone deprivation causes baroreflex impairment, autonomic imbalance and hypertension by negatively impacting OTergic drive and oxytocin levels in pre-autonomic neurons...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790150/excited-delirium-and-sudden-death-a-syndromal-disorder-at-the-extreme-end-of-the-neuropsychiatric-continuum
#12
REVIEW
Deborah C Mash
Over the past decade, the excited delirium syndrome (ExDS) has raised continued controversy regarding the cause and manner of death of some highly agitated persons held in police custody, restrained or incapacitated by electrical devices. At autopsy, medical examiners have difficulty in identifying an anatomic cause of death, but frequently cite psychostimulant intoxication as a contributing factor. The characteristic symptoms of ExDS include bizarre and aggressive behavior, shouting, paranoia, panic, violence toward others, unexpected physical strength, and hyperthermia...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783854/neurocardiology-structure-based-function
#13
Jeffrey L Ardell, John Andrew Armour
Cardiac control is mediated via a series of reflex control networks involving somata in the (i) intrinsic cardiac ganglia (heart), (ii) intrathoracic extracardiac ganglia (stellate, middle cervical), (iii) superior cervical ganglia, (iv) spinal cord, (v) brainstem, and (vi) higher centers. Each of these processing centers contains afferent, efferent, and local circuit neurons, which interact locally and in an interdependent fashion with the other levels to coordinate regional cardiac electrical and mechanical indices on a beat-to-beat basis...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770676/the-complexity-of-electrodermal-activity-is-altered-in-mental-cognitive-stressors
#14
Zuzana Visnovcova, Michal Mestanik, Michal Gala, Andrea Mestanikova, Ingrid Tonhajzerova
The aim of this study was to evaluate potential changes in the electrodermal activity (EDA) to enable the detection of variations in the sympathetic nervous system during mental load and recovery period. Several EDA parameters were used: SCA (skin conductance amplitude), frequency of NS-EDR (nonspecific electrodermal responses), SIE (symbolic information entropy), and ApEn (approximate entropy). The cohort consisted of 50 healthy students (average age: 23.33±0.24yr., 25 women). The stress profile consisted of five phases: baseline (P1), Stroop test (P2), recovery (P3), mental arithmetic test (P4), and recovery (P5)...
October 14, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769879/individuals-with-tension-and-migraine-headaches-exhibit-increased-heart-rate-variability-during-post-stress-mindfulness-meditation-practice-but-a-decrease-during-a-post-stress-control-condition-a-randomized-controlled-experiment
#15
Muhammad Abid Azam, Joel Katz, Vina Mohabir, Paul Ritvo
BACKGROUND: Current research suggests that associations between headache conditions (migraine, tension) and imbalances in the autonomic nervous system (ANS) are due to stress-related dysregulation in the activity of the parasympathetic-sympathetic branches. Mindfulness meditation has demonstrated effectiveness in reducing pain-related distress, and in enhancing heart rate variability-a vagal-mediated marker of ANS balance. This study examined HRV during cognitive stress and mindfulness meditation in individuals with migraine and tension headaches...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764833/effects-of-the-sympathetic-nervous-system-on-regulatory-t-cell-and-t-helper-1-chemokine-expression-in-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndrome
#16
Xiuqing Tian, Rui Guo, Yujiao Zhang, Lingling Xu, Xianbing Liu, Yinglong Hou
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of sympathetic overactivity on the immune system involved in the imbalance of T helper (Th) lymphocytes, we investigated the correlation between autonomic dysregulation and the generation of regulatory T (Treg) and Th1 chemokines in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). METHODS: Blood samples obtained from patients with coronary artery disease and controls were analyzed for levels of Th1 and Treg cells and their associated cytokines by flow cytometry...
2016: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761566/rapid-onset-obesity-hypothalamic-dysfunction-hypoventilation-and-autonomic-dysregulation-in-saudi-arabia
#17
Adel S Al-Harbi, Abdullah Al-Shamrani, Baha A Al-Shawwa
Rapid-onset obesity, hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation, and autonomic dysregulation (ROHHAD) is a rare disease, but could be fatal if not diagnosed early. It mimics many other diseases and it may take few years after the onset of rapid obesity to have the other clinical features. Therefore, any patient with rapid-onset obesity after the age of 2 years should have high index of suspicion and long term follow up. We report a case of ROHHAD in Saudi Arabia and we highlight the clinical features and the importance of early diagnosis and management...
November 2016: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758000/cell-autonomous-and-noncell-autonomous-role-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-p50-in-astrocyte-mediated-fate-specification-of-adult-neural-progenitor-cells
#18
Suzana Cvijetic, Valeria Bortolotto, Marcello Manfredi, Elia Ranzato, Emilio Marengo, Rita Salem, Pier Luigi Canonico, Mariagrazia Grilli
In previous work, we demonstrated that NF-κB p50 acts as crucial regulator of adult hippocampal neural progenitor cells (ahNPC). Indeed, NF-κB p50 knockout (KO) mice are characterized by remarkably reduced hippocampal neurogenesis. As a follow up to that work, herein we show that when cultured in vitro, ahNPC from wild type (WT) and p50KO mice are not significantly different in their neurogenic potential. This observation prompted us to investigate cell-autonomous and noncell-autonomous consequences of p50 absence on neuronal fate specification of ahNPC...
October 19, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753830/sy-03-3-overview-of-somatic-mutations-and-epigenetic-regulation-of-aldosterone-producing-adenoma-apa
#19
Satoshi Umemura
Primary aldosteronism (PA) is a heterogeneous group of disorders including both sporadic and familial forms (familial hyperaldosteronism type I, II and III). PA is the most frequent endocrine cause of secondary hypertension and associated with a higher rate of cardiovascular complications, compared with essential hypertension.Here I review the recent progress in understanding of the genetic and molecular mechanisms leading to autonomous aldosterone production in PA.Systematic screening detects primary aldosteronism in 5 to 10% of all patients with hypertension and in approximately 20% of patients with resistant hypertension...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750377/cortisol-dysregulation-the-bidirectional-link-between-stress-depression-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#20
Joshua J Joseph, Sherita H Golden
Controversy exists over the role of stress and depression in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Depression has been shown to increase the risk for progressive insulin resistance and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus in multiple studies, whereas the association of stress with diabetes is less clear, owing to differences in study designs and in forms and ascertainment of stress. The biological systems involved in adaptation that mediate the link between stress and physiological functions include the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous and immune systems...
October 17, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
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