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Autonomic dysregulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238609/blunted-heart-rate-recovery-is-associated-with-coronary-artery-spasm-in-patients-with-suspected-vasospastic-angina
#1
Hyunsu Kim, Sang-Hoon Cho, Kyoung-Im Cho, Bong-Joon Kim, Sung-Il Im, Jung-Ho Heo
Background: Autonomic nervous system activity has been shown to be altered in patients with vasospastic angina (VA). Heart rate recovery (HRR) is a simple, non-invasive measurement of autonomic nervous system dysfunction. We aimed to investigate whether HRR is related to VA, as established by an ergonovine test. Methods: A total of 976 consecutive patients (47.5% male, mean age 55 years) without significant coronary artery disease who underwent both an ergonovine provocation test and a treadmill exercise test were enrolled...
2017: Clinical Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220503/downregulation-of-survivin-contributes-to-cell-cycle-arrest-during-postnatal-cardiac-development-in-a-severe-spinal-muscular-atrophy-mouse-model
#2
Lei Sheng, Bo Wan, Pengchao Feng, Junjie Sun, Frank Rigo, C Frank Bennett, Martin Akerman, Adrian R Krainer, Yimin Hua
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the leading genetic cause of infant mortality, characterized by progressive degeneration of spinal-cord motor neurons, leading to atrophy of skeletal muscles. However, accumulating evidence indicates that it is a multi-system disorder, particularly in its severe forms. Several studies delineated structural and functional cardiac abnormalities in SMA patients and mouse models, yet the abnormalities have been primarily attributed to autonomic dysfunction. Here, we show in a severe mouse model that its cardiomyocytes undergo G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest and enhanced apoptosis during postnatal development...
December 6, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168286/comparative-proteomic-profiling-reveals-a-role-for-cisd2-in-skeletal-muscle-aging
#3
Yi-Long Huang, Zhao-Qing Shen, Chia-Yu Wu, Yuan-Chi Teng, Chen-Chung Liao, Cheng-Heng Kao, Liang-Kung Chen, Chao-Hsiung Lin, Ting-Fen Tsai
Skeletal muscle has emerged as one of the most important tissues involved in regulating systemic metabolism. The gastrocnemius is a powerful skeletal muscle composed of predominantly glycolytic fast-twitch fibers that are preferentially lost among old age. This decrease in gastrocnemius muscle mass is remarkable during aging; however, the underlying molecular mechanism is not fully understood. Strikingly, there is a ~70% decrease in Cisd2 protein, a key regulator of lifespan in mice and the disease gene for Wolfram syndrome 2 in humans, within the gastrocnemius after middle age among mice...
November 23, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163025/bdnf-trkb-induction-of-calcium-transients-through-cav2-2-calcium-channels-in-motoneurons-corresponds-to-f-actin-assembly-and-growth-cone-formation-on-%C3%AE-2-chain-laminin-221
#4
Benjamin Dombert, Stefanie Balk, Patrick Lüningschrör, Mehri Moradi, Rajeeve Sivadasan, Lena Saal-Bauernschubert, Sibylle Jablonka
Spontaneous Ca(2+) transients and actin dynamics in primary motoneurons correspond to cellular differentiation such as axon elongation and growth cone formation. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor trkB support both motoneuron survival and synaptic differentiation. However, in motoneurons effects of BDNF/trkB signaling on spontaneous Ca(2+) influx and actin dynamics at axonal growth cones are not fully unraveled. In our study we addressed the question how neurotrophic factor signaling corresponds to cell autonomous excitability and growth cone formation...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149942/mechanisms-of-organ-dysfunction-in-sepsis
#5
REVIEW
Rachel Pool, Hernando Gomez, John A Kellum
Sepsis-associated organ dysfunction involves multiple responses to inflammation, including endothelial and microvascular dysfunction, immune and autonomic dysregulation, and cellular metabolic reprogramming. The effect of targeting these mechanistic pathways on short- and long-term outcomes depends highly on the timing of therapeutic intervention. Furthermore, there is a need to understand the adaptive or maladaptive character of these mechanisms, to discover phase-specific biomarkers to guide therapy, and to conceptualize these mechanisms in terms of resistance and tolerance...
January 2018: Critical Care Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140276/clinical-profile-associated-with-adverse-childhood-experiences-the-advent-of-nervous-system-dysregulation
#6
Jorina Elbers, Cynthia R Rovnaghi, Brenda Golianu, Kanwaljeet J S Anand
BACKGROUND: We report the prevalence of children with multiple medical symptoms in a pediatric neurology clinic, describe their symptom profiles, and explore their association with adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 100 consecutive patients from an outpatient pediatric neurology clinic. Patients were included if they were ≥5 years old and reported ≥4 symptoms that were unexplained for ≥3-months. Symptom profiles across six functional domains were recorded: (1) executive dysfunction, (2) sleep disturbances, (3) autonomic dysregulation, (4) somatization, (5) digestive symptoms, and (6) emotional dysregulation...
November 15, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130314/determining-psychoneuroimmunologic-markers-of-yoga-as-an-intervention-for-persons-diagnosed-with-ptsd-a-systematic-review
#7
Ursula Ann Kelly, Dian Dowling Evans, Helen Baker, Jessica Noggle Taylor
There is a growing body of research on yoga as a therapeutic intervention for psychological symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) accompanied by speculations on underlying physiologic mechanisms. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify, qualitatively evaluate, and synthesize studies of yoga as an intervention for PTSD that measured physiologic outcomes in order to gain insights into potential mechanisms. The focus is on studies evaluating yoga as a therapeutic intervention for PTSD rather than for trauma exposure, PTSD prevention, or subclinical PTSD...
January 1, 2017: Biological Research for Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120068/diagnosis-and-genetics-of-alacrima
#8
REVIEW
J Adams, C P Schaaf
Alacrima, the lack of tears, is a rare clinical finding that has been reported as a feature of multiple genetic disorders and can serve as a diagnostic clue to some rare conditions. Causes of alacrima range from absence/hyposecretion of tears to agenesis or improper development of lacrimal gland ducts and associated structures. There are 13 known heritable disorders featuring varying degrees and causes of alacrima. Some manifest only the congenital absence of tears, while others affect multiple organ systems and may involve severe developmental delay, intellectual disability, and potentially life-threatening autonomic dysregulation...
November 9, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117891/recurrent-hypersomnia-and-autonomic-dysregulation-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#9
Madhulika A Gupta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107798/parent-emotion-socialization-and-pre-adolescent-s-social-and-emotional-adjustment-moderating-effects-of-autonomic-nervous-system-reactivity
#10
Julia D McQuade, Rosanna P Breaux
This study examined whether measures of children's autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity to social stress moderated the effect of parent emotion socialization on children's social and emotional adjustment. Sixty-one children (9 to 13 years) completed a peer rejection task while their respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity (RSA-R) and skin conductance level reactivity (SCL-R) were assessed. Parents' report of supportive and non-supportive reactions to their child's negative emotions served as measures of emotion socialization...
October 28, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089975/autonomic-dysreflexia-a-cardiovascular-disorder-following-spinal-cord-injury
#11
REVIEW
Hisham Sharif, Shaoping Hou
Autonomic dysreflexia (AD) is a serious cardiovascular disorder in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). The primary underlying cause of AD is loss of supraspinal control over sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPNs) caudal to the injury, which renders the SPNs hyper-responsive to stimulation. Central maladaptive plasticity, including C-fiber sprouting and propriospinal fiber proliferation exaggerates noxious afferent transmission to the SPNs, causing them to release massive sympathetic discharges that result in severe hypertensive episodes...
September 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079574/interferon-regulatory-factor-5-irf5-suppresses-hepatitis-c-virus-hcv-replication-and-hcv-associated-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#12
Ozge Cevik, Dan Li, Erdene Baljinnyam, Dinesh Manvar, Erica M Pimenta, Gulam Waris, Betsy J Barnes, Neerja Kaushik-Basu
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major risk factor for the development of chronic liver disease. The disease typically progresses from chronic HCV to fibrosis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and death. Chronic inflammation associated with HCV infection is implicated in cirrhosis and HCC, but the molecular players and signaling pathways contributing to these processes remain largely unknown. Interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) is a molecule of interest in HCV-associated HCC because it has critical roles in virus-, Tolllike receptor (TLR)-, and interferon (IFN)- induced signaling pathways...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077998/a-pilot-study-of-reduced-olfactory-bulb-volume-as-a-marker-of-ptsd-in-childhood-trauma-exposed-adult-hiv-infected-patients
#13
Evaristus A Nwulia, Narayan Rai, Kamyar Sartip, Maria Mananita S Hipolito, Charlee K McLean, Kyla Flanagan, Flora Hamilton, Sharon Lambert, Huynh-Nhu Le, John VanMeter, Suad Kapetanovic
Evidence suggests that olfactory bulb (OB), a key structure in odor processing, may also be involved in mechanisms of traumatic stress. In animals, chronic stress reduces OB plasticity, and olfactory bulbectomy results in stress-enhanced startle reflex and autonomic dysregulation. However, OB morphometry has not been adequately studied in the development of stress disorders following childhood trauma in humans. The researchers conducted a pilot study evaluating the relationships between OB volume, childhood trauma, and lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample of 16 HIV-positive individuals, 13 of whom were exposed to childhood trauma of 9 developed PTSD...
October 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061316/tea-polyphenols-ameliorates-neural-redox-imbalance-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-via-mechanisms-linking-the-key-circadian-regular-bmal1
#14
Guoyuan Qi, Yashi Mi, Rong Fan, Beita Zhao, Bo Ren, Xuebo Liu
Circadian rhythms are autonomous anticipatory oscillators that control a large array of physiological and metabolic processes. Compelling evidence points toward an interplay between circadian rhythms and cellular redox metabolism. Dysregulation of circadian rhythms is associated with neurodegenerative diseases and accelerated aging. Tea polyphenols (TP) is one of the most used antioxidants and exerts beneficial effect on neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate whether circadian clock mechanisms are involved in the protection effect of TP against neural redox imbalance and mitochondrial dysfunction in SH-SY5Y cells...
October 20, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057068/case-report-percutaneous-electrical-neural-field-stimulation-in-two-cases-of-sympathetically-mediated-pain
#15
Lynn Fraser, Anna Woodbury
Background: Fibromyalgia and complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) are both chronic pain syndromes with pathophysiologic mechanisms related to autonomic nervous system dysregulation and central sensitization.  Both syndromes are considered difficult to treat with conventional pain therapies. Case presentations: Here we describe a female veteran with fibromyalgia and a male veteran with CRPS, both of whom failed multiple pharmacologic, physical and psychological therapies for pain, but responded to percutaneous electrical neural field stimulation (PENFS) targeted at the auricular branches of the cranial nerves...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038244/overactivity-of-liver-related-neurons-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus-electrophysiological-findings-in-db-db-mice
#16
Hong Gao, Adrien Jr Molinas, Kayoko Miyata, Xin Qiao, Andrea Zsombok
Preautonomic neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus play a large role in the regulation of hepatic functions via the autonomic nervous system. Activation of hepatic sympathetic nerves increases glucose and lipid metabolism and contributes to the elevated hepatic glucose production observed in type 2 diabetic condition. This augmented sympathetic output could originate from altered activity of liver-related PVN neurons. Remarkably, despite the importance of the brain-liver pathway, the cellular properties of liver-related neurons are not known...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030433/dysregulation-of-the-mitochondrial-unfolded-protein-response-induces-non-apoptotic-dopaminergic-neurodegeneration-in-c-elegans-models-of-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Bryan A Martinez, Daniel A Petersen, Anthony L Gaeta, Samuel P Stanley, Guy A Caldwell, Kim A Caldwell
Due to environmental insult or innate genetic deficiency, protein folding environments of the mitochondrial matrix are prone to dysregulation, prompting the activation of a specific organellar stress-response mechanism, the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(MT)). In Caenorhabditis elegans, mitochondrial damage leads to nuclear translocation of the ATFS-1 transcription factor to activate the UPR(MT) After short-term acute stress has been mitigated, the UPR(MT) is eventually suppressed to restore homeostasis to C...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023738/klf2-mediates-enhanced-chemoreflex-sensitivity-disordered-breathing-and-autonomic-dysregulation-in-heart-failure
#18
Noah J Marcus, Rodrigo Del Rio, Yanfeng Ding, Harold D Schultz
KEY POINTS: Enhanced carotid body chemoreflex activity contributes to development of disordered breathing patterns, autonomic dysregulation and increases in incidence of arrhythmia in animal models of reduced ejection fraction heart failure. Chronic reductions in carotid artery blood flow are associated with increased carotid body chemoreceptor activity. Krüppel-like Factor 2 (KLF2) is a shear stress-sensitive transcription factor that regulates the expression of enzymes which have previously been shown to play a role in increased chemoreflex sensitivity...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022731/meta-analyses-of-cardiovascular-reactivity-to-rumination-a-possible-mechanism-linking-depression-and-hostility-to-cardiovascular-disease
#19
Lorna Y Busch, Patrick Pössel, Jeffrey C Valentine
Rumination is a way of cognitive coping associated with depression and hostility that prolongs cardiovascular responses to stress. If repeated over time, the associated autonomic dysregulation may be 1 mechanism linking depression and hostility to cardiovascular disease. The current meta-analyses investigate the magnitude of cardiovascular responses (heart rate, diastolic blood pressure, and systolic blood pressure) to induced state sadness and angry rumination which are associated with depression and hostility, respectively...
October 12, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986948/the-role-of-the-blood-brain-barrier-in-hypertension
#20
Anthony Setiadi, Willian S Korim, Khalid Elsaafien, Song T Yao
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a critical barrier that provides both metabolic and physical protection to an immune-privileged central nervous system. The BBB has been shown to be disrupted in hypertension. This review addresses the importance of the BBB in maintaining homeostasis in the context of diseases related to autonomic dysfunction such as hypertension. We highlight the potentially important roles of the immune system and neurovascular unit in the maintenance of the BBB, whereby dysregulation may lead to autonomic dysfunction in diseases such as heart failure and hypertension...
October 6, 2017: Experimental Physiology
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