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Autonomic dysregulation

Katelyn N Benthall, Stacie L Ong, Helen S Bateup
mTORC1 is a central signaling hub that integrates intra- and extracellular signals to regulate a variety of cellular metabolic processes. Mutations in regulators of mTORC1 lead to neurodevelopmental disorders associated with autism, which is characterized by repetitive, inflexible behaviors. These behaviors may result from alterations in striatal circuits that control motor learning and habit formation. However, the consequences of mTORC1 dysregulation on striatal neuron function are largely unknown. To investigate this, we deleted the mTORC1 negative regulator Tsc1 from identified striatonigral and striatopallidal neurons and examined how cell-autonomous upregulation of mTORC1 activity affects their morphology and physiology...
June 12, 2018: Cell Reports
Bernhard A Sabel, Jiaqi Wang, Lizbeth Cárdenas-Morales, Muneeb Faiq, Christine Heim
The loss of vision after damage to the retina, optic nerve, or brain has often grave consequences in everyday life such as problems with recognizing faces, reading, or mobility. Because vision loss is considered to be irreversible and often progressive, patients experience continuous mental stress due to worries, anxiety, or fear with secondary consequences such as depression and social isolation. While prolonged mental stress is clearly a consequence of vision loss, it may also aggravate the situation. In fact, continuous stress and elevated cortisol levels negatively impact the eye and brain due to autonomous nervous system (sympathetic) imbalance and vascular dysregulation; hence stress may also be one of the major causes of visual system diseases such as glaucoma and optic neuropathy...
June 2018: EPMA Journal
Tao Huan, Amelia Palermo, Julijana Ivanisevic, Duane Rinehart, David Edler, Thiery Phommavongsay, H Paul Benton, Carlos Guijas, Xavier Domingo-Almenara, Benedikt Warth, Gary Siuzdak
Comprehensive metabolomic data can be achieved using multiple orthogonal separation and mass spectrometry (MS) analytical techniques. However, drawing biologically relevant conclusions from this data and combining it with additional layers of data collected by other omic technologies present a significant bioinformatic challenge. To address this, a data processing approach was designed to automate the comprehensive prediction of dysregulated metabolic pathways/networks from multiple data sources. The platform autonomously integrates multiple MS-based metabolomics data types without constraints due to different sample preparation/extraction, chromatographic separation, or MS detection method...
June 12, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Xuejing Zhang, Xuelian Tang, Milton H Hamblin, Ke-Jie Yin
Angiogenesis is a complex process that depends on the delicate regulation of gene expression. Dysregulation of transcription during angiogenesis often leads to various human diseases. Emerging evidence has recently begun to show that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) may mediate angiogenesis in both physiological and pathological conditions; concurrently, underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unexplored. Previously, our lab identified metastasis associates lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 ( Malat1 ) as an oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-responsive endothelial lncRNA...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Amilcare Barca, Francesca Gatti, Daniela Spagnolo, Stefania Ippati, Carla Vetrugno, Tiziano Verri
In excitable tissues, the endogenous dipeptide carnosine (CAR, β-Ala-l-His) sustains homeostatic responses to various challenges. By eliciting hypoglycemic effects via actions on the autonomic nervous system and protection of pancreatic beta-cells, CAR is also relevant in diabetes. We investigated the expression of genes involved in CAR biosynthesis, degradation, and membrane transport pathways, in the pancreas and brains of mice treated with streptozotocin (STZ) and then exposed to dietary CAR. We induced hyperglycemia by STZ intraperitoneal injections; then, STZ-treated mice received drinking water with or without CAR for two weeks...
June 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Valentina Caputi, Maria Cecilia Giron
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressively debilitating neurodegenerative disease characterized by α-synucleinopathy, which involves all districts of the brain-gut axis, including the central, autonomic and enteric nervous systems. The highly bidirectional communication between the brain and the gut is markedly influenced by the microbiome through integrated immunological, neuroendocrine and neurological processes. The gut microbiota and its relevant metabolites interact with the host via a series of biochemical and functional inputs, thereby affecting host homeostasis and health...
June 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Lei Cao, Stuart L Graham, Paul M Pilowsky
BACKGROUND: It is reported that glaucoma may be associated with vascular dysregulation. Normal tension glaucoma (NTG) and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), which feature different intraocular pressure levels, may manifest differential features of systemic autonomic dysregulation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated autonomic regulation to carbohydrate ingestion and postural change in 37 glaucoma patients (19 NTG and 18 POAG) and 36 controls. Subjects were age and gender-matched, normotensive, and had normal comparable insulin sensitivity...
2018: PloS One
Nuria Codina, Rafael Valenzuela, Jose V Pestana, Joan Gonzalez-Conde
Procrastination is a complex problem that can be defined as delaying an intended course of action (despite anticipating adverse consequences). Even when some students have equivalent motivation and skill levels, they tend to procrastinate more frequently than others. Approaches that analyze whether contextual influences may prevent or promote dysregulation processes associated with procrastination are scarce. According to Self-Determination Theory, contextual influences can facilitate self-regulated motivation (e...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Charlotte Fiskum, Tonje G Andersen, Xavier Bornas, Per M Aslaksen, Magne A Flaten, Karl Jacobsen
Background: Internalizing psychopathology and dysregulated negative affect are characterized by dysregulation in the autonomic nervous system and reduced heart rate variability (HRV) due to increases in sympathetic activity alongside reduced vagal tone. The neurovisceral system is however, a complex nonlinear system, and nonlinear indices related to psychopathology are so far less studied in children. Essential nonlinear properties of a system can be found in two main domains: the informational domain and the invariant domain...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Kenneth A Myers, Luis E Bello-Espinosa, Joseph D Symonds, Sameer M Zuberi, Robin Clegg, Lynette G Sadleir, Jeffrey Buchhalter, Ingrid E Scheffer
OBJECTIVE: Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a tragic and devastating event for which the underlying pathophysiology remains poorly understood; this study investigated whether abnormalities in heart rate variability (HRV) are linked to SUDEP in patients with epilepsy due to mutations in sodium channel (SCN) genes. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated HRV in epilepsy patients using electroencephalographic studies to study the potential contribution of autonomic dysregulation to SUDEP risk...
June 6, 2018: Epilepsia
Ricardo João Teixeira, Allison J Applebaum, Sangeeta Bhatia, Tânia Brandão
Purpose: A growing number of studies have explored the psychosocial burden experienced by cancer caregivers, but less attention has been given to the psychophysiological impact of caregiving and the impact of caregivers' coping strategies on this association. This paper reviews existing research on the processes underlying distress experienced by cancer caregivers, with a specific focus on the role of coping strategies on psychophysiological correlates of burden. Methods: A broad literature search was conducted in health-related databases namely MEDLINE, Science Citations Index Expanded, Scopus, and PsycINFO, using relevant search terms...
2018: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Ana Marques, Frédéric Dutheil, Elodie Durand, Isabelle Rieu, Aurélien Mulliez, Maria Livia Fantini, Yves Boirie, Franck Durif
OBJECTIVE: To detect changes in glucose regulation in moderate to advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) patients in response to oral glucose intake. METHODS: Blood glucose and insulin kinetics during a 75-g Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) were compared between 50 PD patients and 50 healthy controls (CT) matched for body mass index (BMI), age and sex. Potential relationships between changes in glucose kinetics and clinical parameters were analyzed including Parkinson's disease severity and autonomic function using SCOPA-AUT (Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson's disease, Autonomic dysfunction)...
May 31, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Ting-Tse Lin, Wei-Shun Yang, Mu-Yang Hsieh, Chih-Chen Wu, Lian-Yu Lin
Background: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is prevalent in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and may be secondary to arterial stiffness and volume overload. It is unclear whether LVH is caused by autonomic nerve dysregulation (AND), a frequent condition in patients with ESRD that is characterized by sympathetic hyperactivity and vagal withdrawal. We hypothesized that AND estimated by heart rate variability (HRV) may be associated with LVH in patients with ESRD. Methods: We prospectively enrolled patients with ESRD undergoing hemodialysis...
May 2018: Acta Cardiologica Sinica
Deena S Goldwater, Kumar Dharmarajan, Bruce S McEwan, Harlan M Krumholz
After discharge from the hospital, patients face a transient period of generalized susceptibility to disease as well as an elevated risk for adverse events, including hospital readmission and death. The term posthospital syndrome (PHS) has been used to describe this time of enhanced vulnerability. Based on data from bench to bedside, this narrative review examines the hypothesis that hospitalrelated allostatic overload is a plausible etiology of PHS. Resulting from extended exposure to stress, allostatic overload is a maladaptive state driven by overuse and dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the autonomic nervous system that ultimately generates pathophysiologic consequences to multiple organ systems...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
Carla Masala, Paolo Solla, A Liscia, G Defazio, L Saba, A Cannas, A Cavazzana, T Hummel, A Haehner
Although Parkinson's disease (PD) is usually considered as a movement disorder, it is strongly associated with non-motor symptoms (NMS), including smell and taste dysfunctions, cognitive impairment, apathy, fatigue, and autonomic dysregulation. Olfactory deficit is considered the most common NMS in PD preceding the motor symptoms for years. The aim of this study was to investigate olfactory function, cognitive impairment, apathy, and fatigue in patients with PD in comparison with healthy controls, and subsequently to analyse the correlations between these NMS and motor symptoms severity in subjects with PD...
May 26, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Thomas Page, Fergus J Rugg-Gunn
OBJECTIVE: Autonomic dysregulation is a possible pathomechanism of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Cardiac arrhythmias and autonomic symptoms are most commonly associated with seizures arising from the temporal lobes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether simultaneous seizure activity in both temporal lobes affects the autonomic nervous system differently from seizure activity in one temporal lobe as assessed by heart rate variability (HRV). METHODS: Electrocardiography (ECG) and intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) data from 13 patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy who had seizures that propagated electrically from one temporal lobe to the other during video-EEG-ECG monitoring were retrospectively reviewed...
May 24, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Isabel Loução de Amorim, Linda Azevedo Kauppila, Isabel Pavão Martins
Red ear syndrome (RES) is a rare disorder characterized by attacks of unilateral ear pain during which the ear becomes red. Episodes can occur spontaneously, or be triggered, in most cases, by rubbing or touching the ear. Both duration and frequency are variable. RES has been explained by a dysfunction of cervical spinal nerves (C3 root) and a dysregulation with disinhibition of brainstem trigemino-autonomic circuits, leading to sympathetic inhibition and parasympathetic hyperactivity producing vasodilation...
May 26, 2018: Headache
Joel L Ramirez, Laura M Drudi, S Marlene Grenon
The incidence of depression has been rising rapidly, and depression has been recognized as one of the world's leading causes of disability. More recently, depression has been associated with an increased risk of symptomatic atherosclerotic disease as well as worse perioperative outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease. Additionally, recent studies have demonstrated an association between depression and peripheral artery disease (PAD), which has been estimated to affect more than 200 million people worldwide...
May 1, 2018: Vascular Medicine
Minxuan Huang, Amit Shah, Shaoyong Su, Jack Goldberg, Rachel J Lampert, Oleksiy M Levantsevych, Lucy Shallenberger, Pratik Pimple, J Douglas Bremner, Viola Vaccarino
Importance: Depressive symptoms are associated with lower heart rate variability (HRV), an index of autonomic dysregulation, but the direction of the association remains unclear. Objective: To investigate the temporal association between depression and HRV. Design, Settings, and Participants: A longitudinal, cross-lagged twin difference study, with baseline assessments from March 2002 to March 2006 (visit 1) and a 7-year follow-up (visit 2) at an academic research center with participants recruited from a national twin registry...
May 16, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
David A Kalmbach, Jason R Anderson, Christopher L Drake
Sleep reactivity is the trait-like degree to which stress exposure disrupts sleep, resulting in difficulty falling and staying asleep. Individuals with highly reactive sleep systems experience drastic deterioration of sleep when stressed, whereas those with low sleep reactivity proceed largely unperturbed during stress. Research shows that genetics, familial history of insomnia, female gender and environmental stress influence how the sleep system responds to stress. Further work has identified neurobiological underpinnings for sleep reactivity involving disrupted cortical networks and dysregulation in the autonomic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
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