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Stress metabolic

Lalanthi Ratnayake, Keyur K Adhvaryu, Elizabeth Kafes, Kamyar Motavaze, Patricia Lakin-Thomas
The TOR (Target of Rapamycin) pathway is a highly-conserved signaling pathway in eukaryotes that regulates cellular growth and stress responses. The cellular response to amino acids or carbon sources such as glucose requires anchoring of the TOR kinase complex to the lysosomal/vacuolar membrane by the Ragulator (mammals) or EGO (yeast) protein complex. Here we report a connection between the TOR pathway and circadian (daily) rhythmicity. The molecular mechanism of circadian rhythmicity in all eukaryotes has long been thought to be transcription/translation feedback loops (TTFLs)...
June 20, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Nathalie Bonvallot, Cécile Canlet, Florence Blas-Y-Estrada, Roselyne Gautier, Marie Tremblay-Franco, Sylvie Chevolleau, Sylvaine Cordier, Jean-Pierre Cravedi
The use of pesticides exposes humans to numerous harmful molecules. Exposure in early-life may be responsible for adverse effects in later life. This study aimed to assess the metabolic modifications induced in pregnant rats and their offspring by a pesticide mixture representative of human exposure. Ten pregnant rats were exposed to a mixture of eight pesticides: acetochlor (246 μg/kg bw/d) + bromoxynil (12 μg/kg bw/d) + carbofuran (22.5 μg/kg bw/d) + chlormequat (35 μg/kg bw/d) + ethephon (22.5 μg/kg bw/d) + fenpropimorph (15...
2018: PloS One
Moritz Bömer, José A O'Brien, Imma Pérez-Salamó, Jovaras Krasauskas, Paul Finch, Andrea Briones, Arsalan Daudi, Puneet Souda, Tjir-Li Tsui, Julian P Whitelegge, G Paul Bolwell, Alessandra Devoto
Background and Aims: Cultured cell suspensions have been the preferred model to study the apoplast as well as to monitor metabolic and cell cycle-related changes. Previous work showed that methyl jasmonate (MeJA) inhibits leaf growth in a CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1 (COI1)-dependent manner, with COI1 being the jasmonate (JA) receptor. Here, the effect of COI1 overexpression on the growth of stably transformed arabidopsis cell cultures is described. Methods: Time-course experiments were carried out to analyse gene expression, and protein and metabolite levels...
June 19, 2018: Annals of Botany
Y L Long, F Qiao, X F Jiang, H Q Cong, M L Sun, Z J Xu
Synthetic polyploids are key breeding materials for watermelon. Compared with diploid watermelon, the tetraploid watermelon often exhibit wide phenotypic differences and differential gene expression. Digital gene expression (DGE) profile technique was performed in this study to present gene expression patterns in an autotetraploid and its progenitor diploid watermelon, and deferentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to the abiotic and biotic stress were also addressed. Altogether, 4,985 DEGs were obtained in the autotetraploid against its progenitor diploid, and 66...
June 14, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Huanhuan Lv, Peng Shang
The labile iron pool (LIP) is a pool of chelatable and redox-active iron, not only essential for a wide variety of metabolic process, but also as a catalyst in the Fenton reaction, causing the release of hazardous reactive oxygen species (ROS) with potential for inducing oxidative stress and cell damage. The cellular LIP represents the entirety of every heterogenous sub-pool of iron, not only present in the cytosol, but also in mitochondria, lysosomes and the nucleus, which have all been detected and characterized by various fluorescent methods...
June 20, 2018: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Hisae Kadowaki, Hideki Nishitoh
Various types of intracellular and extracellular stresses disturb homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and, thus, trigger the ER stress response. Unavoidable and/or prolonged ER stress causes cell toxicity and occasionally cell death. The malfunction or death of irreplaceable cells leads to conformational diseases, including diabetes mellitus, ischaemic diseases, metabolic diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. In the past several decades, many studies have revealed the molecular mechanisms of the ER quality control system...
June 19, 2018: FEBS Journal
Krit Jaikumkao, Anchalee Pongchaidecha, Nuttawud Chueakula, La-Ongdao Thongnak, Keerati Wanchai, Varanuj Chatsudthipong, Nipon Chattipakorn, Anusorn Lungkaphin
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor dapagliflozin has been shown to exert both anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects in metabolic syndrome. However, the effects of dapagliflozin on the renal complications associated with metabolic dysfunction in diet-induced obesity (DIO) are not fully understood. In this study, to work towards a resolution of these issues, we evaluated the renoprotective roles of dapagliflozin in pre-diabetic rats. METHODS: DIO was induced by feeding a high-fat diet (HF) to male Wistar rats for 16 weeks...
June 19, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Francesc Villarroya, Rubén Cereijo, Aleix Gavaldà-Navarro, Joan Villarroya, Marta Giralt
Many of the comorbidities of obesity, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases are related to the low-grade chronic inflammation of white adipose tissue. Under white adipocyte stress, local infiltration of immune cells and enhanced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines together reduce metabolic flexibility and lead to insulin resistance in obesity. Whereas white adipocytes act in energy storage, brown and beige adipocytes specialize in energy expenditure. Brown and beige activity protects against obesity and associated metabolic disorders, such as hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
Jasmine Lee-Barber, Taylor E English, Jacquelyn F Britton, Nara Sobreira, Jason Goldstein, David Valle, Hans Tomas Bjornsson
Transaldolase deficiency (MIM#: 606003) is a rare autosomal recessive defect in the pentose phosphate pathway. Affected individuals are at risk for progressive liver failure and hepatocarcinoma. In the transaldolase-deficient mouse model (Taldo1 -/- ), these hepatic complications are accentuated by oxidative stress related to acetaminophen administration. We report a 13-month-old transaldolase-deficient male who developed mild liver failure after receiving standard doses of acetaminophen during a febrile respiratory syncytial virus infection...
June 20, 2018: JIMD Reports
Mateusz Radojewski, Tomasz Podgórski, Barbara Pospieszna, Jakub Kryściak, Ewa Śliwicka, Joanna Karolkiewicz
The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of the competitive phase on physiological and metabolic indices and selected markers of skeletal muscle damage in male volleyball players. The study group consisted of 24 young male volleyball players. During the study, participants underwent two series of measurements, before and after the competitive phase of the annual training cycle. In both study terms, players performed an incremental treadmill running test to determine their ventilatory threshold and maximal oxygen uptake...
June 2018: Journal of Human Kinetics
Estefanía Tarifeño-Saldivia, Andrea Aguilar, David Contreras, Luis Mercado, Byron Morales-Lange, Katherine Márquez, Adolfo Henríquez, Camila Riquelme-Vidal, Sebastian Boltana
Iron is a trace element, essential to support life due to its inherent ability to exchange electrons with a variety of molecules. The use of iron as a cofactor in basic metabolic pathways is essential to both pathogenic microorganisms and their hosts. During evolution, the shared requirement of micro- and macro-organisms for this important nutrient has shaped the pathogen-host relationship. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNv) affects salmonids constituting a sanitary problem for this industry as it has an important impact on post-smolt survival...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Jaya Chandrasekhar, Amrita Gill, Roxana Mehran
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the leading cause of death in women worldwide. Every year, in the USA alone, more than 30,000 young women <55 years of age are hospitalized with AMI. In recent decades, the incidence of AMI is increasing in younger women in the context of increasing metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, and non-traditional risk factors such as stress, anxiety, and depression. Although women are classically considered to present with atypical chest pain, several observational data confirm that men and women experience similar rates of chest pain, with some differences in intensity, duration, radiation, and the choice of descriptors...
2018: International Journal of Women's Health
Rose Ghemrawi, Shyue-Fang Battaglia-Hsu, Carole Arnold
Metabolic disorders have become among the most serious threats to human health, leading to severe chronic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, as well as cardiovascular diseases. Interestingly, despite the fact that each of these diseases has different physiological and clinical symptoms, they appear to share certain pathological traits such as intracellular stress and inflammation induced by metabolic disturbance stemmed from over nutrition frequently aggravated by a modern, sedentary life style...
June 19, 2018: Cells
Petr Ježek, Martin Jabůrek, Blanka Holendová, Lydie Plecitá-Hlavatá
Fatty acid (FA)-stimulated insulin secretion (FASIS) is reviewed here in contrast to type 2 diabetes etiology, resulting from FA overload, oxidative stress, intermediate hyperinsulinemia, and inflammation, all converging into insulin resistance. Focusing on pancreatic islet &beta;-cells, we compare the physiological FA roles with the pathological ones. Considering FAs not as mere amplifiers of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), but as parallel insulin granule exocytosis inductors, partly independent of the KATP channel closure, we describe the FA initiating roles in the prediabetic state that is induced by retardations in the glycerol-3-phosphate (glucose)-promoted glycerol/FA cycle and by the impaired GPR40/FFA1 (free FA1) receptor pathway, specifically in its amplification by the redox-activated mitochondrial phospholipase, iPLA2&gamma;...
June 19, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Shourong Wu, Huimin Wang, Yanjun Li, Yudan Xie, Can Huang, Hezhao Zhao, Makoto Miyagishi, Vivi Kasim
Tumor cells alter their metablosim to meet their demand for macromolecules, support a high rate of proliferation as well as cope with oxidative stress. The transcription factor yin yang 1 (YY1) is upregulated in various types of tumors and is crucial for tumor cell proliferation and metastasis. However, its role in tumor cell metabolic reprogramming is poorly understood. Here we show that YY1 alters tumor cell metabolism by activating glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), the rate-limiting enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway...
June 19, 2018: Cancer Research
Soo-Min Kim, Kyung-A Hwang, Kyung-Chul Choi
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are major sources of cellular oxidative stress. Specifically, cancer cells harbor genetic alterations that promote a continuous and elevated production of ROS. While such oxidative stress conditions could be harmful to normal cells, they facilitate cancer cell growth in multiple ways by causing DNA damage and genomic instability, and ultimately, by reprogramming cancer cell metabolism. This review provides up to date findings regarding the role of ROS generation induced by diverse biological molecules and chemicals in representative women's' cancer...
June 20, 2018: BMB Reports
Ling-Bing Meng, Ruomei Qi, Lei Xu, Yuhui Chen, Zemou Yu, Peng Guo, Tao Gong
BACKGROUND: The mortality of atherosclerotic cerebrovascular disease is on the rise, and changes in intimal and media thickness are a leading cause of cerebral ischemia-related death. Levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), total cholesterol (TC), and chronic stress (CS) are all recognized risk factors for atherosclerosis (AS). However, the leading independent risk factor is indistinct. This study explored the effects of chronic stress, LDLC, and TC on AS and intimal and media thickness, preliminarily explored the main risk factor of AS, and analyzed the related histocyte mechanisms for macrophages and endothelial cells...
June 19, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Shohreh Majd, John H T Power, Timothy K Chataway, Hugh J M Grantham
BACKGROUND: Cellular energy failure in high metabolic rate organs is one of the underlying causes for many disorders such as neurodegenerative diseases, cardiomyopathies, liver and renal failures. In the past decade, numerous studies have discovered the cellular axis of LKB1/AMPK/mTOR as an essential modulator of cell homeostasis in response to energy stress. Through regulating adaptive mechanisms, this axis adjusts the energy availability to its demand by a systematized control on metabolism...
June 19, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
Pradeep Dayanand, Harigopal Sandhyavenu, Sandeep Dayanand, Jasmin Martinez, Janani Rangaswami
Vascular calcification is known to be a strong risk factor for cardiovascular adverse events and mortality. Atherosclerosis, diabetes, aging, abnormal bone mineral homeostasis and high uremic milieu such as chronic kidney disease are major factors that contribute to the progression of vascular calcification. Several mechanisms such as the osteoblastic transition of vascular smooth muscle cells in response to oxidative stress have shed light on the active nature of vascular calcification, which was once thought to be a passive process...
June 18, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
Prathap Reddy Kallamadi, Kamakshi Dandu, Pulugurtha Bharadwaja Kirti, Chintalagiri Mohan Rao, Suman S Thakur, Sujatha Mulpuri
Powdery mildew (PM, caused by Golovinomyces orontii) is one of the major diseases on sunflower that causes severe yield losses in the tropics. Sources of resistance to PM are reported in an exotic accession and some wild Helianthus species. The present study aims at quantitative proteomic analysis of susceptible, resistant and immune genotypes of sunflower in response to PM infection at 3, 7, 10 days post infection. The majority of differentially expressed proteins in the resistant genotype belonged to oxidative stress (catalase, ATP-sulfurylase and formate dehydrogenase), defense (HSP-70, heat shock transcription factors) and photosynthesis (LHCB3)...
June 19, 2018: Proteomics
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