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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458148/untimely-oxidative-stress-in-%C3%AE-cells-leads-to-diabetes-role-of-circadian-clock-in-%C3%AE-cell-function
#1
REVIEW
J Lee, K Ma, M Moulik, V Yechoor
Diabetes results from a loss of β-cell function. With the number of people with diabetes reaching epidemic proportions globally, understanding mechanisms that are contributing to this increasing prevalence is critical. One such factor has been circadian disruption, with shift-work, light pollution, jet-lag, increased screen time, all acting as potential contributory factors. Though circadian disruption has been epidemiologically associated with diabetes and other metabolic disorders for many decades, it is only recently that there has been a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms...
February 16, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458144/disruption-of-peroxisome-function-leads-to-metabolic-stress-mtor-inhibition-and-lethality-in-liver-cancer-cells
#2
Mengjiao Cai, Xiao Sun, Wenchao Wang, Zhusheng Lian, Ping Wu, Suxia Han, Huan Chen, Pumin Zhang
Peroxisome houses a large number of enzymes involved in lipid and phytochemical oxidation as well as synthesis of bile acid and other specialized lipids. Peroxisome resident enzymes are imported into the organelle via a conserved cargo transport system composed of many peroxins, protein factors essential for the biogenesis of peroxisome. Among the peroxins, PEX5 plays a transporter role, and PEX2, 10, and 12 are thought to form a complex that functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase to help recycle PEX5 in an ubiquitin modification-dependent process...
February 16, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458112/compatible-osmolytes-modulate-mitochondrial-function-in-a-marine-osmoconformer-crassostrea-gigas-thunberg-1793
#3
Eugene P Sokolov, Inna M Sokolova
Salinity is an important environmental factor affecting physiology of marine organisms. Osmoconformers such as marine mollusks maintain metabolic function despite changes of the osmolarity and composition of the cytosol during salinity shifts. Currently, metabolic responses to the salinity-induced changes of the intracellular milieu are not well understood. We studied the effects of osmolarity (450 vs. 900 mOsm) and compatible osmolytes (70-590 mM of taurine or betaine) on isolated gill mitochondria of a marine osmoconformer, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas...
February 16, 2018: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457838/bax-inhibitor-1-protects-from-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-by-limiting-ire1%C3%AE-signaling
#4
Cynthia Lebeaupin, Déborah Vallée, Déborah Rousseau, Stéphanie Patouraux, Stéphanie Bonnafous, Gilbert Adam, Frederic Luciano, Carmelo Luci, Rodolphe Anty, Antonio Iannelli, Sandrine Marchetti, Guido Kroemer, Sandra Lacas-Gervais, Albert Tran, Philippe Gual, Béatrice Bailly-Maitre
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is activated in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), raising the possibility that ER stress-dependent metabolic dysfunction, inflammation and cell death underlie the transition from steatosis to steatohepatitis (NASH). Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1), a negative regulator of the ER stress sensor IRE1α, has yet to be explored in NAFLD as a hepatoprotective agent. We hypothesized that the genetic ablation of BI-1 would render the liver vulnerable to NASH due to unrestrained IRE1α signaling...
February 19, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457686/viable-but-non-culturable-and-persistence-describe-the-same-bacterial-stress-state
#5
Jun-Seob Kim, Nityananda Chowdhury, Ryota Yamasaki, Thomas K Wood
Bacteria are often thought of as having two dormant phenotypes: the viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state and the persister state. Here we investigate the relatedness of the two stress-induced phenotypes at the single-cell level and examine cell morphology and quantify cell resuscitation. Using the classic starvation conditions to create VBNC cells, we found that the majority of the remaining Escherichia coli population are spherical, have empty cytosol, and fail to resuscitate; however, some of the spherical cells resuscitate immediately (most probably those with dense cytosol)...
February 19, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457460/stressful-surfaces-cell-metabolism-on-a-poorly-adhesive-substrate
#6
Richard L Surmaitis, Carlos J Arias, Joseph B Schlenoff
The adhesion and proliferation of cells are exquisitely sensitive to the nature of the surface to which they attach. Aside from cell counting, cell "health" on surfaces is typically established by measuring the metabolic rate with dyes that participate in the metabolic pathway or using "live/dead" assays with combinations of membrane permeable/impermeable dyes. The binary information gleaned from these tests-whether cells are attached or not, and whether they are living or dead-provides an incomplete picture of cell health...
February 19, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456966/metabolic-profile-of-oral-squamous-carcinoma-cell-lines-relies-on-a-higher-demand-of-lipid-metabolism-in-metastatic-cells
#7
Ana Carolina B Sant'Anna-Silva, Gilson C Santos, Samir P Costa Campos, André Marco Oliveira Gomes, Juan Alberto Pérez-Valencia, Franklin David Rumjanek
Tumor cells are subjected to a broad range of selective pressures. As a result of the imposed stress, subpopulations of surviving cells exhibit individual biochemical phenotypes that reflect metabolic reprograming. The present work aimed at investigating metabolic parameters of cells displaying increasing degrees of metastatic potential. The metabolites present in cell extracts fraction of tongue fibroblasts and of cell lines derived from human tongue squamous cell carcinoma lineages displaying increasing metastatic potential (SCC9 ZsG, LN1 and LN2) were analyzed by1 H NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456586/dietary-canolol-protects-the-heart-against-the-deleterious-effects-induced-by-the-association-of-rapeseed-oil-vitamin-e-and-coenzyme-q10-in-the-context-of-a-high-fat-diet
#8
Thibault Leger, Isabelle Hininger-Favier, Frédéric Capel, Alain Geloen, Jean-Paul Rigaudière, Chrystèle Jouve, Elodie Pitois, Gaelle Pineau, Carole Vaysse, Jean-Michel Chardigny, Marie-Caroline Michalski, Corinne Malpuech-Brugère, Luc Demaison
Background: Obesity progressively leads to cardiac failure. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been shown to have cardio-protective effects in numerous pathological situations. It is not known whether rapeseed oil, which contains α-linolenic acid (ALA), has a similar protective effect. Omega-3 PUFAs are sensitive to attack by reactive oxygen species (ROS), and lipid peroxidation products could damage cardiac cells. We thus tested whether dietary refined rapeseed oil (RSO) associated with or without different antioxidants (vitamin E, coenzyme Q10 and canolol) is cardio-protective in a situation of abdominal obesity...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456553/silencing-of-iron-and-heme-related-genes-revealed-a-paramount-role-of-iron-in-the-physiology-of-the-hematophagous-vector-rhodnius-prolixus
#9
Ana B Walter-Nuno, Mabel L Taracena, Rafael D Mesquita, Pedro L Oliveira, Gabriela O Paiva-Silva
Iron is an essential element for most organisms However, free iron and heme, its complex with protoporphyrin IX, can be extremely cytotoxic, due to the production of reactive oxygen species, eventually leading to oxidative stress. Thus, eukaryotic cells control iron availability by regulating its transport, storage and excretion as well as the biosynthesis and degradation of heme. In the genome of Rhodnius prolixus , the vector of Chagas disease, we identified 36 genes related to iron and heme metabolism We performed a comprehensive analysis of these genes, including identification of homologous genes described in other insect genomes...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456548/gaba-shunt-in-durum-wheat
#10
REVIEW
Petronia Carillo
Plant responses to salinity are complex, especially when combined with other stresses, and involve many changes in gene expression and metabolic fluxes. Until now, plant stress studies have been mainly dealt only with a single stress approach. However, plants exposed to multiple stresses at the same time, a combinatorial approach reflecting real-world scenarios, show tailored responses completely different from the response to the individual stresses, due to the stress-related plasticity of plant genome and to specific metabolic modifications...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455524/multiwall-carbon-nanotubes-induce-more-pronounced-transcriptomic-responses-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pg201-than-graphene-exfoliated-boron-nitride-or-carbon-black
#11
Monika Mortimer, Naresh Devarajan, Dong Li, Patricia A Holden
Carbonaceous and boron nitride (BN) nanomaterials have similar applications and hydrophobic properties suggesting common release pathways and exposure to bacteria. While high nanomaterial concentrations can be bactericidal or growth-inhibitory, little is known regarding bacterial transcriptional responses to non-growth-inhibitory nanomaterial concentrations. Here, using one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-a clinically and environmentally important bacterial taxon-we analyzed the comparative transcriptomic response to carbonaceous or BN nanomaterials...
February 19, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455364/hyperirisinemia-is-independently-associated-with-subclinical-hypothyroidism-correlations-with-cardiometabolic-biomarkers-and-risk-factors
#12
Theodora Stratigou, Maria Dalamaga, Georgios Antonakos, Ioanna Marinou, Evaggelos Vogiatzakis, Gerasimos Socrates Christodoulatos, Irene Karampela, Athanasios G Papavassiliou
PURPOSE: Irisin, a newly discovered adipo-myokine, is implicated in the modulation of the adipose phenotype, increasing energy expenditure and ameliorating systemic metabolism. Our aim was to investigate circulating irisin in subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) and study its associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS: In a large case-control study, serum irisin, insulin resistance and lipid parameters, classic adipokines, inflammatory and hepatic biomarkers, and cardiovascular risk factors were determined in 120 consecutive patients with SH and 120 healthy controls matched on age, gender, and date of blood draw...
February 17, 2018: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455333/stress-response-factors-drive-regrowth-of-quiescent-cells
#13
REVIEW
Zheng Kuang, Hongkai Ji, Jef D Boeke
Quiescent cells exploit an array of transcription factors to activate stress response machinery and maintain survival under nutrient-limited conditions. Our recent findings reveal that these transcription factors also play an important role in the exit of quiescence and regrowth. By studying Saccharomyces cerevisiae under a continuous, nutrient-limited condition, we found that Msn2 and Msn4 function as master regulators of glycolytic genes in the quiescent-like phase. They control the timing of transition from quiescence to growth by regulating the accumulation rate of acetyl-CoA, a key metabolite that is downstream of glycolysis and drives growth...
February 17, 2018: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455124/combination-effects-of-airborne-particulate-matter-exposure-and-high-fat-diet-on-hepatic-fibrosis-through-regulating-the-ros-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-tgf%C3%AE-smads-axis-in-mice
#14
Shibin Ding, Lanlan Yu, Baijie An, Guofu Zhang, Pengxin Yu, Zhe Wang
BACKGROUND: Hepatic fibrosis, characterized by an excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix, is associated with toxic substance exposure, chronic infections, mechanical injury, airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) exposure and metabolic disease. This study aimed to investigate the effect and mechanism of long-term, real-world airborne particulate matter (PM) exposure on hepatic fibrosis and further explored whether combination treatment of PM exposure and high-fat diet (HFD) aggravate the adverse effects in mice...
February 14, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454997/regulatory-responses-of-hepatocytes-macrophages-and-vascular-endothelial-cells-to-magnesium-deficiency
#15
Mei Shigematsu, Shozo Tomonaga, Fumie Shimokawa, Masaru Murakami, Toru Imamura, Tohru Matsui, Masayuki Funaba
The liver is the organ that responds to nutritional disturbances including magnesium deficiency. The present study evaluated cellular responses to magnesium deficiency using model cells of the liver, namely, HepG2 cells as hepatocytes, RAW264.7 cells as Kupffer cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as vascular endothelial cells; we examined effects of culture with magnesium deficient medium on cell responses in individual types of cells as well as interactive responses among cells. Metabolomic analyses indicated that magnesium deficiency differentially affected the cellular content of metabolites among HepG2 cells, RAW264...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454986/nano-sized-tio-2-ntio-2-induces-metabolic-perturbations-in-physarum-polycephalum-macroplasmodium-to-counter-oxidative-stress-under-dark-conditions
#16
Zhi Zhang, Zhi Cheng Liang, Jian Hua Zhang, Sheng Li Tian, Jun Le Qu, Jiao Ning Tang, Shi De Liu
Nano-sized TiO2 (nTiO2 ) exerts an oxidative effect on cells upon exposure to solar or UV irradiation and ecotoxicity of the nTiO2 is an urgent concern. Little information is available regarding the effect of TiO2 on cells under dark conditions. Metabolomics is a unique approach to the discovery of biomarkers of nTiO2 cytotoxicity, and leads to the identification of perturbed metabolic pathways and the mechanism underlying nTiO2 toxicity. In the present study, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS)-based metabolomics was performed to investigate the effect of nTiO2 on sensitive cells (P...
February 15, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454967/sarm1-deletion-restrains-nafld-induced-by-high-fat-diet-hfd-through-reducing-inflammation-oxidative-stress-and-lipid-accumulation
#17
Zhen-Guo Pan, Xu-Sheng An
SARM1 (Sterile alpha and armadillo motif-containing protein 1) is the recently identified TIR domain-containing cytosolic protein, which is involved in toll-like receptors (TLRs) signaling transduction. In the present study, the role of SARM1 in high fat diet (HFD)-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) progression was explored. We found that SARM1 was expressed highly in fatty liver. And SARM1-knockout (KO) reduced steatohepatitis and metabolic disorders induced by HFD. SARM1-deletion decreased aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in HFD-fed mice...
February 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453923/magnesium-upregulates-insulin-receptor-and-glucose-transporter-4-in-streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced-type-2-diabetic-rats
#18
Ayodele Olufemi Morakinyo, Titilola Aderonke Samuel, Daniel Abiodun Adekunbi
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of magnesium supplementation on glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, oxidative stress as well as the concentration of insulin receptor and glucose transporter-4 in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type-2 diabetic (T2D) rats. METHODS: Rats were divided into four groups designated as: 1) control (CTR); 2) diabetic untreated (DU); 3) diabetic treated with 1 mg of Mg/kg diet (Mg1-D); and 4) diabetic treated with 2 mg of Mg/kg diet (Mg2-D)...
January 1, 2018: Endocrine Regulations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453877/significance-of-mitochondria-on-cardiometabolic-syndromes
#19
REVIEW
Nair Anupama, G Sindhu, K G Raghu
Metabolic syndromes (MS) are a cluster of disorders like obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. Cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS), a branch of MS, is a group of diseases affecting cardiovascular, renal, metabolic, prothrombotic and inflammatory abnormalities due to defects in energy metabolism. Since the emergence of molecular biology and the discovery of pathogenic mitochondrial DNA defect in the 1980s, research advances has revealed a number of common human disease involving mitochondrial dysfunction...
February 17, 2018: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453534/nanoparticles-caused-oxidative-imbalance
#20
Mariusz Zuberek, Agnieszka Grzelak
Application of nanomaterials in nearly every single branch of industry results in their accumulation in both abiotic environment and tissues of living organisms. Despite the common use of nanomaterials, we are not able to precisely define their toxicity towards humans and surrounding biota. Although we were able to determine final effects of chronic exposure to nanoparticles which consist of many pathologies such as respiratory diseases, allergies, diseases of cardiovascular system, disorders in embryonic life differentiation and growth disorders, toxic effects on the immune system and cancers...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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