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Rui Diogo, Peter Johnston, Julia L Molnar, Borja Esteve-Altava
Previous accounts of the origin of tetrapod limbs have postulated a relatively sudden change, after the split between extant lobe-finned fish and tetrapods, from a very simple fin phenotype with only two muscles to the highly complex tetrapod condition. The evolutionary changes that led to the muscular anatomy of tetrapod limbs have therefore remained relatively unexplored. We performed dissections, histological sections, and MRI scans of the closest living relatives of tetrapods: coelacanths and lungfish. Combined with previous comparative, developmental and paleontological information, our findings suggest that the characteristic tetrapod musculoskeletal limb phenotype was already present in the Silurian last common ancestor of extant sarcopterygians, with the exception of the autopod (hand/foot) structures, which have no clear correspondence with fish structures...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
Gisèle Bonne, Guilhem Solé
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Médecine Sciences: M/S
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Acta Myologica: Myopathies and Cardiomyopathies: Official Journal of the Mediterranean Society of Myology
Samuel Ginot, Lionel Hautier, Laurent Marivaux, Monique Vianey-Liaud
Studies linking postcranial morphology with locomotion in mammals are common. However, such studies are mostly restricted to caviomorphs in rodents. We present here data from various families, belonging to the three main groups of rodents (Sciuroidea, Myodonta, and Ctenohystrica). The aim of this study is to define morphological indicators for the astragalus and calcaneus, which allow for inferences to be made about the locomotor behaviours in rodents. Several specimens were dissected and described to bridge the myology of the leg with the morphology of the bones of interest...
2016: PeerJ
Salvatore D'Arpa, Francesca Toia, Erich Brenner, Carlo Melloni, Francesco Moschella, Adriana Cordova
PURPOSE: The aims of this study are to investigate the variability of the morphological and neurovascular anatomy of the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle and to describe the relationships among its intramuscular partitions and with the other muscles of the quadriceps femoris. Clinical implications in its reliability as a flap donor are also discussed. METHODS: In 2012, the extra- and intramuscular neurovascular anatomy of the VL was investigated in 10 cadaveric lower limbs...
August 18, 2016: Acta Chirurgica Belgica
Kyle Joseph Edmunds, Magnus K Gíslason, Iris D Arnadottir, Andrea Marcante, Francesco Piccione, Paolo Gargiulo
Medical imaging is of particular interest in the field of translational myology, as extant literature describes the utilization of a wide variety of techniques to non-invasively recapitulate and quantity various internal and external tissue morphologies. In the clinical context, medical imaging remains a vital tool for diagnostics and investigative assessment. This review outlines the results from several investigations on the use of computed tomography (CT) and image analysis techniques to assess muscle conditions and degenerative process due to aging or pathological conditions...
June 13, 2016: European Journal of Translational Myology
James A Vanegas-Ríos
Gephyrocharax currently comprises 13 valid species distributed in the Cis- and Trans-Andean basins of the Neotropical region. The genus has not been reviewed in more than 80 years, and thus, the older species descriptions are poorly detailed, based on small samples of specimens, and supported by uninformative diagnoses. The present review is based on external morphology and morphometric, meristic, osteological, and myological data. Counts and measurements were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate statistical procedures implemented in PAST and SigmaPlot...
2016: Zootaxa
Rui Diogo, Gaelle Bello-Hellegouarch, Tiana Kohlsdorf, Borja Esteve-Altava, Julia L Molnar
Opossums are frequent subjects of developmental studies because marsupials share developmental features not seen in placentals and because Didelphimorpha is the sister-group of other extant Marsupialia. But is the adult marsupial muscular system markedly different from that of placentals or is it, like the skeletal system, very similar? We provide, for the first time, a brief description of all head and limb muscles of Didelphis virginiana based on our dissections and using a unifying nomenclature by integrating the data gathered in our long-term project on the development, homologies, and evolution of the muscles of all major vertebrate taxa...
September 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Kyle J Edmunds, Paolo Gargiulo
The fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine utilize implantable biomaterials and engineered tissues to regenerate damaged cells or replace lost tissues. There are distinct challenges in all facets of this research, but functional assessments and monitoring of such complex environments as muscle tissues present the current strategic priority. Many extant methods for addressing these questions result in the destruction or alteration of tissues or cell populations under investigation. Modern advances in non-invasive imaging modalities present opportunities to rethink some of the anachronistic methods, however, their standard employment may not be optimal when considering advancements in myology...
March 11, 2015: European Journal of Translational Myology
M C Mosto
This work is the first myological dissection performed in detail on the hindlimb of Tyto alba. Six specimens were dissected and their muscle masses were obtained. T. alba has the classical myological pattern present in other species of Strigiformes, such as a well-developed m. flexor digitorum longus and the absence of the m. plantaris, flexor cruris lateralis and ambiens. Also, T. alba lacks the m. extensor propius digiti III, m. extensor propius digiti IV and m. lumbricalis, present in the Strigidae...
February 17, 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
César M García-Esponda, Adriana M Candela
The caviomorph species Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Cavioidea), or capybara, is the largest living rodent. This species is widely distributed, from northern South America to Uruguay and eastern Argentina, inhabiting in a wide variety of densely vegetated lowlands habitats in the proximity of water. Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris not only runs with agility, like other members of the Cavioidea, but it can also swim and dive easily. For these reasons, it has been classified as a cursorial as well as semiaquatic species...
March 2016: Journal of Morphology
Edwige Biard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: Médecine Sciences: M/S
J Andoni Urtizberea, Hanns Lochmuller, Ivailo Tournev
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Guillermo Navalón, Jesús Marugán-Lobón, Luis M Chiappe, José Luis Sanz, Ángela D Buscalioni
Despite a wealth of fossils of Mesozoic birds revealing evidence of plumage and other soft-tissue structures, the epidermal and dermal anatomy of their wing's patagia remain largely unknown. We describe a distal forelimb of an enantiornithine bird from the Lower Cretaceous limestones of Las Hoyas, Spain, which reveals the overall morphology of the integument of the wing and other connective structures associated with the insertion of flight feathers. The integumentary anatomy, and myological and arthrological organization of the new fossil is remarkably similar to that of modern birds, in which a system of small muscles, tendons and ligaments attaches to the follicles of the remigial feathers and maintains the functional integrity of the wing during flight...
2015: Scientific Reports
Alejandro Blanco, Josep Fortuny, Alba Vicente, Àngel H Luján, Jordi Alexis García-Marçà, Albert G Sellés
Background. The Late Cretaceous is a keystone period to understand the origin and early radiation of Crocodylia, the group containing all extant lineages of crocodilians. Among the taxa described from the latest Cretaceous of Europe, the genus Allodaposuchus is one of the most common but also one of the most controversial. However, because of its fragmentary record, several issues regarding its phylogenetic emplacement and its ecology remain unsolved or unknown. The discovery of a single specimen attributed to Allodaposuchus, represented by both cranial and postcranial remains, from the Casa Fabà site (Tremp Basin, NE Spain) in the lower red unit of the Tremp Fm...
2015: PeerJ
Benjamin Gallais, Michèle Montreuil, Marcela Gargiulo, Bruno Eymard, Cynthia Gagnon, Luc Laberge
BACKGROUND: Apathy in DM1 has long been acknowledged in clinical practice. However, a major drawback is that the concept has been only sparsely explored in previous specific studies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of apathy in myotonic dystrophy (DM1), to compare it with facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) patients and normal healthy controls, and explore its relationship to psychopathological features and cognitive function. METHODS: Levels of apathy in 38 DM1 patients with adult phenotypes were compared with 19 patients with FSHD and 20 matched controls...
2015: BMC Neurology
Virginia Abdala, Mariana B Grizante, Rui Diogo, Julia Molnar, Tiana Kohlsdorf
Muscles, bones, and tendons in the adult tetrapod limb are intimately integrated, both spatially and functionally. However, muscle and bone evolution do not always occur hand in hand. We asked, how does the loss of limb bones affect limb muscle anatomy, and do these effects vary among different lineages? To answer these questions, we compared limb muscular and skeletal anatomy among gymnophthalmid lizards, which exhibit a remarkable variation in limb morphology and different grades of digit and limb reduction...
November 2015: Journal of Morphology
Mark L L M Boumans, Markus Krings, Hermann Wagner
Owls have the largest head rotation capability amongst vertebrates. Anatomical knowledge of the cervical region is needed to understand the mechanics of these extreme head movements. While data on the morphology of the cervical vertebrae of the barn owl have been provided, this study is aimed to provide an extensive description of the muscle arrangement and the attachment sites of the muscles on the owl's head-neck region. The major cervical muscles were identified by gross dissection of cadavers of the American barn owl (Tyto furcata pratincola), and their origin, courses, and insertion were traced...
2015: PloS One
R J Brinkman, J J Hage
UNLABELLED: Andreas Vesalius (1515-1564) was the first to market an illustrated text on the freshly dissected muscular anatomy of the human hand and forearm when he published his De Fabrica Corporis Humani Libri Septem, in 1543. To commemorate his 500th birthday, we searched the second of seven books composing De Fabrica, the annotated woodcut illustrations of De Fabrica, the Tabulae Sex, and Epitome, and an eyewitness report of a public dissection by Vesalius for references to the morphology and functions of these muscles...
November 2015: Journal of Hand Surgery, European Volume
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2015: Acta Myologica: Myopathies and Cardiomyopathies: Official Journal of the Mediterranean Society of Myology
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