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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893024/the-panniculus-carnosus-muscle-an-evolutionary-enigma-at-the-intersection-of-distinct-research-fields
#1
REVIEW
Neia Naldaiz-Gastesi, Ola A Bahri, Adolfo López de Munain, Karl J A McCullagh, Ander Izeta
The panniculus carnosus is a thin striated muscular layer intimately attached to the skin and fascia of most mammals, where it provides skin twitching and contraction functions. In humans, the panniculus carnosus is conserved at sparse anatomical locations with high interindividual variability, and it is considered of no functional significance (most possibly being a remnant of evolution). Diverse research fields (such as anatomy, dermatology, myology, neuroscience, surgery, veterinary science) use this unique muscle as a model, but several unknowns and misconceptions remain in the literature...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884998/are-there-general-laws-for-digit-evolution-in-squamates-the-loss-and-re-evolution-of-digits-in-a-clade-of-fossorial-lizards-brachymeles-scincinae
#2
Günter P Wagner, Oliver W Griffith, Philip J Bergmann, Gaelle Bello-Hellegouarch, Tiana Kohlsdorf, Anjan Bhullar, Cameron D Siler
Evolutionary simplification of autopodial structures is a major theme in studies of body-form evolution. Previous studies on amniotes have supported Morse's law, that is, that the first digit reduced is Digit I, followed by Digit V. Furthermore, the question of reversibility for evolutionary digit loss and its implications for "Dollo's law" remains controversial. Here, we provide an analysis of limb and digit evolution for the skink genus Brachymeles. Employing phylogenetic, morphological, osteological, and myological data, we (a) test the hypothesis that digits have re-evolved, (b) describe patterns of morphological evolution, and (c) investigate whether patterns of digit loss are generalizable across taxa...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686824/from-ejtm-european-journal-of-translational-myology-to-ejt3m-european-journal-of-translational-myology-mobility-medicine
#3
Sergio Adamo
This first 2018 Issue of the European Journal of Translational Myology presents many novelties, that are demonstrating that the journal is vital and expanding its authorship, readership and relevance from focused fields of biology, physiology, diagnostic, management and rehabilitation of skeletal muscle tissue to the more interesting and clinical relevant fields of human mobility up to those of general medicine. The Editorial Board is consequently expanded to allow fair and expert evaluation of more broadly interests and expertise of the Authors submitting typescripts...
January 12, 2018: European Journal of Translational Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686822/exciting-perspectives-for-translational-myology-in-the-abstracts-of-the-2018spring-paduamuscledays-giovanni-salviati-memorial-chapter-i-foreword
#4
Ugo Carraro
Myologists working in Padua (Italy) were able to continue a half-century tradition of studies of skeletal muscles, that started with a research on fever, specifically if and how skeletal muscle contribute to it by burning bacterial toxin. Beside main publications in high-impact-factor journals by Padua myologists, I hope to convince readers (and myself) of the relevance of the editing Basic and Applied Myology (BAM), retitled from 2010 European Journal of Translational Myology (EJTM), of the institution of the Interdepartmental Research Center of Myology of the University of Padova (CIR-Myo), and of a long series of International Conferences organized in Euganei Hills and Padova, that is, the PaduaMuscleDays...
January 12, 2018: European Journal of Translational Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484639/quantitative-axial-myology-in-two-constricting-snakes-lampropeltis-holbrooki-and-pantherophis-obsoletus
#5
David A Penning
A snake's body represents an extreme degree of elongation with immense muscle complexity. Snakes have approximately 25 different muscles on each side of the body at each vertebra. These muscles serially repeat, overlap, interconnect, and rarely insert parallel to the vertebral column. The angled muscles mean that simple measurements of anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA, perpendicular to the long-axis of the body) serve only as proxies for the primary determinant of muscle force, physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA, area perpendicular to the muscle fibers)...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338383/the-process-of-engraftment-of-myogenic-cells-in-skeletal-muscles-of-primates-understanding-clinical-observations-and-setting-directions-in-cell-transplantation-research
#6
Daniel Skuk, Jacques P Tremblay
We studied in macaques the evolution of the intramuscular transplantation of muscle precursor cells between the time of administration and the time at which the graft is considered stable. Satellite cell-derived myoblasts labeled with ß-galactosidase were transplanted into 1 cm3 muscle regions following cell culture and transplantation protocols similar to our last clinical trials. These regions were biopsied 1 h, 1, 3, 7 d, and 3 wk later and analyzed by histology. We observed that the cell suspension leaks from the muscle bundles during injection toward the epimysium and perimysium, where most cells accumulate after transplantation...
November 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329954/comparative-myology-of-the-ankle-of-leopardus-wiedii-and-l-geoffroyi-carnivora-felidae-functional-consistency-with-osteology-locomotor-habits-and-hunting-in-captivity
#7
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Miriam M Morales, S Rocío Moyano, Agustina M Ortiz, Marcos D Ercoli, Luis I Aguado, Sergio A Cardozo, Norberto P Giannini
Leopardus wiedii (margay) is the only arboreal Neotropical felid able to climb head-first down trees, due to its ability to rotate its tarsal joint 180°. A closely related, similar-sized species, L. geoffroyi (Geoffroy's cat) exhibits more typical terrestrial habits and lacks the arboreal capabilities of L. wiedii. There is osteological evidence that supports a mechanical specialization of L. wiedii's tarsal joint for inversion, but there have been no studies on the myology of this specialization. Based on comparative gross-anatomy dissections of zeugo- and autopodial muscles related to the ankle joint of one margay specimen and two Geoffroýs cats, we identified myological specializations of L...
February 2018: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237859/differences-between-hard-and-soft-phylogenetic-data
#8
Robert S Sansom, Matthew A Wills
When building the tree of life, variability of phylogenetic signal is often accounted for by partitioning gene sequences and testing for differences. The same considerations, however, are rarely applied to morphological data, potentially undermining its use in evolutionary contexts. Here, we apply partition heterogeneity tests to 59 animal datasets to demonstrate that significant differences exist between the phylogenetic signal conveyed by 'hard' and 'soft' characters (bones, teeth and shells versus myology, integument etc)...
December 20, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139385/-the-potential-of-artificial-intelligence-in-myology-a-viewpoint-from-a-non-robot
#9
Eytan Beckmann, Bruno Peyrou, Laure Gallay, Jean-Jacques Vignaux
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139381/-titin-related-muscle-disorders-an-expanding-spectrum
#10
Ana Ferreiro, J Andoni Urtizberea
Titin-related diseases of the skeletal and cardiac muscles open a new, fruitful chapter of myology. Confined for a long time to a limited number of clinical entities, the phenotypic spectrum of titinopthies is nowadays expanding rapidly together with the discovery of many pathogenic mutations of the TTN gene. Like for many genes of large size, the fine tuning and use of high-throughput sequencing (NGS) constitutes a little revolution in the field. This powerful tool allows, although with real technical hurdles, the establishment of the definite diagnosis of titinopathy...
November 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118960/from-the-padua-muscle-days-the-basic-and-applied-myology-and-the-european-journal-of-translational-myology-to-the-a-cm-carraro-foundation-for-translational-myology
#11
Ugo Carraro
As a young researched I had the option to work on skeletal muscle at the University of Padova, Italy. Introduced to the study of muscle denervation/reinnervation, I started a project on long term denervated muscle that still is my primary interest and took me from rodents' models of chronic muscle denervation to human spinal cord injury-related muscle denervation and its managements. On the way, I organized a series of conferences in Euganei Hills, Padua, Italy and an international journal, the Basic and Applied Myology...
June 27, 2017: European Journal of Translational Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098684/comparative-hindlimb-myology-of-foot-propelled-swimming-birds
#12
Glenna T Clifton, Jennifer A Carr, Andrew A Biewener
Several groups of birds have convergently evolved the ability to swim using their feet despite facing trade-offs with walking. However, swimming relative to terrestrial performance varies across these groups. Highly specialized divers, such as loons and grebes, excel at swimming underwater but struggle to stand on land, whereas species that primarily swim on the water surface, such as Mallards, retain the ability to move terrestrially. The identification of skeletal features associated with a swimming style and conserved across independent groups suggests that the hindlimb of foot-propelled swimming birds has adapted to suit the physical challenges of producing propulsive forces underwater...
January 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762500/myology-of-the-forelimb-of-majungasaurus-crenatissimus-theropoda-abelisauridae-and-the-morphological-consequences-of-extreme-limb-reduction
#13
Sara H Burch
Forelimb reduction occurred independently in multiple lineages of theropod dinosaurs. Although tyrannosaurs are renowned for their tiny, two-fingered forelimbs, the degree of their reduction in length is surpassed by abelisaurids, which possess an unusual morphology distinct from that of other theropods. The forelimbs of abelisaurids are short but robust and exhibit numerous crests, tubercles, and scars that allow for inferences of muscle attachment sites. Phylogenetically based reconstructions of the musculature were used in combination with close examination of the osteology in the Malagasy abelisaurid Majungasaurus to create detailed muscle maps of the forelimbs, and patterns of the muscular and bony morphology were compared with those of extant tetrapods with reduced or vestigial limbs...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753203/management-of-neuromuscular-diseases-and-spinal-muscular-atrophy-in-latin-america
#14
REVIEW
S Monges, A L Rosa
Latin America (LA) has a population of ~645 million people distributed over 33 countries with marked political, cultural and economic differences. In LA, patients with inherited neuromuscular diseases (NMDs) often do not have access to specialized medical centers and many of them go undiagnosed. General management and care of spinal muscular dystrophy (SMA) patients in the region varies due to heterogeneous health care. An active generation of young clinical neurologists is being trained for the specialized care of SMA and other neuromuscular (NM) patients, both in the private and public sectors...
September 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713538/2017spring-paduamuscledays-roots-and-byproducts
#15
EDITORIAL
Ugo Carraro
The second 2017 issue of EJTM volume 27 contains the collection of abstracts from the 2017Spring PaduaMuscleDays conference, that was held March 23-25 in Montegrotto, Euganei Hills, Padova, Italy. In addition to a brief history of the Padova Myology Meetings held during the last 30 years, the present and the future of the PaduaMuscleDays conference are discussed with special reference to new media and the options they offer to spread to a larger audience the results of the many workshops held in the Hotel Augustus conference hall and in the Aula Guariento of the Accademia Galileiana di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, one of the hidden treasures of the medioeval Padua, Italy...
June 24, 2017: European Journal of Translational Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610171/phylogenetic-relationships-and-morphology-of-the-i-pristimantis-leptolophus-i-species-group-amphibia-anura-brachycephaloidea-with-the-recognition-of-a-new-species-group-in-i-pristimantis-i-jim%C3%A3-nez-de-la-espada-1870
#16
Gustavo A González-Durán, Mariane Targino, Marco Rada, Taran Grant
We evaluate the monophyly and phylogenetic relationships of the Pristimantis leptolophus species group and describe its external morphology, osteology, and some myological characteristics. We also compare the P. leptolophus species group to other related species groups. The P. leptolophus group is not monophyletic due to the inclusion of P. acatallelus, formerly believed to be part of the P. devillei group. The revised P. leptolophus group is composed of nine named species and six unnamed species. Based on our results, we recognize a new species group, the P...
March 13, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591339/oral-motor-and-electromyographic-characterization-of-adults-with-facial-fractures-a-comparison-between-different-fracture-severities
#17
Amanda Pagliotto da Silva, Fernanda Chiarion Sassi, Endrigo Bastos, Nivaldo Alonso, Claudia Regina Furquim de Andrade
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the oral motor system of adults with facial injuries and to compare the oral motor performance/function between two different groups. METHODS: An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 38 patients presenting with facial trauma who were assigned to the Division of Orofacial Myology of a Brazilian School Hospital. Patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 (G1) consisted of 19 patients who were submitted to open reduction of at least one facial fracture, and Group 2 (G2) consisted of 19 individuals who were submitted to closed fracture reduction with maxillomandibular fixation...
May 2017: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573152/cell-therapy-in-myology-dynamics-of-muscle-precursor-cell-death-after-intramuscular-administration-in-non-human-primates
#18
Daniel Skuk, Jacques P Tremblay
Cell therapy could be useful for the treatment of myopathies. A problem observed in mice, with different results and interpretations, is a significant death among the transplanted cells. We analyzed this problem in non-human primates, the animal model more similar to humans. Autologous or allogeneic myoblasts (with or without a reporter gene) were proliferated in vitro, labeled with [(14)C]thymidine, and intramuscularly injected in macaques. Some monkeys were immunosuppressed for long-term follow-up. Cell-grafted regions were biopsied at different intervals and analyzed by radiolabel quantification and histology...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533965/reappraisal-of-the-extinct-seal-phoca-vitulinoides-from-the-neogene-of-the-north-sea-basin-with-bearing-on-its-geological-age-phylogenetic-affinities-and-locomotion
#19
Leonard Dewaele, Eli Amson, Olivier Lambert, Stephen Louwye
BACKGROUND: Discovered on the southern margin of the North Sea Basin, "Phoca" vitulinoides represents one of the best-known extinct species of Phocidae. However, little attention has been given to the species ever since its original 19th century description. Newly discovered material, including the most complete specimen of fossil Phocidae from the North Sea Basin, prompted the redescription of the species. Also, the type material of "Phoca" vitulinoides is lost. METHODS: "Phoca" vitulinoides is redescribed...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524458/forelimb-myology-of-carnivorous-marsupials-marsupialia-dasyuridae-implications-for-the-ancestral-body-plan-of-the-australidelphia
#20
Natalie M Warburton, Charlie-Rose Marchal
Carnivorous marsupials of the family Dasyuridae represent a more generalized anatomical condition of both craniodental and postcranial features in comparison to other groups of Australidelphian marsupials. Plesiomorphic characters include polyprotodont dentition, didactylous (rather than syndactylous) pedal morphology, the retention of clavicles and epipubic bones, and an unossified patelloid. In light of the anatomy of the postcranial skeleton, we hypothesized that the muscular anatomy of the Dasyuridae would likely display a range of plesiomorphic traits...
May 19, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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