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Antonello A Barresi, Valeria Rasetto, Daniele L Marchisio
This manuscript shows how computational models, mainly based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), can be used to simulate different parts of an industrial freeze-drying equipment and to properly design them; in particular, the freeze-dryer chamber and the duct connecting the chamber with the condenser, with the valves and vanes eventually present are analysed in this work. In Part 1, it will be shown how CFD can be employed to improve specific designs, to perform geometry optimization, to evaluate different design choices and how it is useful to evaluate the effect on product drying and batch variance...
May 15, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Phillip L Stephenson, Terry L Griswold, Michael S Arduser, Ashley P G Dowling, David G Krementz
Background: Here we present the results from a two-year bee survey conducted on 18 managed emergent wetlands in the lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley of Arkansas, USA. Sample methods included pan traps, sweep netting and blue-vane traps. We document 83 bee species and morphospecies in 5 families and 31 genera, of which 37 species represent first published state records for Arkansas. The majority of species were opportunistic wetland species; only a small number were wetland-dependent species or species largely restricted to alluvial plains...
2018: Biodiversity Data Journal
Aaron A Heiss, Martin Kolisko, Fleming Ekelund, Matthew W Brown, Andrew J Roger, Alastair G B Simpson
Modern syntheses of eukaryote diversity assign almost all taxa to one of three groups: Amorphea, Diaphoretickes and Excavata (comprising Discoba and Metamonada). The most glaring exception is Malawimonadidae, a group of small heterotrophic flagellates that resemble Excavata by morphology, but branch with Amorphea in most phylogenomic analyses. However, just one malawimonad, Malawimonas jakobiformis , has been studied with both morphological and molecular-phylogenetic approaches, raising the spectre of interpretation errors and phylogenetic artefacts from low taxon sampling...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Jorge Doña, Heather Proctor, David Serrano, Kevin P Johnson, Arnika Oddy-van Oploo, Jose C Huguet-Tapia, Marina S Ascunce, Roger Jovani
Parasites and other symbionts are crucial components of ecosystems, regulating host populations and supporting food webs. However, most symbiont systems, especially those involving commensals and mutualists, are relatively poorly understood. In this study, we have investigated the nature of the symbiotic relationship between birds and their most abundant and diverse ectosymbionts: the vane-dwelling feather mites. For this purpose, we studied the diet of feather mites using two complementary methods. First, we used light microscopy to examine the gut contents of 1,300 individual feather mites representing 100 mite genera (18 families) from 190 bird species belonging to 72 families and 19 orders...
May 3, 2018: Molecular Ecology
K A Sheppard, D E Rival, J-B Caron
Anomalocaris canadensis, a soft-bodied stem-group arthropod from the Burgess Shale, is considered the largest predator of the Cambrian period. Thanks to a series of lateral flexible lobes along its dorso-ventrally compressed body, it is generally regarded as an efficient swimmer, well-adapted to its predatory lifestyle. Previous theoretical hydrodynamic simulations have suggested a possible optimum in swimming performance when the lateral lobes performed as a single undulatory lateral fin, comparable to the pectoral fins in skates and rays...
April 25, 2018: Integrative and Comparative Biology
A Gnoli, L de Arcangelis, F Giacco, E Lippiello, M Pica Ciamarra, A Puglisi, A Sarracino
We experimentally investigate the fluidization of a granular material subject to mechanical vibrations by monitoring the angular velocity of a vane suspended in the medium and driven by an external motor. On increasing the frequency, we observe a reentrant transition, as a jammed system first enters a fluidized state, where the vane rotates with high constant velocity, and then returns to a frictional state, where the vane velocity is much lower. While the fluidization frequency is material independent, the viscosity recovery frequency shows a clear dependence on the material that we rationalize by relating this frequency to the balance between dissipative and inertial forces in the system...
March 30, 2018: Physical Review Letters
George Vaniotis, Roni F Rayes, Shu Qi, Simon Milette, Ni Wang, Stephanie Perrino, France Bourdeau, Hanna Nyström, Yi He, Nathalie Lamarche-Vane, Pnina Brodt
Liver metastases remain a major cause of death from gastrointestinal tract cancers as well as from other malignancies such as breast and lung carcinomas and melanoma. Understanding the underlying biology is essential for the design of effective targeted therapies. We previously reported that collagen IV α1/α2 overexpression in non-metastatic lung carcinoma (M27colIV ) cells increased their metastatic ability, specifically to the liver and documented high collagen IV levels in surgical resections of liver metastases from diverse tumor types...
April 13, 2018: Oncogene
Francesco Simonetti, Isaak L Satow, Alex J Brath, Kaden C Wells, John Porter, Brian Hayes, Kenneth Davis
Recent advances in computational methods, materials science, and new manufacturing processes are resulting in an unprecedented design flexibility which is driving the geometrical complexity of the components found in modern structures and machines. For safety-critical components, the geometrical complexity poses a significant challenge to the sensitivity of the existing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods available for the detection of manufacturing defects or damage that develops while a component is in service...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Jiyu Wang, Wenbo Ding, Lun Pan, Changsheng Wu, Hua Yu, Lijun Yang, Ruijin Liao, Zhong Lin Wang
The development of internet of things (IoT) has brought new challenges to the corresponding distributed sensor systems. Self-powered sensors which can perceive and respond to environmental stimuli without an external power supply are highly desirable. In this paper, a self-powered wind sensor system based on an anemometer triboelectric nanogenerator (a-TENG, free-standing mode) and a wind vane triboelectric nanogenerator (v-TENG, single-electrode mode) is proposed for simultaneously detecting wind speed and direction...
March 29, 2018: ACS Nano
María Gabriela Muñoz-Cordero, Fernando López, Cristina García-Inclán, Alejandro López-Hernández, Sira Potes-Ares, Laura Fernández-Vañes, José Luis Llorente, Mario Hermsen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We have previously indicated that EGFR has a role in carcinogenesis in a subgroup of sinonasal squamous cell carcinomas (SNSCC). In addition, EGFR activates 2 of the most important intracellular signalling pathways: PI3K/pAKT/mTOR/pS6 and MAP pathway kinases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the involvement of the EGFR/PI3K/pAKT/mTOR/pS6 pathway and its relationship with clinical-pathological parameters and follow-up of sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma...
March 21, 2018: Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española
Ali Ben Djoudi Ouadda, Yi He, Viviane Calabrese, Hidetaka Ishii, Rony Chidiac, Jean-Philippe Gratton, Philippe P Roux, Nathalie Lamarche-Vane
Cdc42 GTPase-activating protein (CdGAP, also named ARHGAP31) is a negative regulator of the GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42. Associated with the rare developmental disorder Adams-Oliver Syndrome (AOS), CdGAP is critical for embryonic vascular development and VEGF-mediated angiogenesis. Moreover, CdGAP is an essential component in the synergistic interaction between TGFβ and ErbB-2 signaling pathways during breast cancer cell migration and invasion, and is a novel E-cadherin transcriptional co-repressor with Zeb2 in breast cancer...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Andrew M Tye, Jeremy Rushton, Christopher H Vane
Estuarine sediments can be a source of Phosphorus (P) to coastal waters, contributing to nutrient budgets and geochemical cycles. In this work, the concentration and speciation of P in 47 cores were examined from the inter-tidal mud flats of the tidal river Thames (~120km). Results of P concentration and speciation were combined with published data relating to known sediment dynamics and water chemistry (salinity) within the estuary to produce a conceptual model of sediment-P behaviour. Results demonstrated significant P desorption occurring after sediment passed through the Estuarine Turbidity Maximum and when the salinity of the river water exceeded ~6ppt...
February 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Jane A Mitchell, Nicholas S Kirkby
Eicosanoids represent a diverse family of lipid mediators with fundamental roles in physiology and disease. Within the eicosanoid superfamily are prostanoids, which are specifically derived from arachidonic acid by the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX). COX has two isoforms; COX-1 and COX-2. COX-2 is the therapeutic target for the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) class of pain medications. Of the prostanoids, prostacyclin, first discovered by Sir John Vane in 1976, remains amongst the best studied and retains an impressive pedigree as one of the fundamental cardiovascular protective pathways...
February 21, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Lisa Baumann Kreuziger, Mark S Slaughter, Kartik Sundareswaran, Alan E Mast
Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) thrombosis is a devastating complication that occurs in about 10% of patients despite anticoagulation and antiplatelet treatment. How the thrombus initiates and propagates is unknown. We pathologically and immunohistochemically examined 28 thrombi removed from 17 HeartMate II LVADs. Two groups of thrombi were found: those formed in the inlet/outlet and those on the rotor. The four thrombi found at the inlet (three inlet conduit and one inlet tube) and outlet (three at outlet elbow and one outlet graft) appeared similar and were composed of a loose meshwork of fibrin(ogen), von Willebrand factor, leukocytes, and aggregated platelets...
February 15, 2018: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
K A Sheppard, D E Rival
A bio-inspired, slotted delta wing was abstracted from a multi-vane propulsor geometry ubiquitous in nature, and analysed to investigate aerodynamic performance during acceleratory and steady-state motions. Evolutionary convergence of slotted geometries in nature suggests an aerodynamic benefit in manoeuvrability, as exemplified in the fins and wings of a broad range of extant and extinct swimmers and flyers, respectively. Through direct force measurements and stereoscopic particle image velocimetry, it was found that the abstracted, slotted geometry exhibited a region of steady-state lift and drag enhancement at angles of attack greater than 25° when compared to a reference profile based on a delta-wing plate...
April 4, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Lucy D Vanes, Elias Mouchlianitis, Tracy Collier, Bruno B Averbeck, Sukhi S Shergill
BACKGROUND: The significant proportion of schizophrenia patients refractory to treatment, primarily directed at the dopamine system, suggests that multiple mechanisms may underlie psychotic symptoms. Reinforcement learning tasks have been employed in schizophrenia to assess dopaminergic functioning and reward processing, but these have not directly compared groups of treatment-refractory and non-refractory patients. METHODS: In the current functional magnetic resonance imaging study, 21 patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS), 21 patients with non-treatment-resistant schizophrenia (NTR), and 24 healthy controls (HC) performed a probabilistic reinforcement learning task, utilizing emotionally valenced face stimuli which elicit a social bias toward happy faces...
February 14, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Stefano Zauli-Sajani, Sabrina Rovelli, Arianna Trentini, Dimitri Bacco, Stefano Marchesi, Fabiana Scotto, Claudia Zigola, Paolo Lauriola, Domenico Maria Cavallo, Vanes Poluzzi, Andrea Cattaneo, Otto Hänninen
A large number of studies have shown much higher health effects of particulate matter (PM) during the warm compared to the cold season. In this paper we present the results of an experimental study carried out in an unoccupied test apartment with the aim of understanding the reasons behind the seasonal variations of the health effects due to ambient PM2.5 exposure. Measurements included indoor and outdoor PM2.5 mass and chemical composition as well as particle size distribution of ultrafine particles. Monitoring campaigns were carried out during summer and winter following a ventilation protocol developed to replicate typical occupant behaviour according to a questionnaire-based survey...
June 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Xu Li, Chuanlei Yang, Yinyan Wang, Hechun Wang
To achieve a much more extensive intake air flow range of the diesel engine, a variable-geometry compressor (VGC) is introduced into a turbocharged diesel engine. However, due to the variable diffuser vane angle (DVA), the prediction for the performance of the VGC becomes more difficult than for a normal compressor. In the present study, a prediction model comprising an elliptical equation and a PLS (partial least-squares) model was proposed to predict the performance of the VGC. The speed lines of the pressure ratio map and the efficiency map were fitted with the elliptical equation, and the coefficients of the elliptical equation were introduced into the PLS model to build the polynomial relationship between the coefficients and the relative speed, the DVA...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Lucy D Vanes, Elias Mouchlianitis, Tobias C Wood, Sukhi S Shergill
Widespread white matter abnormalities have been reported in schizophrenia, a disorder frequently characterised as a dysconnection syndrome. White matter connectivity in schizophrenia has been predominantly investigated using diffusion weighted imaging, with reductions in fractional anisotropy throughout the brain often interpreted as an indicator of abnormal myelination. However, diffusion weighted imaging lacks specificity and as such a number of microstructural factors besides myelin may be contributing to these results...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Kenta Ishimoto
The motions of an unsteady circular-disk squirmer and a spherical squirmer have been investigated in the presence of a no-slip infinite wall and a background shear flow in order to clarify the similarities and differences between two- and three-dimensional motions. Despite the similar bifurcation structure of the dynamical system, the stability of the fixed points differs due to the Hamiltonian structure of the disk squirmer. Once the unsteady oscillating surface velocity profile is considered, the disk squirmer can behave in a chaotic manner and cease to be confined in a near-wall region...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
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