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Radiosensitizer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323576/tat-rasgap317-326-enhances-radiosensitivity-of-human-carcinoma-cell-lines-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-through-promotion-of-delayed-mitotic-cell-death
#1
Pelagia Tsoutsou, Alessandro Annibaldi, David Viertl, Jonathan Ollivier, Franz Buchegger, Marie-Catherine Vozenin, Jean Bourhis, Christian Widmann, Oscar Matzinger
The synthetic peptide TAT-RasGAP317-326 has been shown to potentiate the efficacy of anti-cancer drugs. In this study, we explored the action of TAT-RasGAP317-326 when combined with radiation by investigating its radiosensitizing activity in vitro and in vivo. To investigate the modulation of intrinsic radiosensitivity induced by TAT-RasGAP317-326, clonogenic assays were performed using four human cancer cell lines, HCT116 p53(+/+) (ATCC: CCL-247), HCT116 p53(-/-), PANC-1 (ATCC: CRL-1469) and HeLa (ATCC: CCL-2), as well as one nontumor cell line, HaCaT (CLS: 300493)...
March 21, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315964/biological-predictors-of-radiosensitivity-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#2
Mathias Fiedler, Florian Weber, Matthias G Hautmann, Frank Haubner, Torsten E Reichert, Christoph Klingelhöffer, Stephan Schreml, Johannes K Meier, Arndt Hartmann, Tobias Ettl
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of prognostic biomarkers on radiosensitivity and survival of advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinomas treated by primary (chemo)radiation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The clinicopathological data and immunohistochemical staining of p16, c-Met, survivin, PD-1, and PD-L1 of 82 primarily (chemo)irradiated patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma were analyzed. Associations with local and locoregional radiation response, overall survival (OS), disease-free (DFS), and disease-specific survival (DSS) were assessed...
March 18, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314970/-is-surgical-treatment-ever-indicated-in-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma-and-if-so-based-on-which-scientific-rationale
#3
M Burger
BACKGROUND: Metastasis is a common event in renal cell carcinoma. Surgical resection of metastases may be feasible in two scenarios: aiming at palliation, which may be feasible due to reduced radiosensitivity of renal cell cancer, and aiming at prolonging survival, which may be feasible given the rather good prognosis of some patterns of metastasis. OBJECTIVE: This review intends to reflect on current evidence for surgical resection of metastases in both scenarios...
March 17, 2017: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300658/effect-of-particle-size-on-the-biodistribution-toxicity-and-efficacy-of-drug-loaded-polymeric-nanoparticles-in-chemoradiotherapy
#4
Joseph M Caster, Stephanie K Yu, Artish N Patel, Nicole J Newman, Zachary J Lee, Samuel B Warner, Kyle T Wagner, Kyle C Roche, Xi Tian, Yuanzeng Min, Andrew Z Wang
Nanoparticle (NP) therapeutics can improve the therapeutic index of chemoradiotherapy (CRT). However, the effect of NP physical properties, such particle size, on CRT is unknown. To address this, we examined the effects of NP size on biodistribution, efficacy and toxicity in CRT. PEG-PLGA NPs (50, 100, 150nm mean diameters) encapsulating wotrmannin (wtmn) or KU50019 were formulated. These NP formulations were potent radiosensitizers in vitro in HT29, SW480, and lovo rectal cancer lines. In vivo, the smallest particles avoided hepatic and splenic accumulation while more homogeneously penetrating tumor xenografts than larger particles...
March 11, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300555/inhibiting-dna-pkcs-radiosensitizes-human-osteosarcoma-cells
#5
Tewodros Mamo, Ann C Mladek, Kris L Shogren, Carl Gustafson, Shiv K Gupta, Scott M Riester, Avudaiappan Maran, Mario Galindo, Andre J van Wijnen, Jann N Sarkaria, Michael J Yaszemski
Osteosarcoma survival rate has not improved over the past three decades, and the debilitating side effects of the surgical treatment suggest the need for alternative local control approaches. Radiotherapy is largely ineffective in osteosarcoma, indicating a potential role for radiosensitizers. Blocking DNA repair, particularly by inhibiting the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKCS), is an attractive option for the radiosensitization of osteosarcoma. In this study, the expression of DNA-PKCS in osteosarcoma tissue specimens and cell lines was examined...
March 11, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300190/a-mechanistic-study-of-gold-nanoparticle-radiosensitisation-using-targeted-microbeam-irradiation
#6
Mihaela Ghita, Stephen J McMahon, Laura E Taggart, Karl T Butterworth, Giuseppe Schettino, Kevin M Prise
Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been demonstrated as effective radiosensitizing agents in a range of preclinical models using broad field sources of various energies. This study aimed to distinguish between these mechanisms by applying subcellular targeting using a soft X-ray microbeam in combination with GNPs. DNA damage and repair kinetics were determined following nuclear and cytoplasmic irradiation using a soft X-ray (carbon K-shell, 278 eV) microbeam in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer and AG01522 fibroblast cells with and without GNPs...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297449/mri-quantification-of-pancreas-motion-as-a-function-of-patient-setup-for-particle-therapy-a-preliminary-study
#7
Giulia Fontana, Marco Riboldi, Chiara Gianoli, Cezarina I Chirvase, Gaetano Villa, Chiara Paganelli, Paul E Summers, Barbara Tagaste, Andrea Pella, Piero Fossati, Mario Ciocca, Guido Baroni, Francesca Valvo, Roberto Orecchia
Particle therapy (PT) has shown positive therapeutic results in local control of locally advanced pancreatic lesions. PT effectiveness is highly influenced by target localization accuracy both in space, since the pancreas is located in proximity to radiosensitive vital organs, and in time as it is subject to substantial breathing-related motion. The purpose of this preliminary study was to quantify pancreas range of motion under typical PT treatment conditions. Three common immobilization devices (vacuum cushion, thermoplastic mask, and compressor belt) were evaluated on five male patients in prone and supine positions...
September 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291803/induction-of-hsp70-in-tumor-cells-treated-with-inhibitors-of-the-hsp90-activity-a-predictive-marker-and-promising-target-for-radiosensitization
#8
Vladimir A Kudryavtsev, Anna V Khokhlova, Vera A Mosina, Elena I Selivanova, Alexander E Kabakov
We studied a role of the inducible heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in cellular response to radiosensitizing treatments with inhibitors of the heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) chaperone activity. Cell lines derived from solid tumors of different origin were treated with the Hsp90 inhibitors (17AAG, geldanamycin, radicicol, NVP-AUY922) or/and γ-photon radiation. For comparison, human cells of the non-cancerous origin were subjected to the same treatments. We found that the Hsp90 inhibitors yielded considerable radiosensitization only when they cause early and pronounced Hsp70 induction; moreover, a magnitude of radiosensitization was positively correlated with the level of Hsp70 induction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291374/mln4924-and-2dg-combined-treatment-enhances-the-efficiency-of-radiotherapy-in-breast-cancer-cells
#9
Maryam Oladghaffari, Ali Shabestani Monfared, Alireza Farajollahi, Behzad Baradaran, Mohsen Mohammadi, Dariush Shanehbandi, Mohammad Asghari Jafar Abadi, Jalil Pirayesh Islamian
PURPOSE: Two-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) causes cytotoxicity in the cancer cells by disrupting the thiol metabolism, and MLN4924 inactivates the SCF E3 ligase and so causes the accumulation of its substrates which trigger apoptosis and hence might enhance the efficiency of radiotherapy and overcame on the radioresistance of the cancer cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SKBR3 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells were treated with 500 μM 2DG and/or MLN4924 (30, 100, 200 and 300 nM), and in combination in the presence and absence of 1, 1...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285936/enhancing-the-effect-of-4mev-electron-beam-using-gold-nanoparticles-in-breast-cancer-cells
#10
Somayeh Sadat Mehrnia, Bijan Hashemi, Seyed Javad Mowla, Azim Arbabi
Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been applied as radiosensitizer in radiotherapy. Limited reports have shown that GNPs may be effective as a dose enhancer agent for electron radiation therapy. Some Monte Carlo Simulation studies have shown that selecting suitable size of GNPs and electron energies are critical for effective dose enhancement. The aim of this study was to assess possible radiosensitization effect of GNPs on cancer cell treated with 4MeV electron beams. Approximately 10nm GNPs were synthesized and characterized by electron microscope and dynamic light scattering...
March 9, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284991/a-novel-multitarget-model-of-radiation-induced-cell-killing-based-on-the-gaussian-distribution
#11
Lei Zhao, Dong Mi, Yeqing Sun
The multitarget version of the traditional target theory based on the Poisson distribution is still used to describe the dose-survival curves of cells after ionizing radiation in radiobiology and radiotherapy. However, noting that the usual ionizing radiation damage is the result of two sequential stochastic processes, the probability distribution of the damage number per cell should follow a compound Poisson distribution, like e.g. Neyman's distribution of type A (N. A.). In consideration of that the Gaussian distribution can be considered as the approximation of the N...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284055/synthesis-of-a-rare-earth-doped-hafnia-hydrosol-towards-injectable-luminescent-nanocolloids
#12
Aleksandra D Furasova, Anna F Fakhardo, Valentin A Milichko, Elena Tervoort, Markus Niederberger, Vladimir V Vinogradov
A major obstacle in the introduction of luminescent nanoparticles (NPs) for medical applications is that quantum dots, the most widely studied luminescent materials, despite being biologically safe after coating with a bioshell, still contain a toxic core mostly consisting of semi-conductor NPs, which are not approved by regulatory agencies. Here we point to a potential solution of this problem by using rare-earth (RE) doped hafnia NPs. Hafnia is approved for medical injections as an effective means for the treatment of radiosensitive and radioresistant tumors and can significantly decrease potential toxicity of RE ions...
February 27, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283750/the-effects-of-simulating-a-realistic-eye-model-on-the-eye-dose-of-an-adult-male-undergoing-head-computed-tomography
#13
Parisa Akhlaghi, Atiyeh Ebrahimi-Khankook, Alireza Vejdani-Noghreiyan
In head computed tomography, radiation upon the eye lens (as an organ with high radiosensitivity) may cause lenticular opacity and cataracts. Therefore, quantitative dose assessment due to exposure of the eye lens and surrounding tissue is a matter of concern. For this purpose, an accurate eye model with realistic geometry and shape, in which different eye substructures are considered, is needed. To calculate the absorbed radiation dose of visual organs during head computed tomography scans, in this study, an existing sophisticated eye model was inserted at the related location in the head of the reference adult male phantom recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)...
March 10, 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283087/bisdemethoxycurcumin-enhances-x-ray-induced-apoptosis-possibly-through-p53-bcl-2-pathway
#14
Atsushi Enomoto, Junko Yamada, Akinori Morita, Kiyoshi Miyagawa
Bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC), which is isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa, has anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic activities. Here we found that BDMC enhanced X-ray-induced apoptosis in human T-cell leukemia MOLT-4 cells. Knockdown of p53 significantly attenuated the radiosensitizing effect of BDMC. However, BDMC did not enhance X-ray-mediated activation of the p53 signaling pathway via p53's transactivation or mitochondrial translocation. On the other hand, BDMC promoted the X-ray-induced dephosphorylation at Ser 70 in Bcl-2's flexible loop regulatory domain and Bcl-2 binding to p53...
March 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282799/celecoxib-erlotinib-combination-treatment-enhances-radiosensitivity-in-a549-human-lung-cancer-cell
#15
Jian Sun, Ning-Bo Liu, Hong-Qing Zhuang, Lun-Jun Zhao, Zhi-Yong Yuan, Ping Wang
BACKGROUND: Radiosensitivity by blocking the epidermal growth factor receptor and cyclooxygenase-2 pathways with erlotinib and celecoxib in A549 human lung cancer cell was investigated. METHODS: MTT assays were used to detect the antitumor effects of erlotinib and celecoxib in A549 cells. Colony formation assays were used to evaluate the antitumor effects. Flow cytometry analysis was used to assess the cell cycle and cell apoptosis, and western blotting analysis was performed to evaluate the expression of AKT and phosphorylated AKT...
March 3, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281972/a-randomized-controlled-open-label-pilot-study-of-simvastatin-addition-to-whole-brain-radiation-therapy-in-patients-with-brain-metastases
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Manal El-Hamamsy, Hesham Elwakil, Amr S Saad, May A Shawki
Statins have been reported to have a potential radiosensitizing effect that has not been evaluated in clinical trials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of simvastatin in addition to whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) in patients with brain metastases (BM). A prospective randomized, controlled, open-label pilot study was conducted on 50 Egyptian patients with BM who were randomly assigned to receive 30-Gy WBRT (control group: 25 patients) or 30 Gy WBRT + simvastatin 80 mg/day for the WBRT period (simvastatin group: 25 patients)...
October 27, 2016: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280724/integrating-biological-covariates-into-gene-expression-based-predictors-of-radiation-sensitivity
#17
Vidya P Kamath, Javier F Torres-Roca, Steven A Eschrich
The use of gene expression-based classifiers has resulted in a number of promising potential signatures of patient diagnosis, prognosis, and response to therapy. However, these approaches have also created difficulties in trying to use gene expression alone to predict a complex trait. A practical approach to this problem is to integrate existing biological knowledge with gene expression to build a composite predictor. We studied the problem of predicting radiation sensitivity within human cancer cell lines from gene expression...
2017: International Journal of Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276898/association-of-ribosomal-protein-s6-kinase-1-with-cellular-radiosensitivity-of-non-small-lung-cancer
#18
Ye Wang, Hong Mei, Qiang Shao, Jian Wang, Zhenyu Lin
PURPOSE: Ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) plays an important role in cell proliferation, protein translation and cell survival. This study investigated the possibility of using S6K1 as a new target in the radiotherapy of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its potential mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: shRNA interference technology was applied to silence the expression of S6K1 in A549 and H460, and clonogenic assay was performed to measure the radiosensitizing effects...
March 2, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275151/antagonism-of-egfr-and-notch-limits-resistance-to-egfr-inhibitors-and-radiation-by-decreasing-tumor-initiating-cell-frequency
#19
Shi Hu, Wenyan Fu, Tian Li, Qingning Yuan, Feifei Wang, Gaojian Lv, Yuanyuan Lv, Xiaoyan Fan, Yafeng Shen, Fangxing Lin, Ying Tang, Xuting Ye, Yongji Yang, Changhai Lei
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) blockade and radiation are efficacious in the treatment of cancer, but resistance is commonly reported. Studies have suggested that dysregulation of Notch signaling and enrichment of the cancer stem cell population underlie these treatment challenges. Our data show that dual targeting of EGFR and Notch2/3 receptors with antibody CT16 not only inhibited signaling mediated by these receptors but also showed a strong anti-stem cell effect both in vitro and in vivo. Treatment with CT16 prevented acquired resistance to EGFR inhibitors and radiation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line models and patient-derived xenograft tumors...
March 8, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274892/mir-875-5p-counteracts-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-and-enhances-radiation-response-in-prostate-cancer-through-repression-of-the-egfr-zeb1-axis
#20
Rihan El Bezawy, Denis Cominetti, Nicola Fenderico, Valentina Zuco, Giovanni Luca Beretta, Matteo Dugo, Noemi Arrighetti, Claudio Stucchi, Tiziana Rancati, Riccardo Valdagni, Nadia Zaffaroni, Paolo Gandellini
Radiotherapy is one of the main treatment choices for non-metastatic prostate cancer (PCa), although development of radioresistance limits its effectiveness. Mounting evidence supports the ability of microRNAs to interfere with different radioresistance-associated pathways, suggesting their potential as radiosensitizers. Here, we demonstrate that reconstitution of miR-875-5p, whose expression is down-regulated in PCa clinical samples and directly correlates with that of E-cadherin, was able to enhance radiation response in PCa cell lines and xenografts through EGFR direct targeting...
March 6, 2017: Cancer Letters
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