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Radiosensitizer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920690/adaptive-radiotherapy-for-an-uncommon-chloroma
#1
Soufya Majdoul, Laurianne Colson-Durand, Nu Hanh To, Yazid Belkacemi
Granulocytic sarcomas, also referred to as chloromas or myeloid sarcomas, are extramedullary neoplasms that are composed of immature myeloid cells. This uncommon disease is known to be radiosensitive. However, the total dose and dose per fraction are not standardized. In addition, during the course of radiation therapy, significant reduction of the tumor is usually obtained. Thus, target volume reduction may require an intermediate radiotherapy plan evaluation for an adaptive treatment. A second plan at mid-dose is highly recommended...
September 2016: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920524/monte-carlo-simulations-guided-by-imaging-to-predict-the-in-vitro-ranking-of-radiosensitizing-nanoparticles
#2
Paul Retif, Aurélie Reinhard, Héna Paquot, Valérie Jouan-Hureaux, Alicia Chateau, Lucie Sancey, Muriel Barberi-Heyob, Sophie Pinel, Thierry Bastogne
This article addresses the in silico-in vitro prediction issue of organometallic nanoparticles (NPs)-based radiosensitization enhancement. The goal was to carry out computational experiments to quickly identify efficient nanostructures and then to preferentially select the most promising ones for the subsequent in vivo studies. To this aim, this interdisciplinary article introduces a new theoretical Monte Carlo computational ranking method and tests it using 3 different organometallic NPs in terms of size and composition...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919342/individual-response-to-ionizing-radiation
#3
Nicolas Foray, Michel Bourguignon, Nobuyuki Hamada
The human response to ionizing radiation (IR) varies among individuals. The first evidence of the individual response to IR was reported in the beginning of the 20th century. Considering nearly one century of observations, we here propose three aspects of individual IR response: radiosensitivity for early or late adverse tissue events after radiotherapy on normal tissues (non-cancer effects attributable to cell death); radiosusceptibility for IR-induced cancers; and radiodegeneration for non-cancer effects that are often attributable to mechanisms other than cell death (e...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919341/human-epidermal-stem-cells-role-in-adverse-skin-reactions-and-carcinogenesis-from-radiation
#4
Michèle T Martin, Adeline Vulin, Jolyon H Hendry
In human skin, keratinopoiesis is based on a functional hierarchy among keratinocytes, with rare slow-cycling stem cells responsible for the long-term maintenance of the tissue through their self-renewal potential, and more differentiated daughter progenitor cells actively cycling to permit epidermal renewal and turn-over every month. Skin is a radio-responsive tissue, developing all types of radiation damage and pathologies, including early tissue reactions such as dysplasia and denudation in epidermis, and later fibrosis in the dermis and acanthosis in epidermis, with the TGF-beta 1 pathway as a known master switch...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919336/tissue-reactions-to-ionizing-radiation-oral-mucosa
#5
Sylvia Gruber, Wolfgang Dörr
Radiotherapy is one of the most effective treatment strategies for solid malignancies, including head-and-neck tumors (HNT). Oral mucositis is the most frequent, often dose-limiting early adverse event of radio(chemo)therapy for HNT. The oral mucosal response is - like that of typical turnover tissues - based on radiation-induced impairment of epithelial proliferation and cell production, in face of ongoing physiological cell differentiation and cell loss, consequently resulting in hypoplasia and eventually mucosal ulceration...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919335/cataractogenesis-following-high-let-radiation-exposure
#6
Nobuyuki Hamada, Tatsuhiko Sato
Biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation differs with its linear energy transfer (LET) such that high-LET radiation is more effective for various biological endpoints than low-LET radiation. Human exposure to high-LET radiation occurs in cancer patients, nuclear workers, aviators, astronauts and other space travellers. From the radiation protection viewpoint, the ocular lens is among the most radiosensitive tissues in the body, and cataract (a clouding of the normally transparent lens) is classified as tissue reactions (formerly called nonstochastic or deterministic effects) with a threshold below which no effect would occur...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919334/ionizing-radiation-induced-cataracts-recent-biological-and-mechanistic-developments-and-perspectives-for-future-research
#7
Elizabeth A Ainsbury, Stephen Barnard, Scott Bright, Claudia Dalke, Miguel Jarrin, Sarah Kunze, Rick Tanner, Joseph R Dynlacht, Roy A Quinlan, Jochen Graw, Munira Kadhim, Nobuyuki Hamada
The lens of the eye has long been considered as a radiosensitive tissue, but recent research has suggested that the radiosensitivity is even greater than previously thought. The 2012 recommendation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) to substantially reduce the annual occupational equivalent dose limit for the ocular lens has now been adopted in the European Union and is under consideration around the rest of the world. However, ICRP clearly states that the recommendations are chiefly based on epidemiological evidence because there are a very small number of studies that provide explicit biological, mechanistic evidence at doses <2Gy...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919278/microrna-19b-3p-regulates-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-radiosensitivity-by-targeting-tnfaip3-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-axis
#8
Teng Huang, Li Yin, Jing Wu, Jia-Jia Gu, Jian-Zhong Wu, Dan Chen, Hong-Liang Yu, Kai Ding, Nan Zhang, Ming-Yu Du, Lu-Xi Qian, Zhi-Wei Lu, Xia He
BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is among the most common squamous cell carcinoma in South China and Southeast Asia. Radiotherapy is the primary treatment for NPC. However, radioresistance acts as a significant factor that limits the efficacy of radiotherapy for NPC patients. Growing evidence supports that microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in radiation response. METHODS: Real-time quantitative PCR was used to analyze the expression of miR-19b-3p in NPC cell lines and NP69...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910734/targeting-the-akt-cyclin-d1-pathway-to-overcome-intrinsic-and-acquired-radioresistance-of-tumors-for-effective-radiotherapy
#9
Tsutomu Shimura
PURPOSE: Radiotherapy (RT) is a powerful tool in the treatment of cancer, having the advantage of preserving normal tissues. Clinical outcomes of RT are significantly improved by technological advances, enabling increased radiation doses directed very specifically to a tumor. However, tumor radioresistance remains a major impediment to effective RT. We have shown that human tumor cells surviving after repeated exposure to fractionated radiation (FR) of X-rays for 1 month have acquired radioresistance through constitutive activation of AKT and downstream cyclin D1 nuclear retention...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909463/synthetic-nanoparticles-for-delivery-of-radioisotopes-and-radiosensitizers-in-cancer-therapy
#10
REVIEW
Jun Zhao, Min Zhou, Chun Li
Radiotherapy has been, and will continue to be, a critical modality to treat cancer. Since the discovery of radiation-induced cytotoxicity in the late 19th century, both external and internal radiation sources have provided tremendous benefits to extend the life of cancer patients. Despite the dramatic improvement of radiation techniques, however, one challenge persists to limit the anti-tumor efficacy of radiotherapy, which is to maximize the deposited dose in tumor while sparing the rest of the healthy vital organs...
2016: Cancer Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908167/computer-aided-prognosis-for-cell-death-categorization-and-prediction-in-vivo-using-quantitative-ultrasound-and-machine-learning-techniques
#11
M J Gangeh, A Hashim, A Giles, L Sannachi, G J Czarnota
PURPOSE: At present, a one-size-fits-all approach is typically used for cancer therapy in patients. This is mainly because there is no current imaging-based clinical standard for the early assessment and monitoring of cancer treatment response. Here, the authors have developed, for the first time, a complete computer-aided-prognosis (CAP) system based on multiparametric quantitative ultrasound (QUS) spectroscopy methods in association with texture descriptors and advanced machine learning techniques...
December 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906620/the-radiosensitizing-effect-of-fluorocyclopentenyl-cytosine-rx-3117-in-ovarian-and-lung-cancer-cell-lines
#12
Dzjemma Sarkisjan, Jaap van den Berg, Evelyn Smit, Young B Lee, Deog J Kim, Godefridus J Peters
RX-3117 (fluorocyclopentenyl-cytosine) is a novel cytidine analog currently being evaluated in a Phase Ib clinical trial in cancer patients with solid tumors. The radiosensitizing effect of RX-3117 was studied in A2780 ovarian cancer cells and non-small cell lung cancer cell lines and related to cell survival and the effect on cell cycle and cell cycle proteins. RX-3117 has a schedule-dependent radiosensitizing effect, but only at pre-incubation (dose modifying factors: 1.4-1.8), observed at pulse and fractionated irradiation...
December 2016: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903980/identification-of-biomarker-micrornas-for-predicting-the-response-of-colorectal-cancer-to-neoadjuvant-chemoradiotherapy-based-on-microrna-regulatory-network
#13
Yaqun Zhu, Qiliang Peng, Yuxin Lin, Li Zou, Peipei Shen, Feifei Chen, Ming Min, Li Shen, Jiajia Chen, Bairong Shen
Preoperative radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy has become a standard procedure for treatment of patients with locally advanced colorectal cancer (CRC). However, patients' responses to treatment are different and personalized. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are promising biomarkers for predicting personalized responses. In this study, we collected 30 publicly reported miRNAs associated with chemoradiotherapy of CRC. We extracted 46 differentially expressed miRNAs from samples of responders and non-responders to preoperative radiotherapy from the Gene Expression Omnibus dataset (Student's t test, p-value < 0...
November 26, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903972/gdf15-contributes-to-radioresistance-and-cancer-stemness-of-head-and-neck-cancer-by-regulating-cellular-reactive-oxygen-species-via-a-smad-associated-signaling-pathway
#14
Yan-Liang Li, Joseph T Chang, Li-Yu Lee, Kang-Hsing Fan, Ya-Ching Lu, Yi-Chen Li, Chang-Hsu Chiang, Guo-Rung You, Hsin-Ying Chen, Ann-Joy Cheng
Radiotherapy is an integral part for the treatment of head and neck cancer (HNC), while radioresistance is a major cause leads to treatment failure. GDF15, a member of the TGF-β superfamily, is hypothesized to participate in various types of homeostasis. However, the potential role of this molecule in regulation of radiosensitivity remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that GDF15 contributed to radioresistance of HNC, as determined by both gain- and lost-of-functional experiments. These results were achieved by the induction of mitochondrial membrane potential and suppression of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
November 26, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903196/the-impact-of-cobalt-60-source-age-on-biologically-effective-dose-in-high-dose-functional-gamma-knife-radiosurgery
#15
Benjamin H Kann, James B Yu, John M Stahl, James E Bond, Christopher Loiselle, Veronica L Chiang, Ranjit S Bindra, Jason L Gerrard, David J Carlson
OBJECTIVE Functional Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) procedures have been increasingly used for treating patients with tremor, trigeminal neuralgia (TN), and refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder. Although its rates of toxicity are low, GKRS has been associated with some, if low, risks for serious sequelae, including hemiparesis and even death. Anecdotal reports have suggested that even with a standardized prescription dose, rates of functional GKRS toxicity increase after replacement of an old cobalt-60 source with a new source...
December 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903123/drug-priming-enhances-radiosensitivity-of-adamantinomatous-craniopharyngioma-via-downregulation-of-survivin
#16
Christina Stache, Christiane Bils, Rudolf Fahlbusch, Jörg Flitsch, Michael Buchfelder, Harald Stefanits, Thomas Czech, Udo Gaipl, Benjamin Frey, Rolf Buslei, Annett Hölsken
OBJECTIVE In this study, the authors investigated the underlying mechanisms responsible for high tumor recurrence rates of adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (ACP) after radiotherapy and developed new targeted treatment protocols to minimize recurrence. ACPs are characterized by the activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), known to mediate radioresistance in various tumor entities. The impact of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) gefitinib or CUDC-101 on radiation-induced cell death and associated regulation of survivin gene expression was evaluated...
December 2016: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902466/long-non-coding-rna-urothelial-carcinoma-associated-1-uca1-mediates-radiation-response-in-prostate-cancer
#17
Alireza Fotouhi Ghiam, Samira Taeb, Xiaoyong Huang, Vincent Huang, Jessica Ray, Seville Scarcello, Christianne Hoey, Sahar Jahangiri, Emmanouil Fokas, Andrew Loblaw, Robert G Bristow, Danny Vesprini, Paul Boutros, Stanley K Liu
Radioresistance remains a significant obstacle in the treatment of Prostate Cancer (PCa). To simulate the clinical scenario of irradiation resistance (IRR), we created DU145-IRR PCa cell lines by treatment with 2 Gy daily IR for 59 fractions. DU145-IRR cells acquired an aggressive phenotype as evidenced by increased clonogenic survival, tumorigenic potential and invasiveness. We performed transcriptome profiling to discover dysregulated genes in DU145-IRR cells and identified the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), Urothelial carcinoma-associated 1 (UCA1)...
November 24, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901292/differential-in-radiosensitizing-potency-of-enantiomers-of-the-fatty-acid-synthase-inhibitor-c75
#18
Colin Rae, John W Babich, Robert J Mairs
The elevated activity of fatty acid synthase has been reported in a number of cancer types. Inhibition of this enzyme has been demonstrated to induce cancer cell death and reduce tumor growth. In addition, the fatty acid synthase inhibitor drug C75 has been reported to synergistically enhance the cancer-killing ability of ionizing radiation. However, clinical use of C75 has been limited due to its producing weight loss, believed to be caused by alterations in the activity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1...
November 30, 2016: Chirality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900012/ubenimex-enhances-the-radiosensitivity-of-renal-cell-carcinoma-cells-by-inducing-autophagic-cell-death
#19
Shuai Liu, Xiaoqing Wang, Jiaju Lu, Liping Han, Yongfei Zhang, Zheng Liu, Sentai Ding, Zhao Liu, Dongbin Bi, Zhihong Niu
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is resistant to standard radiotherapy. Ubenimex, an aminopeptidase N inhibitor, is widely used as an adjunct therapy after surgery to enhance the function of immunocompetent cells and confer antitumor effects. Our previous study demonstrated that ubenimex induces autophagic cell death in RCC cells. Recently, the molecular mechanism of autophagy induction has been associated with radiosensitivity in RCC cells. In the present study, the ability of ubenimex to enhance RCC cell sensitivity to radiation via the induction of autophagic cell death was determined, and the mechanism of action of this effect was investigated...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899964/radiation-induces-the-generation-of-cancer-stem-cells-a-novel-mechanism-for-cancer-radioresistance
#20
Fengsheng Li, Kunming Zhou, Ling Gao, Bin Zhang, Wei Li, Weijuan Yan, Xiujun Song, Huijie Yu, Sinian Wang, Nan Yu, Qisheng Jiang
Radioresistance remains a major obstacle for the radiotherapy treatment of cancer. Previous studies have demonstrated that the radioresistance of cancer is due to the existence of intrinsic cancer stem cells (CSCs), which represent a small, but radioresistant cell subpopulation that exist in heterogeneous tumors. By contrast, non-stem cancer cells are considered to be radiosensitive and thus, easy to kill. However, recent studies have revealed that under conditions of radiation-induced stress, theoretically radiosensitive non-stem cancer cells may undergo dedifferentiation subsequently obtaining the phenotypes and functions of CSCs, including high resistance to radiotherapy, which indicates that radiation may directly result in the generation of novel CSCs from non-stem cancer cells...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
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