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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231577/response-evaluation-in-head-and-neck-oncology-definition-and-prediction
#1
T K Hoffmann, P J Schuler, S Laban, R Grässlin, M Beer, A J Beer, U Friebe-Hoffmann, L Bullinger, P Möller, T Wiegel
Curative treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma includes surgery and/or (chemo)radiation, whereas in the palliative setting, chemotherapy and/or immunotherapy represent(s) the standard approach. With regard to quality control, methods for determining treatment response are sorely needed. For surgical therapy, histopathology is the standard quality control. Established criteria for high-risk patients include resection margins of the primary tumor and extracapsular extension of lymph node metastases...
February 24, 2017: ORL; Journal for Oto-rhino-laryngology and its related Specialties
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230828/chromosomal-mutagenesis-in-human-somatic-cells-30-year-cytogenetic-monitoring-after-chornobyl-accident
#2
M A Pilinska, G M Shemetun, O V Shemetun, S S Dybsky, O B Dybska, O O Talan, L R Pedan, D А Kurinnyi
In the lecture we have generalized and analyzed the data of cytogenetic laboratory of National Research Center for Radiation Medicine of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine on 30-year selective cytogenetic monitoring among the priority contingents of different ages exposed to radiation after Chornobyl accident in Ukraine. It is highlighted that not only targeted but also untargeted radiation-induced cytogenetic effects should be explored, especially in delayed terms following radiation exposure...
December 2016: Experimental Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230825/molecular-markers-of-apoptosis-in-cancer-patients-exposed-to-ionizing-radiation-the-post-chornobyl-view
#3
A A Philchenkov, E K Balcer-Kubiczek
During the past three decades, the deleterious consequences of Chornobyl accident including carcinogenic effects in the people who were accidentally exposed to radiation have been intensively studied. In particular, recent studies provided increased knowledge of the molecular pathogenesis of thyroid tumors in children exposed to Chornobyl fallout. The risk of several forms of leukemia including myelodysplastic syndromes is elevated in Chornobyl liquidators. Furthermore, the upward trends of increases in a variety of other tumors including breast cancer, cancers of central nervous system and renal cancer have been reported in the persons exposed to Chornobyl fallout...
December 2016: Experimental Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230819/chornobyl-catastrophe-cytogenetic-effects-of-low-dose-ionizing-radiation-and-their-modification
#4
E A Domina
Among the long-term effects of the Chornobyl disaster the greatest concern of international medical and scientific community is given to the established fact of excess of the spontaneous level of cancer incidence in the exposed population. According to mo-dern concepts, the accumulation of chromosome aberrations, especially in radiosensitive cells, could be potentially oncogenic, and low doses of ionizing radiation could be promoters of the radiation-induced carcinogenesis. The results of our studies have shown that such substances as thymalin, inosine, ascorbic acid, caffeine could modify radiation-induced cytogenetic effects in peripheral blood lymphocytes of healthy individuals and exert protective or sensitizing action dependent on their concentrations, cell radiosensitivity, dose of irradiation, and relative biologic effectiveness of ionizing radiation...
December 2016: Experimental Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227205/low-frequency-ultrasound-radiosensitization-and-therapy-response-monitoring-of-tumors-an-in-vivo-study
#5
Ali Sadeghi-Naini, Martin Stanisz, Hadi Tadayyon, Jaswinder Taank, Gregory J Czarnota, Ali Sadeghi-Naini, Martin Stanisz, Hadi Tadayyon, Jaswinder Taank, Gregory J Czarnota, Jaswinder Taank, Hadi Tadayyon, Martin Stanisz, Ali Sadeghi-Naini, Gregory J Czarnota
A new framework has been introduced in this paper for tumor radiosensitization and therapy response monitoring using low-frequency ultrasound. Human fibrosarcoma xenografts grown in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice (n = 108) were treated using ultrasound-stimulated microbubbles at various concentration and exposed to different doses of radiation. Low-frequency ultrasound radiofrequency (RF) data were acquired from tumors prior to and at different times after treatment. Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) techniques were applied to generate spectral parametric maps of tumors...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226772/computational-analysis-of-androgen-receptor-dependent-radiosensitivity-in-prostate-cancer
#6
Mengdi Qian, Alexandru Almasan, Evren Gurkan-Cavusoglu, Mengdi Qian, Alexandru Almasan, Evren Gurkan-Cavusoglu, Mengdi Qian, Evren Gurkan-Cavusoglu, Alexandru Almasan
In this study, we quantitatively analyze the mechanism by which androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is enhancing radiosensitivity in prostate cancer (PCa) patients. It has been shown in laboratory experiments, as well as in patient data in the literature, that the androgen receptor (AR) reduces the effectiveness of ionizing radiation treatment by enhancing the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair of radiation damage. The suppression of AR by ADT suppresses the activity of NHEJ that leads to radiosensitivity in PCa patients...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225015/identification-of-protein-biomarkers-and-signaling-pathways-associated-with-prostate-cancer-radioresistance-using-label-free-lc-ms-ms-proteomic-approach
#7
Lei Chang, Jie Ni, Julia Beretov, Valerie C Wasinger, Jingli Hao, Joseph Bucci, David Malouf, David Gillatt, Peter H Graham, Yong Li
Identifying biomarkers and signaling pathways are important for the management of prostate cancer (CaP) radioresistance. In this study, we identified differential proteins and signaling pathways from parental CaP cell lines and CaP radioresistant (RR) sublines using a label-free LC-MS/MS proteomics approach. A total of 309 signaling pathway proteins were identified to be significantly altered between CaP and CaP-RR cells (p ≤ 0.05, fold differences >1.5, ≥80% power). Among these proteins, nineteen are common among three paired CaP cell lines and associated with metastasis, progression and radioresistance...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221700/multikinase-inhibitors-sorafenib-and-sunitinib-as-radiosensitizers-in-head-and-neck-cancer-cell-lines
#8
Annette Affolter, Gerson Samosny, Anne-Sophie Heimes, Johanna Schneider, Wilko Weichert, Albrecht Stenzinger, Katharina Sommer, Alexandra Jensen, Arnulf Mayer, Walburgis Brenner, Wolf J Mann, Jürgen Brieger
BACKGROUND: Radioresistance is a common feature of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). We previously showed that the irradiation- activated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-axis is fundamental for the survival of resistant tumors. In this study, we examined if treatment with potent multikinase (MK) inhibitors, sorafenib and sunitinib, could radiosensitize tumor cells. METHODS: Cultured HNSCC cell lines were treated with inhibitors and subsequently irradiated...
February 21, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218045/the-significance-of-trk-receptors-in-pancreatic-cancer
#9
Matthew D Johnson, Brandon Stone, Bryan J Thibodeau, Andrew M Baschnagel, Sandra Galoforo, Laura E Fortier, Billie Ketelsen, Samreen Ahmed, Zakiya Kelley, Alaa Hana, Thomas G Wilson, John M Robertson, Robert P Jury, George D Wilson
This study investigated the Trk receptor family as a therapeutic target in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and assessed their prognostic significance. Global gene expression analysis was investigated in prospectively collected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas that had either undergone neoadjuvant chemoradiation or were treated by surgery. PANC-1 and MIA-PaCa-2 cell lines were investigated to establish whether fractionated radiation altered expression of four neuroendocrine genes and whether this resulted in subsequent changes in radiosensitivity...
February 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217176/biological-mechanisms-of-gold-nanoparticle-radiosensitization
#10
REVIEW
Soraia Rosa, Chris Connolly, Giuseppe Schettino, Karl T Butterworth, Kevin M Prise
There has been growing interest in the use of nanomaterials for a range of biomedical applications over the last number of years. In particular, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) possess a number of unique properties that make them ideal candidates as radiosensitizers on the basis of their strong photoelectric absorption coefficient and ease of synthesis. However, despite promising preclinical evidence in vitro supported by a limited amount of in vivo experiments, along with advances in mechanistic understanding, GNPs have not yet translated into the clinic...
2017: Cancer Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216618/1-2-5-6-dianhydrogalactitol-inhibits-human-glioma-cell-growth-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-by-arresting-the-cell-cycle-at-g2-m-phase
#11
Chun Peng, Xin-Ming Qi, Ling-Ling Miao, Jin Ren
1,2:5,6-dianhydrogalactitol (DAG) is a hexitol epoxide with marked antitumor activity against multiple types of cancer cells, but the molecular mechanisms by which DAG functions as an antitumor agent is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of DAG on human glioma cell growth in vitro and in vivo and uncovered the underlying molecular mechanisms. Treatment with DAG (120 μmol/L) dose-dependently inhibited the proliferation and colony formation in human glioma cell lines LN229, U251, and U87MG in vitro...
February 20, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212561/the-tlr7-agonist-imiquimod-induces-anti-cancer-effects-via-autophagic-cell-death-and-enhances-anti-tumoral-and-systemic-immunity-during-radiotherapy-for-melanoma
#12
Jeong Hyun Cho, Hyo-Ji Lee, Hyun-Jeong Ko, Byung-Il Yoon, Jongseon Choe, Keun-Cheol Kim, Tae-Wook Hahn, Jeong A Han, Sun Shim Choi, Young Mee Jung, Kee-Ho Lee, Yun-Sil Lee, Yu-Jin Jung
Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands are strongly considered immune-adjuvants for cancer immunotherapy and have been shown to exert direct anti-cancer effects. This study was performed to evaluate the synergistic anti-cancer and anti-metastatic effects of the TLR7 agonist imiquimod (IMQ) during radiotherapy for melanoma. The pretreatment of B16F10 or B16F1 cells with IMQ combined with γ-ionizing radiation (IR) led to enhanced cell death via autophagy, as demonstrated by increased expression levels of autophagy-related genes, and an increased number of autophagosomes in both cell lines...
February 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209968/activating-akt1-mutations-alter-dna-double-strand-break-repair-and-radiosensitivity
#13
S Oeck, K Al-Refae, H Riffkin, G Wiel, R Handrick, D Klein, G Iliakis, V Jendrossek
The survival kinase Akt has clinical relevance to radioresistance. However, its contributions to the DNA damage response, DNA double strand break (DSB) repair and apoptosis remain poorly defined and often contradictory. We used a genetic approach to explore the consequences of genetic alterations of Akt1 for the cellular radiation response. While two activation-associated mutants with prominent nuclear access, the phospho-mimicking Akt1-TDSD and the clinically relevant PH-domain mutation Akt1-E17K, accelerated DSB repair and improved survival of irradiated Tramp-C1 murine prostate cancer cells and Akt1-knockout murine embryonic fibroblasts in vitro, the classical constitutively active membrane-targeted myrAkt1 mutant had the opposite effects...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209515/cell-type-specific-role-of-the-rna-binding-protein-nono-in-the-dna-double-strand-break-response-in-the-mouse-testes
#14
Shuyi Li, Feng-Jue Shu, Zhentian Li, Lahcen Jaafar, Shourong Zhao, William S Dynan
The tandem RNA recognition motif protein, NONO, was previously identified as a candidate DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair factor in a biochemical screen for proteins with end-joining stimulatory activity. Subsequent work showed that NONO and its binding partner, SFPQ, have many of the properties expected for bona fide repair factors in cell-based assays. Their contribution to the DNA damage response in intact tissue in vivo has not, however, been demonstrated. Here we compare DNA damage sensitivity in the testes of wild-type mice versus mice bearing a null allele of the NONO homologue (Nono (gt))...
February 10, 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208838/the-effect-of-metformin-and-gant61-combinations-on-the-radiosensitivity-of-prostate-cancer-cells
#15
Annelies Gonnissen, Sofie Isebaert, Chad M McKee, Ruth J Muschel, Karin Haustermans
The anti-diabetes drug metformin has been shown to have anti-neoplastic effects in several tumor models through its effects on energy metabolism and protein synthesis. Recent studies show that metformin also targets Hedgehog (Hh) signaling, a developmental pathway re-activated in several tumor types, including prostate cancer (PCa). Furthermore, we and others have shown that Hh signaling is an important target for radiosensitization. Here, we evaluated the combination of metformin and the Hh inhibitor GANT61 (GLI-ANTagonist 61) with or without ionizing radiation in three PCa cell lines (PC3, DU145, 22Rv1)...
February 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208747/multinucleated-giant-cancer-cells-produced-in-response-to-ionizing-radiation-retain-viability-and-replicate-their-genome
#16
Razmik Mirzayans, Bonnie Andrais, April Scott, Ying W Wang, Piyush Kumar, David Murray
Loss of wild-type p53 function is widely accepted to be permissive for the development of multinucleated giant cells. However, whether therapy-induced multinucleation is associated with cancer cell death or survival remains controversial. Herein, we demonstrate that exposure of p53-deficient or p21(WAF1) (p21)-deficient solid tumor-derived cell lines to ionizing radiation (between 2 and 8 Gy) results in the development of multinucleated giant cells that remain adherent to the culture dish for long times post-irradiation...
February 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202528/distinct-levels-of-radioresistance-in-lgr5-colonic-epithelial-stem-cells-versus-lgr5-small-intestinal-stem-cells
#17
Guoqiang Hua, Chu Wang, Yan Pan, Zhaoshi Zeng, Sang Gyu Lee, Maria Laura Martin, Adriana Haimovitz-Friedman, Zvi Fuks, Philip B Paty, Richard N Kolesnick
While small and large intestines possess seemingly similar Wnt-driven Leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5)+ adult epithelial stem cells, we report here that the two organs exhibit distinct mechanisms of tissue response to ionizing radiation. Employing Lgr5-lacZ transgenic mice and Lgr5 in situ hybridization, we found colonic epithelial stem cells (CESC) markedly more radioresistant in vivo than small intestinal crypt base columnar stem cells (CBC) (D0 6.0±0.3 Gy vs. 1.3±0.1, respectively; p0...
February 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195448/mitochondrion-anchoring-photosensitizer-with-aggregation-induced-emission-characteristics-synergistically-boosts-the-radiosensitivity-of-cancer-cells-to-ionizing-radiation
#18
Chris Y Y Yu, Huae Xu, Shenglu Ji, Ryan T K Kwok, Jacky W Y Lam, Xiaolin Li, Sunil Krishnan, Dan Ding, Ben Zhong Tang
The first mitochondrion-anchoring photosensitizer that specifically generates singlet oxygen ((1) O2 ) in mitochondria under white light irradiation that can serve as a highly effective radiosensitizer is reported here, significantly sensitizing cancer cells to ionizing radiation. An aggregation-induced emission luminogen (AIEgen), namely DPA-SCP, is rationally designed with α-cyanostilbene as a simple building block to reveal AIE, diphenylamino (DPA) group as a strong electron donating group to benefit red emission and efficient light-controlled (1) O2 generation, as well as a pyridinium salt as the targeting moiety to ensure specific mitochondrial localization...
February 13, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195253/diagnostic-role-of-detecting-hpv-in-a-fnac-of-metastatic-laterocervical-lymph-node-in-a-case-of-occult-hpv-related-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#19
A Ginori, F Scaramuzzino, M A G Munezero Butorano, A Barone, A Disanto
Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) are radiosensitive tumors and have a better prognosis than the conventional keratinizing HNSCC. Despite extensive radiographic and clinical evaluation in approximately 3% to 5% of patients who present with cervical lymph node metastases, the primary tumor remains occult. The lack of a clinically identifiable primary tumor usually leads to more aggressive therapy, which can result in higher morbidity. Herein, we report a case of a patient with an occult HPV-related HNSCC, diagnosed detecting HPV in a fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of metastatic laterocervical lymph nodes...
June 2016: Pathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194032/tumour-specific-pi3k-inhibition-via-nanoparticle-targeted-delivery-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#20
Aviram Mizrachi, Yosi Shamay, Janki Shah, Samuel Brook, Joanne Soong, Vinagolu K Rajasekhar, John L Humm, John H Healey, Simon N Powell, José Baselga, Daniel A Heller, Adriana Haimovitz-Friedman, Maurizio Scaltriti
Alterations in PIK3CA, the gene encoding the p110α subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3Kα), are frequent in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Inhibitors of PI3Kα show promising activity in various cancer types, but their use is curtailed by dose-limiting side effects such as hyperglycaemia. In the present study, we explore the efficacy, specificity and safety of the targeted delivery of BYL719, a PI3Kα inhibitor currently in clinical development in solid tumours. By encapsulating BYL719 into P-selectin-targeted nanoparticles, we achieve specific accumulation of BYL719 in the tumour milieu...
February 13, 2017: Nature Communications
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