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X Yang, W Zhang, S-Q Cheng, R-L Yang
OBJECTIVE: To clarify the role of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) GACAT3 in invasion and metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its effect on radiotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The expression of GACAT3 and TIMP2 in cells and tissues of NSCLC were detected by quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The influence of GACAT3 on cell proliferation and the capacity of colony formation were estimated by MTT test and colony forming experiment respectively. Luciferase reporting assay was used to confirm the correlation between GACAT3 and TIMP2...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Haruka Yamaguchi, Kazuhide Hayama, Ichiro Sasagawa, Yasuo Okada, Tomoyuki Kawase, Norio Tsubokawa, Makoto Tsuchimochi
We investigated the effects of targeted functionalized silica nanoparticles on the radiosensitivity of cancer cells. Better control of the local concentration of silica nanoparticles may facilitate their use as an adjuvant in conjunction with ionizing radiation to target cancer cells while preventing damage to normal cells. Hyperbranched polyamidoamine (PAMAM) was grafted onto the surface of amorphous silica nanoparticles to functionalize them. The PAMAM-coated silica nanoparticles (PCSNs) were then conjugated with fluorescent dyes...
March 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ying Chen, Zetian Shen, Yingru Zhi, Hao Zhou, Kai Zhang, Ting Wang, Bing Feng, Yitian Chen, Haizhu Song, Rui Wang, Xiaoyuan Chu
Radiotherapy plays a limited role in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) due to the development of resistance. Therefore, further investigation of underlying mechanisms involved in HCC radioresistance is warranted. Increasing evidence shows that long non-coding RNAs (linc-RNAs) are involved in the pathology of various tumors, including HCC. Previously, we have shown that long noncoding RNA regulator of reprogramming (linc-ROR) promotes HCC metastasis via induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
March 17, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Reshma Jagsi, Kent A Griffith, Jennifer R Bellon, Wendy A Woodward, Janet K Horton, Alice Ho, Felix Y Feng, Corey Speers, Beth Overmoyer, Michael Sabel, Anne F Schott, Lori Pierce
Purpose Locoregional control for inflammatory breast cancers and chest wall recurrences is suboptimal, which has motivated interest in radiosensitization to intensify therapy. Preclinical studies have suggested a favorable therapeutic index when poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors are used as radiosensitizers; clinical investigation is necessary to establish appropriate dosing and confirm safety. Patients and Methods We conducted a multi-institutional phase I study of veliparib and concurrent radiotherapy (RT) to the chest wall and regional lymph nodes in 30 patients with inflammatory or locally recurrent breast cancer after complete surgical resection...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Clemens Thoma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2018: Nature Reviews. Urology
Qi-Bing Wu, Xin Sheng, Ning Zhang, Ming-Wei Yang, Fan Wang
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the main tumor-related causes of death worldwide. The fact that the majority of the patients develop resistance to chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is a major obstacle for the treatment of CRC. In order to develop more effective treatment strategies, it is crucial to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the development of resistance to CRT. Several studies have recently indicated the regulatory effects of microRNAs (miRNAs) in response to antitumor agents. For example, miR-34a attenuates the chemoresistance of colon cancer to 5-FU by inhibiting E2F3 and SIRT1...
April 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Till J Meyer, Stefan Hartmann, Gisela Wohlleben, Muna Brisam, Axel Seher, Alexander C Kübler, Bülent Polat, Urs D A Müller-Richter
Radiotherapy alone, or as an addition to surgery is important for the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). In addition to their expression in germ cells, melanoma associated antigens-A (MAGE-A) are only expressed in malignant tissue. Notably, there is a known correlation between MAGE-A9 expression and poor prognosis in HNSCC patients. However, current knowledge regarding the function of MAGE-A9 expression, particularly in the context of irradiation, is limited. MAGE-A9 expression in 37 oral squamous cell carcinoma patents was immunohistochemically determined and analyzed for overall survival by the Kaplan-Meier log-rank test...
March 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Yan Liu, Pengcheng Zhang, Feifei Li, Xiaodong Jin, Jin Li, Weiqiang Chen, Qiang Li
Radiotherapy is one of the major therapeutic strategies for cancer treatment. In the past decade, there has been growing interest in using high Z (atomic number) elements (materials) as radiosensitizers. New strategies in nanomedicine could help to improve cancer diagnosis and therapy at cellular and molecular levels. Metal-based nanoparticles usually exhibit chemical inertness in cellular and subcellular systems and may play a role in radiosensitization and synergistic cell-killing effects for radiation therapy...
2018: Theranostics
Jingjing Li, Haiwen Li, Dechao Zhan, Mei Xiang, Jun Yang, Yufang Zuo, Yin Yu, Hechao Zhou, Danxian Jiang, Haiqing Luo, Zihong Chen, Zhonghua Yu, Zumin Xu
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether niclosamide could sensitize the nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells to radiation and further explore the underlying mechanisms. CCK-8 assay was used to determine the effect of niclosamide on the proliferation of NPC cells. Colony formation assay was used to evaluate the radiosensitizing effect of niclosamide on NPC cells. Flow cytometry analysis was used to determine the apoptosis of NPC cells induced by niclosamide. Immunofluorescent staining was used to detect the formation of γ-H2AX foci and the localization of Ku70/80 proteins in NPC cells...
2018: Journal of Cancer
Yusuke Matsuya, Kohei Sasaki, Yuji Yoshii, Go Okuyama, Hiroyuki Date
Intercellular communication after ionizing radiation exposure, so-called non-targeted effects (NTEs), reduces cell survival. Here we describe an integrated cell-killing model considering NTEs and DNA damage along radiation particle tracks, known as DNA-targeted effects (TEs) based on repair kinetics of DNA damage. The proposed model was applied to a series of experimental data, i.e., signal concentration, DNA damage kinetics, cell survival curve and medium transfer bystander effects (MTBEs). To reproduce the experimental data, the model considers the following assumptions: (i) the linear-quadratic (LQ) function as absorbed dose to express the hit probability to emit cell-killing signals, (ii) the potentially repair of DNA lesions induced by NTEs, and (iii) lower efficiency of repair for the damage in NTEs than that in TEs...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Michele Fiore, Rolando Maria D Apos Angelillo, Carlo Greco, Iacopo Fioroni, Edy Ippolito, Daniele Santini, Sara Ramella
Treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) has seen substantial progress over the last decade. A number of targeted therapies have been shown to improve clinical outcome. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are an effective option in treating mRCC. RCC is traditionally perceived to be a radioresistant malignancy with a limited role of radiotherapy (RT) in the management of localized disease. While RCC appears to be radioresistant using conventionally fractionated RT, preclinical data suggest increased radiosensitivity when an ablative, hypofractionated schedule is used...
March 19, 2018: Chemotherapy
Kalliopi Platoni, Stefanos Diamantopoulos, Maria Dilvoi, Panagiotis Delinikolas, Efrosyni Kypraiou, Efstathios Efstathopoulos, Vassilis Kouloulias
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a systemic neoplastic disease that can present cutaneous symptoms and is usually treated with a systematic approach due to its extent. Due to its radiosensitivity, radiotherapy is considered one of its main treatments, for palliation and local control of the skin and mucosal lesions. The aim of this paper was to report the first case of KS treated by hemi-body electron irradiation protocol in Greece. A fractionated 40 Gy hemi-body electron irradiation was prescribed to a 60-year-old male patient with KS at his legs...
January 2018: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
Yanhong Yang, Wenwen Zhou, Jiandong Wu, Lixin Yao, Lei Xue, Qianyi Zhang, Zhenzhen Wang, Xiaoyu Wang, Shu Dong, Jiangman Zhao, Duanduan Yin
Nimotuzumab, a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), increases radiosensitivity in lung cancer. Cisplatin is an effective antitumor agent in lung cancer. In the present study, the antitumor activity of nimotuzumab combined with cisplatin was investigated in A549 lung cancer cells. Viability, cell cycle distribution and cyclin D1 expression were assessed following treatment with nimotuzumab alone, cisplatin alone, nimotuzumab in combination with cisplatin, and nimotuzumab followed sequentially by cisplatin...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Chuandong Zhu, Lixue Wang, Yang Cai, Guoxiang Wang, Hanfeng Xu, Yuan Wan, Qin Zheng
The high atomic number of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) enables them to offer potential as practical and efficient radiosensitizing agents for cancer radiotherapy applications. In the present study, it was demonstrated that GNPs can significantly modulate the irradiation response of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells in vitro and in vivo , of which the underlying mechanisms were investigated. Cetuximab (C225) is a targeting agent, which binds to the extracellular domain of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Xuanxuan Wang, Yanjun Gu, Hai Liu, Liming Shi, Xiaonan Sun
Background: Radiotherapy and cisplatin-based chemotherapy are currently considered as standard treatments employed for advanced cervical cancer (CC). However, patients with local recurrence or distant metastasis continue to have poor outcomes. EGFR overexpression correlated with chemo/radioresistance, and disease failure has been well proved in the previous studies. Hence, the aim of this study was to explore the therapeutic efficacy and underlying mechanism of the sensitization to radiation or cisplatin of icotinib hydrochloride (IH), a high-selective EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), in the Hela S3 human CC cell line...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Cindy R Timme, Barbara H Rath, John W O'Neill, Kevin Camphausen, Philip J Tofilon
Radiotherapy is a primary treatment modality for glioblastomas (GBMs). Because DNA-PKcs is a critical factor in the repair of radiation-induced double strand breaks (DSBs), this study evaluated the potential of VX-984, a new DNA-PKcs inhibitor, to enhance the radiosensitivity of GBM cells. Treatment of the established GBM cell line U251 and the GBM stem-like cell (GSC) line NSC11 with VX-984 under in vitro conditions resulted in a concentration-dependent inhibition of radiation-induced DNA-PKcs phosphorylation...
March 16, 2018: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Benedikt Thomann, Ilias Sachpazidis, Khodor Koubar, Constantinos Zamboglou, Panayiotis Mavroidis, Rolf Wiehle, Anca-Ligia Grosu, Dimos Baltas
PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of radioresistance and intrafractional movement on the tumour control probability (TCP) in IMRT prostate treatments using simultaneous integrated boosts to PSMA-PET/CT-delineated GTVs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 13 patients had PSMA-PET/CT prior to prostatectomy and histopathological examination. Two GTVs were available: GTV-PET and GTV-histo, which is the true cancer volume. Focused IMRT plans delivering 77 Gy in 35 fractions to the prostate and 95 Gy to PTV-PET were produced...
March 13, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Elizabeth G Mosher, John A Butman, Les R Folio, Nadia M Biassou, Choonsik Lee
OBJECTIVE: Radiation exposure of the lens during neck CT may increase a patient's risk of developing cataracts. Radiologists at the National Institutes of Health worked with technicians to modify the neck CT scanning procedure to include a reduction in the scanning range, a reduction in the tube potential (kilovoltage), and a change in neck positioning using a head tilt. We objectively quantified the organ dose changes after this procedure modification using a computer simulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed CT images of 40 patients (20 men and 20 women) scanned before and after the procedure change...
March 16, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Yang Chen, Youyou Wang, Lujun Zhao, Ping Wang, Jifeng Sun, Rudi Bao, Chenghai Li, Ningbo Liu
Objective: To investigate the potential of HS-10182, a second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI), as a radiosensitizer in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: Two cell lines of NSCLCs, A549 that possesses wild-type (WT) EGFRs and H1975 that possesses EGFR L858R/T790M double mutations, were treated with HS-10182 at various concentrations, and cell viabilities were determined using the MTS assay. The cells were tested by clonogenic survival assays to identify the radiosensitivity of both groups...
February 2018: Cancer Biology & Medicine
Haitao Luo, Caixia Liang
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for ~80% of all types of lung cancer, which has the highest morbidity and mortality of all types of cancer worldwide. It is important to identify novel biomarkers and the molecular mechanism of NSCLC to improve current treatments of NSCLC. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of miR-148b expression on the proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and radiosensitivity of NSCLC cells. It was demonstrated that miR-148b expression was significantly decreased in NSCLC tissues and cell lines...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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