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T Lavender, S Wakasiaka, L McGowan, M Moraa, J Omari, W Khisa
AIM: this study aimed to gain understanding of the views of community members in relation to obstetric fistula. DESIGN AND METHOD: a qualitative, grounded theory approach was adopted. Data were collected using in-depth interviews with 45 community members. The constant comparison method enabled generation of codes and subsequent conceptualisations, from the data. SETTING: participants were from communities served by two hospitals in Kenya; Kisii and Kenyatta...
October 4, 2016: Midwifery
Whitney Marsh, Heith Copes, Travis Linnemann
BACKGROUND: Because of increased law enforcement and subsequent media attention, methamphetamine users appear in the public's imagination as diseased, zombie-like White trash. We explore methamphetamine users' perceptions about whether the images, people, and situations in anti-methamphetamine campaigns reflect their own lives and experiences using meth. METHODS: To explore these perceptions, we used photo-elicitation interviews with 47 people who used methamphetamine (30 former and 17 active)...
October 18, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Chong Chen, Kun Liu, Yupeng Xu, Pengwei Zhang, Yan Suo, Yi Lu, Wenyuan Zhang, Li Su, Qing Gu, Huamao Wang, Jianren Gu, Zonghai Li, Xun Xu
Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapies are widely used for the treatment of neovascular fundus diseases such as diabetic retinopathy. However, these agents need to be injected intravitreally, because their strong hydrophilicity and high molecular weight prevent them from penetrating cell membranes and complex tissue barriers. Moreover, the repeated injections that are required can cause infection and tissue injury. In this study, we used in vivo-directed evolution phage display technology to identify a novel dodecapeptide, named CC12, with the ability to penetrate the ocular barrier in a noninvasive (via conjunctival sac instillation) or minimally invasive (via retrobulbar injection) manner...
September 30, 2016: Biomaterials
Yi Wang, Yao-Xin Lin, Sheng-Lin Qiao, Hong-Wei An, Yang Ma, Zeng-Ying Qiao, R P Yeshan J Rajapaksha, Hao Wang
Immunotherapy has shown a promising effect for a variety of cancers. However, the immune treatment efficiency of solid tumor is limited due to barely infiltration of immune cells in solid tumor. Researchers realized conversion of tumor supportive macrophages to tumor against ones was an effective method to induce the functional reverse of macrophage and contributed to the subsequent antitumor response. The current challenge in the field is that while making use of cytokines usually coupled with poor-distribution and systemic side effects...
October 4, 2016: Biomaterials
Le My Phuong, Do Thi Thanh Huong, Jens Randel Nyengaard, Mark Bayley
Gill morphometric and gill plasticity of the air-breathing striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) exposed to different temperatures (present day 27°C and future 33°C) and different air saturation levels (92% and 35%) during 6weeks were investigated using vertical sections to estimate the respiratory lamellae surface areas, harmonic mean barrier thicknesses, and gill component volumes. Gill respiratory surface area (SA) and harmonic mean water - blood barrier thicknesses (HM) of the fish were strongly affected by both environmental temperature and oxygen level...
October 18, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Shobini Jayaraman, Jose Luis Sánchez-Quesada, Olga Gursky
Lipids in the body are transported via lipoproteins that are nanoparticles comprised of lipids and amphipathic proteins termed apolipoproteins. This family of lipid surface-binding proteins is over-represented in human amyloid diseases. In particular, all major proteins of high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including apoA-I, apoA-II and serum amyloid A, can cause systemic amyloidoses in humans upon protein mutations, post-translational modifications or overproduction. Here, we begin to explore how the HDL lipid composition influences amyloid deposition by apoA-I and related proteins...
October 18, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Camilla Hardeland, Kjetil Sunde, Helge Ramsdal, Susan R Hebbert, Linda Soilammi, Fredrik Westmark, Fredrik Nordum, Andreas E Hansen, Jon E Steen-Hansen, Theresa M Olasveengen
AIM: Explore, understand and address issues that impact upon timely and adequate allocation of prehospital medical assistance and resources to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients. METHODS: Mixed-methods: design obtaining data for one year in three emergency medical communication centres (EMCC); Oslo-Akershus (OA), Vestfold-Telemark (VT) and Østfold (Ø). Data collection included quantitative data from analysis of dispatch logs, ambulance records and audio files...
October 18, 2016: Resuscitation
Diane Gu, Yurong Mao, Zhenzhu Tang, Julio Montaner, Zhiyong Shen, Qiuying Zhu, Roger Detels, Xia Jin, Ran Xiong, Juan Xu, Walter Ling, Lynda Erinoff, Robert Lindblad, David Liu, Paul Van Veldhuisen, Albert Hasson, Zunyou Wu
BACKGROUND: Patients who are newly screened HIV positive by EIA are lost to follow-up due to complicated HIV testing procedures. Because this is the first step in care, it affects the entire continuum of care. This is a particular concern in rural China. OBJECTIVE(S): To assess the routine HIV testing completeness and treatment initiation rates at 18 county-level general hospitals in rural Guangxi. METHODS: We reviewed original hospital HIV screening records...
2016: PloS One
M Heres, Y Wang, P J Griffin, C Gainaru, A P Sokolov
Phosphoric acid has one of the highest intrinsic proton conductivities of any known liquids, and the mechanism of this exceptional conductivity remains a puzzle. Our detailed experimental studies discovered a strong isotope effect in the conductivity of phosphoric acids caused by (i) a strong isotope shift of the glass transition temperature and (ii) a significant reduction of the energy barrier by zero-point quantum fluctuations. These results suggest that the high conductivity in phosphoric acids is caused by a very efficient proton transfer mechanism, which is strongly assisted by quantum effects...
October 7, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Jesús Ignacio Mendieta-Moreno, Daniel G Trabada, Jesus Mendieta, James P Lewis, Paulino Gómez-Puertas, Jose Ortega
The absorption of ultraviolet radiation by DNA may result in harmful genetic lesions that affect DNA replication and transcription, ultimately causing mutations, cancer and/or cell death. We analyze the most abundant photochemical reaction in DNA, the cyclobutane thymine dimer, using hybrid quantum mechanics / molecular mechanics (QM/MM) techniques and QM/MM nonadiabatic molecular dynamics. We find that, due to its double helix structure, DNA presents a free energy barrier between non-reactive and reactive conformations leading to the photolesion...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Laura Coco, Craig A Champlin, Robert H Eikelboom
Purpose: Sections of the community face barriers to accessing audiology services. The aim of this study was to assess the barriers faced by people in typically underserved community settings and to provide audiology services in their natural environment. Information gathered by questionnaire was used to determine each site's candidacy as a potential tele-audiology site. Method: Sixty-three participants were recruited across 3 community sites that were identified as gathering places for individuals who experience barriers to accessing traditional clinical audiology services...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Audiology
Michael P Grubb, Philip M Coulter, Hugo J B Marroux, Balazs Hornung, Ryan S McMullen, Andrew J Orr-Ewing, Michael N R Ashfold
Spectroscopically observing the translational and rotational motion of solute molecules in liquid solutions is typically impeded by their interactions with the solvent, which conceal spectral detail through linewidth broadening. Here we show that unique insights into solute dynamics can be made with perfluorinated solvents, which interact weakly with solutes and provide a simplified liquid environment that helps to bridge the gap in our understanding of gas- and liquid-phase dynamics. Specifically, we show that in such solvents, the translational and rotational cooling of an energetic CN radical can be observed directly using ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy...
November 2016: Nature Chemistry
Giuseppe Ruggiero, Claudia Carnevale, Andrea Diociaiuti, Fabio Arcangeli, May El Hachem
BACKGROUND: Contact dermatitis can be defined as an inflammatory process affecting the skin surface and induced by contact with chemical, physical and/or biotic agents in the environment. It causes lesions to skin, mucosae and semi-mucosae by means of allergic and irritant pathogenic mechanisms. Among the main triggers of contact dermatitis in the pediatric age are chemical or physical agents, which cause irritant contact dermatitis (ICD), and sensitizers, which cause a tissue damage through an allergic mechanism (allergic contact dermatitis [ACD])...
December 2016: Minerva Pediatrica
Virginia Ginny Stoffel
Family is a metaphor for the connectedness that occupational therapy practitioners and students feel for one another, for the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA), and toward those served. Exploring values and cultural practices that emanate from family experiences affects how we practice occupational therapy and engage with families; how we serve and lead; and how, as the profession approaches its 100th anniversary in the United States, we strengthen AOTA by welcoming all 213,000 practitioners and students who could become active, engaged members...
November 2016: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
Ryan M Wallace, Melissa D Etheart, Jeff Doty, Ben Monroe, Kelly Crowdis, Pierre Dilius Augustin, Jesse Blanton, Natael Fenelon
Haiti has experienced numerous barriers to rabies control over the past decades and is one of the remaining Western Hemisphere countries to report dog-mediated human rabies deaths. We describe the circumstances surrounding a reported human rabies death in 2016 as well as barriers to treatment and surveillance reporting.
November 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Jasmine A Mena, Gifty G Ampadu, James O Prochaska
BACKGROUND: Tobacco use remains the leading cause of preventable disease and death. Most smokers are not motivated to quit; however, most smoking cessation interventions are designed for smokers who are ready to take action. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to describe participant engagement and satisfaction with telephonic smoking cessation coaching with a population of smokers at different stages of readiness to quit. METHODS: Qualitative description was used to capture the experiences of 62 individuals who participated in telephonic smoking cessation coaching using semistructured interviews...
October 21, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Satoshi Ogiso, Kentaro Yasuchika, Ken Fukumitsu, Takamichi Ishii, Hidenobu Kojima, Yuya Miyauchi, Ryoya Yamaoka, Junji Komori, Hokahiro Katayama, Takayuki Kawai, Elena Yukie Yoshitoshi, Sadahiko Kita, Katsutaro Yasuda, Shinji Uemoto
A whole-organ regeneration approach, using a decellularised xenogeneic liver as a scaffold for the construction of a transplantable liver was recently reported. Deriving suitable scaffolds was the first step towards clinical application; however, effective recellularisation remains to be achieved. This report presents a strategy for the improvement of the recellularisation process, using novel cell-seeding technique and cell source. We evaluated recellularised liver grafts repopulated through the portal vein or the biliary duct with mice adult hepatocytes or E14...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
P Jauhar, P A Mossey, H Popat, J Seehra, P S Fleming
Background Undergraduate orthodontic teaching has been focused on developing an understanding of occlusal development in an effort to equip practitioners to make appropriate referrals for specialist-delivered care. However, there is a growing interest among general dentists in delivering more specialised treatments, including short-term orthodontic alignment. This study aimed to assess the levels of knowledge of occlusal problems among final year undergraduate dental students, as well as their interest in various orthodontics techniques and training...
October 21, 2016: British Dental Journal
Richard D Holmes
Data sourcesAMED, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Embase, Medline, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, ScienceDirect, SocINDEX, ASSIA, Social Policy and Practice, HMIC (Health Management Information Consortium), The Knowledge Network, Intute, MedNar, Copac, EPPI-Centre, EThOS, OpenGrey and TRIP databases. Searches were limited to publications in the English language published after 1994.Study selectionStudies set in general practice that investigated promoting good oral health in adult or child patients were considered. Study quality was assessed using NICE public health guidance checklists...
September 2016: Evidence-based Dentistry
S Sengupta, G Mao, Z S Gokaslan, P Sampath
Glioblastoma (GBM) is by far the most common and the most aggressive of all the primary brain malignancies. No curative therapy exists, and median life expectancy hovers at around 1 year after diagnosis, with a minute fraction surviving beyond 5 years. The difficulty in treating GBM lies in the cancer's protected niche within the blood-brain barrier and the heterogeneity of the cancer cells, which possess varying degrees of susceptibility to various common modalities of treatment. Over time, it is the tumor heterogeneity of GBM and the ability of the cancer stem cells to evolve in response treatment that renders the cancer refractory to conventional treatment...
October 21, 2016: Cancer Gene Therapy
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