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Practice change

Jana Annina Müller, Dorothea Wendt, Birger Kollmeier, Thomas Brand
The aim of this study was to validate a procedure for performing the audio-visual paradigm introduced by Wendt et al. (2015) with reduced practical challenges. The original paradigm records eye fixations using an eye tracker and calculates the duration of sentence comprehension based on a bootstrap procedure. In order to reduce practical challenges, we first reduced the measurement time by evaluating a smaller measurement set with fewer trials. The results of 16 listeners showed effects comparable to those obtained when testing the original full measurement set on a different collective of listeners...
2016: PloS One
Macarena C García, Anton B Dodek, Tom Kowalski, John Fallon, Scott H Lee, Michael F Iademarco, John Auerbach, Michele K Bohm
Overdose deaths involving opioid pain medications are epidemic in the United States, in part because of high opioid prescribing rates and associated abuse of these drugs (1). In 2014, nearly 2 million U.S. residents either abused or were dependent on prescription opioids (2). In Massachusetts, unintentional opioid-related overdose deaths, including deaths involving heroin, increased 45% from 2012 to 2013.* In 2014, the rate of these deaths reached 20.0 per 100,000, nearly 2.5 times higher than the U.S. rate overall (3,4)...
October 21, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Darren E Stewart, Victoria C Garcia, John D Rosendale, David K Klassen, Bob J Carrico
BACKGROUND: The proportion of deceased donor kidneys recovered for transplant but discarded increased steadily in the U.S. over 2 decades, from 5.1% in 1988 to 19.2% by 2009. Over 100,000 patients are waiting for a kidney transplant, yet 3,159 kidneys were discarded in 2015. METHODS: We evaluated trends in donor characteristics, discard reasons, and OPO-specific discard rates. Multivariable regression and propensity analysis were used to estimate the proportion of the discard rate rise in the 2000's attributable to changes in donor factors and decisions to biopsy and pump kidneys...
October 19, 2016: Transplantation
Elin T G Kersten, Gerard H Koppelman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although currently available drugs to treat asthma are effective in most patients, a proportion of patients do not respond or experience side-effects; which is partly genetically determined. Pharmacogenetics is the study of how genetic variations influence drug response. In this review, we summarize prior results and recent studies in pharmacogenetics to determine if we can use genetic profiles for personalized treatment of asthma. RECENT FINDINGS: The field of pharmacogenetics has moved from candidate gene studies in single populations toward genome-wide association studies and meta-analysis of multiple studies...
October 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Isabell B Purdy, Mary Alice Melwak, Joan R Smith, Carole Kenner, Rebecca Chuffo-Siewert, Donna J Ryan, Sue Hall
BACKGROUND: The neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) can be a stressful environment for infants, their families, and the healthcare team. There is an immediate need for neonatal nurses to embrace and translate the new National Perinatal Association recommendations for psychosocial support of NICU parents into clinical practice to demonstrate best practices for infants, their families, and the whole team. PURPOSE: To summarize the current evidence-based practice recommendations and to provide suggestions for team members to develop strategies to adopt and implement them through quality improvement (QI) projects...
October 19, 2016: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
Shosuke Satake, Hidenori Arai
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Many frailty screening instruments have been proposed due to the lack of consensus on a unified operational definition of frailty. This review reports on recent frailty screening tools in addition to revisiting the frailty concept. RECENT FINDINGS: Although there are two representative frailty models, both have issues that prevent them from being implemented in clinical settings despite their remarkable advantages. Due to their different characteristics, these models are thought to be complementary rather than substitutive...
October 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Daniel D Rhoads, Jonathan R Genzen, Christine P Bashleben, James D Faix, M Qasim Ansari
CONTEXT: -Syphilis serology screening in laboratory practice is evolving. Traditionally, the syphilis screening algorithm begins with a nontreponemal immunoassay, which is manually performed by a laboratory technologist. In contrast, the reverse algorithm begins with a treponemal immunoassay, which can be automated. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recognized both approaches, but little is known about the current state of laboratory practice, which could impact test utilization and interpretation...
October 20, 2016: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Chong-Rong Wu, Xiang-Rui Chang, Tung-Wei Chu, Hsuan-An Chen, Chao-Hsin Wu, Shih-Yen Lin
A 9-layer WS2/MoS2 hetero-structure is established on a sapphire substrate after sequential growth of large-area and uniform 5- and 4- layer MoS2 and WS2 films by using sulfurization of pre-deposited 1.0 nm Molybdenum (Mo) and Tungsten (W), respectively. By using the results obtained from the ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and the absorption spectrum measurements of the standalone MoS2 and WS2 samples, a type-II band alignment is predicated for the WS2/MoS2 hetero-structure. Increasing drain currents and enhanced field-effect mobility value of the transistor fabricated on the hetero-structure suggested that a channel with higher electron concentration compared with the standalone MoS2 transistor channel is obtained with electron injection from WS2 to MoS2 under thermal equilibrium...
October 20, 2016: Nano Letters
Christopher Rowe, Eric Vittinghoff, Glenn-Milo Santos, Emily Behar, Caitlin Turner, Phillip Coffin
OBJECTIVES: Opioid overdose mortality has tripled in the USA since 2000 and opioids are responsible for more than half of all drug overdose deaths, which reached an all-time high in 2014. Opioid overdoses resulting in death, however, represent only a small fraction of all opioid overdose events and efforts to improve surveillance of this public health problem should include tracking nonfatal overdose events. International Classification of Disease (ICD) diagnosis codes, increasingly used for the surveillance of nonfatal drug overdose events, have not been rigorously assessed for validity in capturing overdose events...
October 20, 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Robert Walaszek, Stanislaw Sterkowicz, Wieslaw Chwala, Katarzyna Sterkowicz-Przybycien, Katarzyna Walaszek, Marcin Burdacki, Artur Klys
BACKGROUND: Physical activity is beneficial for young children. The aim is to monitor the changes in body posture and balance, as well as in the level of lower limbs mechanical output in six-year-old boys practicing judo (JU) and in a group not practicing that sport (NT). METHODS: In 12 matched pairs of boys (JU+NT) body mass and height were measured and BMI was calculated at three time points (baseline, three months, six months). Body posture was evaluated with the use of Moiré method (TT, DTK, MR, LALBC-F, DALBS)...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Ho Ting Wong, Vico Chung Lim Chiang, Kup Sze Choi, Alice Yuen Loke
The rapid development of technology has made enormous volumes of data available and achievable anytime and anywhere around the world. Data scientists call this change a data era and have introduced the term "Big Data", which has drawn the attention of nursing scholars. Nevertheless, the concept of Big Data is quite fuzzy and there is no agreement on its definition among researchers of different disciplines. Without a clear consensus on this issue, nursing scholars who are relatively new to the concept may consider Big Data to be merely a dataset of a bigger size...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Kelly Jones, Ngara Keeler, Chris Morris, David Brennan, Kaye Roberts-Thompson, Lisa Jamieson
OBJECTIVE: To explore and document self-reported factors contributing to Indigenous Australians' attendance and non-attendance at South Australian public dental clinics. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with people (18 males and 26 females) referred for oral care through the Aboriginal Liaison Program of the South Australian Dental Service. Thematic analysis was performed on 44 transcribed conversations and a conceptual model developed. RESULTS: Persons completing all recommended treatment reported high self-efficacy, health literacy, social cohesion and previous use of dental services and presence of a health advocate...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Elena Kochetkova
This article examines the transfer of technology from Finnish enterprises to Soviet industry during the USSR's period of technological modernization between 1955 and 1964. It centers on the forestry sector, which was a particular focus of modernization programs and a key area for the transfer of foreign techniques and expertise. The aim of the article is to investigate the role of trips made by Soviet specialists to foreign (primarily Finnish) enterprises in order to illustrate the nontechnological influences that occurred during the transfer of technologies across the cold war border...
2016: Technology and Culture
Cherie Walker, Peter Sinclair, Kenneth Graham, Stephen Cobley
Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) may offer an ecologically valid, reliable, and practical method for biomechanical performance analysis. With such potential in mind, Part 1 of this study examined the accuracy of IMUs gyroscopes with an optical system (Cortex 3.3). A calibration formula standardised the IMUs angular velocity output with the optical system. The percentage differences between the two measures = 0.5% (p < 0.05), suggest IMU's efficacy for application. In Part 2, the aim was to examine and understand how dive flight angular velocity time series plots change and increase according to dive degree of difficulty...
October 20, 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Cynthia Formosa, Ryan Muscat
BACKGROUND: This study sought to identify the nature and extent of diabetes-related knowledge and self-care practices in people living with type 2 diabetes who attend primary-care clinics and to determine whether a correlation between the two exists. METHODS: In a nonexperimental prospective study, the Diabetes Knowledge Questionnaire and the Summary of Diabetes Self-care Activities were used to assess knowledge and self-management in 50 patients. RESULTS: The mean diabetes knowledge score was 14...
September 2, 2016: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
Gerard Pasterkamp, Hester M den Ruijter, Peter Libby
The concept of the 'vulnerable plaque' originated from pathological observations in patients who died from acute coronary syndrome. This recognition spawned a generation of research that led to greater understanding of how complicated atherosclerotic plaques form and precipitate thrombotic events. In current practice, an increasing number of patients who survive their first event present with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) rather than myocardial infarction (MI) with ST-segment elevation (STEMI)...
October 20, 2016: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
David P Seamans, Boshra F Louka, F David Fortuin, Bhavesh M Patel, John P Sweeney, Louis A Lanza, Patrick A DeValeria, Kim M Ezrre, Harish Ramakrishna
BACKGROUND: The surgical and procedural specialties are continually evolving their methods to include more complex and technically difficult cases. These cases can be longer and incorporate multiple teams in a different model of operating room synergy. Patients are frequently older, with comorbidities adding to the complexity of these cases. Recording of this environment has become more feasible recently with advancement in video and audio capture systems often used in the simulation realm...
October 2016: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
Piet L C M van Riel, Lisanne Renskers
In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), disease activity cannot be measured in all individual patients according to a single variable. The Disease Activity Score (DAS) and the DAS28 have been developed to measure disease activity in RA both in daily clinical practice as well as in clinical trials on a group as well as individual level. The DAS/DAS28 is a continuous measure of RA disease activity that combines information from swollen joints, tender joints, acute phase response and general health. The DAS-based EULAR response criteria were primarily developed to be used in clinical trials...
September 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
S Malfait, K Eeckloo, J Hellings, G De Bodt, A Van Hecke
INTRODUCTION: In many health care systems, strategies are currently deployed to engage patients and other stakeholders in decisions affecting hospital services. In this paper, a model for stakeholder involvement is presented and evaluated in three Flemish hospitals. In the model, a stakeholder committee advises the hospital's board of directors on themes of strategic importance. OBJECTIVES: To study the internal hospital's decision processes in order to identify the impact of a stakeholder involvement committee on strategic themes in the hospital decision processes...
October 20, 2016: Acta Clinica Belgica
Nicholas Dawe, Pauline Bosson, Margaret Toepoel, Claire Hickling, John Hill, Sean Carrie
Audiologists can provide an effective and safe service through direct referral for magnetic resonance imaging screening in selected cases Direct audiology referral for magnetic resonance imaging reduces need for new ENT clinic appointments as well as reducing the inconvenience of repeated visits to hospital for patients Our experiences following the change of practice audit support the adoption of a more stream-lined audiology-led service Good practice areas that were highlighted should be emphasised: good two-way communication between audiology and ENT leads and the value of educational feedback from radiology This article is protected by copyright...
October 20, 2016: Clinical Otolaryngology
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