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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140919/collaboration-and-teamwork-in-the-health-professions-rethinking-the-role-of-conflict
#1
Quentin Eichbaum
Whereas the business professions have long recognized that conflict can be a source of learning and innovation, the health professions still tend to view conflict negatively as being disruptive, inefficient, and unprofessional. As a consequence, the health professions tend to avoid conflict or resolve it quickly. This neglect to appreciate conflict's positive attributes appears to be driven in part by (1) individuals' fears about being negatively perceived and the potential negative consequences in an organization of being implicated in conflict, (2) constrained views and approaches to professionalism and to evaluation and assessment, and (3) lingering autocracies and hierarchies of power that view conflict as a disruptive threat...
November 14, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121923/decentralised-training-for-medical-students-a-scoping-review
#2
Marietjie de Villiers, Susan van Schalkwyk, Julia Blitz, Ian Couper, Kalavani Moodley, Zohray Talib, Taryn Young
BACKGROUND: Increasingly, medical students are trained at sites away from the tertiary academic health centre. A growing body of literature identifies the benefits of decentralised clinical training for students, the health services and the community. A scoping review was done to identify approaches to decentralised training, how these have been implemented and what the outcomes of these approaches have been in an effort to provide a knowledge base towards developing a model for decentralised training for undergraduate medical students in lower and middle-income countries (LMICs)...
November 9, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118107/morphological-constraints-on-cerebellar-granule-cell-combinatorial-diversity
#3
Jesse I Gilmer, Abigail L Person
Combinatorial expansion by the cerebellar granule cell layer (GCL) is fundamental to theories of cerebellar contributions to motor control and learning. Granule cells sample approximately four mossy fiber inputs and are thought to form a combinatorial code useful for pattern separation and learning. We constructed a spatially realistic model of the cerebellar granule cell layer and examined how GCL architecture contributes to granule cell (GrC) combinatorial diversity. We found that GrC combinatorial diversity saturates quickly as mossy fiber input diversity increases, and that this saturation is in part a consequence of short dendrites, which limit access to diverse inputs and favor dense sampling of local inputs...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117675/many-body-coarse-grained-interactions-using-gaussian-approximation-potentials
#4
Sebastian T John, Gábor Csányi
We introduce a computational framework that is able to describe general many-body coarse-grained (CG) interactions of molecules and use it to model the free energy surface of molecular liquids as a cluster expansion in terms of monomer, dimer, and trimer terms. The contributions to the free energy due to these terms are inferred from all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) data using Gaussian Approximation Potentials, a type of machine-learning model that employs Gaussian process regression. The resulting CG model is much more accurate than those possible using pair potentials...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116982/a-rose-by-other-names-some-general-musings-on-lawrence-and-colleagues-hidden-curriculum-scoping-review
#5
Frederic W Hafferty, Maria Athina Martimianakis
In this Commentary, the authors explore the scoping review by Lawrence and colleagues by challenging their conclusion that with over 25 years' worth of "ambiguous and seemingly ubiquitous use" of the hidden curriculum construct in health professions education scholarship, it is time to either move to a more uniform definitional foundation or abandon the term altogether. The commentary authors counter these remedial propositions by foregrounding the importance of theoretical diversity and the conceptual richness afforded when the hidden curriculum construct is used as an entry point for studying the interstitial space between the formal and a range of other-than-formal domains of learning...
November 7, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110738/what-can-we-learn-from-simulation-based-training-to-improve-skills-for-end-of-life-care-insights-from-a-national-project-in-israel
#6
Mayer Brezis, Yael Lahat, Meir Frankel, Alan Rubinov, Davina Bohm, Matan J Cohen, Meni Koslowsky, Orit Shalomson, Charles L Sprung, Henia Perry-Mezare, Rina Yahalom, Amitai Ziv
BACKGROUND: Simulation-based training improves residents' skills for end-of-life (EOL) care. In the field, staff providers play a significant role in handling those situations and in shaping practice by role modeling. We initiated an educational intervention to train healthcare providers for improved communication skills at EOL using simulation of sensitive encounters with patients and families. METHODS: Hospital physicians and nurses (n = 1324) attended simulation-based workshops (n = 100) in a national project to improve EOL care...
November 6, 2017: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109450/interactive-phenotyping-of-large-scale-histology-imaging-data-with-histomicsml
#7
Michael Nalisnik, Mohamed Amgad, Sanghoon Lee, Sameer H Halani, Jose Enrique Velazquez Vega, Daniel J Brat, David A Gutman, Lee A D Cooper
Whole-slide imaging of histologic sections captures tissue microenvironments and cytologic details in expansive high-resolution images. These images can be mined to extract quantitative features that describe tissues, yielding measurements for hundreds of millions of histologic objects. A central challenge in utilizing this data is enabling investigators to train and evaluate classification rules for identifying objects related to processes like angiogenesis or immune response. In this paper we describe HistomicsML, an interactive machine-learning system for digital pathology imaging datasets...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089288/ranking-medical-terms-to-support-expansion-of-lay-language-resources-for-patient-comprehension-of-electronic-health-record-notes-adapted-distant-supervision-approach
#8
Jinying Chen, Abhyuday N Jagannatha, Samah J Fodeh, Hong Yu
BACKGROUND: Medical terms are a major obstacle for patients to comprehend their electronic health record (EHR) notes. Clinical natural language processing (NLP) systems that link EHR terms to lay terms or definitions allow patients to easily access helpful information when reading through their EHR notes, and have shown to improve patient EHR comprehension. However, high-quality lay language resources for EHR terms are very limited in the public domain. Because expanding and curating such a resource is a costly process, it is beneficial and even necessary to identify terms important for patient EHR comprehension first...
October 31, 2017: JMIR Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076972/users-guide-to-pitfalls-and-lessons-learned-about-hboc-201-during-clinical-trials-expanded-access-and-clinical-use-in-1-701-patients
#9
Colin F Mackenzie, Gregory P Dubé, Arkaidy Pitman, Melissa Zafirelis
Lessons learned during 1,701 clinical uses of HBOC-201, a polymerized bovine hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (HBOC), were identified to provide management lessons and training material for future clinical trials and use. HBOC-201 contains 13 g/dL hemoglobin (Hb), is iso-oncotic, stable at 2°C to 30°C with shelf-life of 3 years, requires no cross-matching with half-life of 19 h, and plasma volume distribution. Adverse effects include increased blood pressure, oliguria, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, yellow skin and scleral discoloration, decreased pulse oximetry measurements, and transient increases in methemoglobin, hepatic, and pancreatic enzymes...
October 25, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067633/implementation-of-continuous-video-electroencephalography-at-a-community-hospital-enhances-care-and-reduces-costs
#10
Brad J Kolls, Brian E Mace, Keith E Dombrowski
BACKGROUND: Despite data indicating the importance of continuous video-electroencephalography (cvEEG) monitoring, adoption has been slow outside major academic centers. Barriers to adoption include the need for technologists, equipment, and cvEEG readers. Advancements in lower-cost lead placement templates and commercial systems with remote review may reduce barriers to allow community centers to implement cvEEG. Here, we report our experience, lessons learned, and financial impact of implementing a community hospital cvEEG-monitoring program...
October 24, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063538/health-information-management-changing-with-time
#11
S H Fenton, S Low, K J Abrams, K Butler-Henderson
Objective: With the evolution of patient medical records from paper to electronic media and the changes to the way data is sourced, used, and managed, there is an opportunity for health information management (HIM) to learn and facilitate the increasing expanse of available patient data. Methods: This paper discusses the emerging trends and lessons learnt in relation with the following four areas: 1) data and information governance, 2) terminology standards certification, 3) International Classification of Diseases, 11th edition (ICD-11), and 4) data analytics and HIM...
August 2017: Yearbook of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061964/sparse-synaptic-connectivity-is-required-for-decorrelation-and-pattern-separation-in-feedforward-networks
#12
N Alex Cayco-Gajic, Claudia Clopath, R Angus Silver
Pattern separation is a fundamental function of the brain. The divergent feedforward networks thought to underlie this computation are widespread, yet exhibit remarkably similar sparse synaptic connectivity. Marr-Albus theory postulates that such networks separate overlapping activity patterns by mapping them onto larger numbers of sparsely active neurons. But spatial correlations in synaptic input and those introduced by network connectivity are likely to compromise performance. To investigate the structural and functional determinants of pattern separation we built models of the cerebellar input layer with spatially correlated input patterns, and systematically varied their synaptic connectivity...
October 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056799/technological-response-of-wild-macaques-macaca-fascicularis-to-anthropogenic-change
#13
Lydia V Luncz, Magdalena S Svensson, Michael Haslam, Suchinda Malaivijitnond, Tomos Proffitt, Michael Gumert
Anthropogenic disturbances have a detrimental impact on the natural world; the vast expansion of palm oil monocultures is one of the most significant agricultural influences. Primates worldwide consequently have been affected by the loss of their natural ecosystems. Long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascilularis) in Southern Thailand have, however, learned to exploit oil palm nuts using stone tools. Using camera traps, we captured the stone tool behavior of one macaque group in Ao Phang-Nga National Park. Line transects placed throughout an abandoned oil palm plantation confirmed a high abundance of nut cracking sites...
2017: International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045985/entry-of-medical-school-graduates-into-family-medicine-residencies-2016-2017
#14
Stanley M Kozakowski, Alexandra Travis, Julie P Marcinek, Ashley Bentley, Gerald T Fetter
This annual report is an expansion on previous reports in this series that provides further evidence that the current medical school system is failing, collectively, to produce the primary care workforce that is needed to achieve optimal health in the United States. Inclusion of data on the performance of DO-granting and international medical schools, creates a more complete and complex picture of the contribution of all medical school types to the primary care workforce that should allow stakeholders to set goals, identify institutions with models from which to learn, and develop strategies for continuous improvement...
October 2017: Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038481/the-social-and-cultural-roots-of-whale-and-dolphin-brains
#15
Kieran C R Fox, Michael Muthukrishna, Susanne Shultz
Encephalization, or brain expansion, underpins humans' sophisticated social cognition, including language, joint attention, shared goals, teaching, consensus decision-making and empathy. These abilities promote and stabilize cooperative social interactions, and have allowed us to create a 'cognitive' or 'cultural' niche and colonize almost every terrestrial ecosystem. Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) also have exceptionally large and anatomically sophisticated brains. Here, by evaluating a comprehensive database of brain size, social structures and cultural behaviours across cetacean species, we ask whether cetacean brains are similarly associated with a marine cultural niche...
November 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021930/computer-assisted-learning-applications-in-health-educational-informatics-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Faiq Shaikh, Faisal Inayat, Omer Awan, Marlise D Santos, Adnan M Choudhry, Abdul Waheed, Dilkash Kajal, Sagun Tuli
Computer-assisted learning (CAL) as a health informatics application is a useful tool for medical students in the era of expansive knowledge bases and the increasing need for and the consumption of automated and interactive systems. As the scope and breadth of medical knowledge expand, the need for additional learning outside of lecture hours is becoming increasingly important. CAL can be an impactful adjunct to conventional methods that currently exist in the halls of learning. There is an increasing body of literature that suggests that CAL should be a commonplace and the recommended method of learning for medical students...
August 10, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017458/lifestyle-gene-gain-and-loss-and-transcriptional-remodeling-cause-divergence-in-the-transcriptomes-of-phytophthora-infestans-and-pythium-ultimum-during-potato-tuber-colonization
#17
Audrey M V Ah-Fong, Jolly Shrivastava, Howard S Judelson
BACKGROUND: How pathogen genomes evolve to support distinct lifestyles is not well-understood. The oomycete Phytophthora infestans, the potato blight agent, is a largely biotrophic pathogen that feeds from living host cells, which become necrotic only late in infection. The related oomycete Pythium ultimum grows saprophytically in soil and as a necrotroph in plants, causing massive tissue destruction. To learn what distinguishes their lifestyles, we compared their gene contents and expression patterns in media and a shared host, potato tuber...
October 10, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990138/a-survey-of-protocols-and-trends-in-orthodontic-retention
#18
Alvyda Andriekute, Arunas Vasiliauskas, Antanas Sidlauskas
BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to evaluate retention procedures and protocols which are used by the orthodontists in Lithuania and to identify commonly used types of dental retainers. METHODS: One hundred seven questionnaires in total with 28 multiple-choice questions were sent to all members of the Lithuanian Orthodontic Society. The questionnaire was organized into eight sections representing specific information about socio-demographic status of the respondents, selection of a retention system, details of commonly used fixed and removable retainers, the duration of the retention period, supervision of the retainers, instructions for patients, and necessity of common retention guidelines...
October 9, 2017: Progress in Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986822/global-spread-of-hemorrhagic-fever-viruses-predicting-pandemics
#19
Jean-Paul Gonzalez, Marc Souris, Willy Valdivia-Granda
As successive epidemics have swept the world, the scientific community has quickly learned from them about the emergence and transmission of communicable diseases. Epidemics usually occur when health systems are unprepared. During an unexpected epidemic, health authorities engage in damage control, fear drives action, and the desire to understand the threat is greatest. As humanity recovers, policy-makers seek scientific expertise to improve their "preparedness" to face future events.Global spread of disease is exemplified by the spread of yellow fever from Africa to the Americas, by the spread of dengue fever through transcontinental migration of mosquitos, by the relentless influenza virus pandemics, and, most recently, by the unexpected emergence of Ebola virus, spread by motorbike and long haul carriers...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985362/combatting-the-opioid-epidemic-baltimore-s-experience-and-lessons-learned
#20
Leana S Wen, Katherine E Warren
In the midst of a national opioid crisis, Baltimore City witnessed 393 deaths from drug and alcohol overdose in 2015. With an estimated 25 000 residents who are addicted to heroin or other opioids, Baltimore has been profoundly affected by the opioid epidemic. Other resources have commented on federal, state-based, and provider responses to the opioid crisis. This article examines what may be done at the city level based on the experiences of the Baltimore City Health Department. Local jurisdictions must play a critical role in addressing the U...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Public Health
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