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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819513/strengthening-and-expanding-the-capacity-of-health-worker-education-in-zambia
#1
Charles Michelo, Joseph Mumba Zulu, Moses Simuyemba, Benjamin Andrews, Max Katubulushi, Benjamin Chi, Evariste Njelesani, Bellington Vwalika, Kasonde Bowa, Margaret Maimbolwa, James Chipeta, Fastone Goma, Selestine Nzala, Sekelani Banda, John Mudenda, Yusuf Ahmed, Lotti Hachambwa, Craig Wilson, Sten Vermund, Yakub Mulla
INTRODUCTION: Zambia is facing a chronic shortage of health care workers. The paper aimed at understanding how the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) program facilitated strengthening and expanding of the national capacity and quality of medical education as well as processes for retaining faculty in Zambia. METHODS: Data generated through documentary review, key informant interviews and observations were analyzed using a thematic approach. RESULTS: The MEPI program triggered the development of new postgraduate programs thereby increasing student enrollment...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818679/improved-assays-for-agg-interruptions-in-fragile-x-premutation-carriers
#2
Bruce E Hayward, Karen Usdin
The learning disability fragile X syndrome results from the presence of >200 CGG/CCG-repeats in exon 1 of the X-linked gene FMR1. Such alleles arise by expansion from maternally transmitted FMR1 premutation alleles, alleles having 55 to 200 repeats. Expansion risk is directly related to maternal repeat number. However, AGG interruptions to the repeat tract are important modifiers of expansion risk. Thus, the ability to identify such interruptions is crucial for the appropriate genetic counseling of women who are premutation carriers...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816655/gaussian-process-morphable-models
#3
Marcel Luthi, Thomas Gerig, Christoph Jud, Thomas Vetter
Models of shape variations have become a central component for the automated analysis of images. An important class of shape models are point distribution models (PDMs). These models represent a class of shapes as a normal distribution of point variations, whose parameters are estimated from example shapes. Principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to obtain a low-dimensional representation of the shape variation in terms of the leading principal components. In this paper, we propose a generalization of PDMs, which we refer to as Gaussian Process Morphable Models (GPMMs)...
August 14, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815538/long-noncoding-rnas-in-the-yeast-s-%C3%A2-cerevisiae
#4
Rachel O Niederer, Evan P Hass, David C Zappulla
Long noncoding RNAs have recently been discovered to comprise a sizeable fraction of the RNA World. The scope of their functions, physical organization, and disease relevance remain in the early stages of characterization. Although many thousands of lncRNA transcripts recently have been found to emanate from the expansive DNA between protein-coding genes in animals, there are also hundreds that have been found in simple eukaryotes. Furthermore, lncRNAs have been found in the bacterial and archaeal branches of the tree of life, suggesting they are ubiquitous...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814542/fragile-x-newborn-screening-lessons-learned-from-a-multisite-screening-study
#5
Donald B Bailey, Elizabeth Berry-Kravis, Louise W Gane, Sonia Guarda, Randi Hagerman, Cynthia M Powell, Flora Tassone, Anne Wheeler
BACKGROUND: Delays in the diagnosis of children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) suggest the possibility of newborn screening as a way to identify children earlier. However, FXS does not have a proven treatment that must be provided early, and ethical concerns have been raised about the detection of infants who are carriers. This article summarizes major findings from a multisite, prospective, longitudinal pilot screening study. METHODS: Investigators in North Carolina, California, and Illinois collaborated on a study in which voluntary screening for FXS was offered to parents in 3 birthing hospitals...
June 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792263/implementing-and-evaluating-a-community-based-inter-institutional-interprofessional-education-pilot-programme
#6
Chante Stubbs, Mavis N Schorn, Jacinta P Leavell, Elena Wong Espiritu, Gerald Davis, Chad K Gentry, Elisa Friedman, Traci Patton, Ali Graham, Ron Crowder, Consuelo H Wilkins
Many health professions programmes have begun integrating interprofessional learning into their curricula; however, community-based interprofessional education (IPE) initiatives are relatively scarce. The Meharry-Vanderbilt Alliance IPE Faculty Collaborative, comprised of faculty from five institutions, developed a community-based IPE programme that allowed students to engage in meaningful interprofessional activities while exposing them to social determinants of health. Thirty students from ten professions were divided into six teams and paired with three community organisations...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Interprofessional Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789555/a-machine-learning-approach-to-graph-theoretical-cluster-expansions-of-the-energy-of-adsorbate-layers
#7
Emanuele Vignola, Stephan N Steinmann, Bart D Vandegehuchte, Daniel Curulla, Michail Stamatakis, Philippe Sautet
The accurate description of the energy of adsorbate layers is crucial for the understanding of chemistry at interfaces. For heterogeneous catalysis, not only the interaction of the adsorbate with the surface but also the adsorbate-adsorbate lateral interactions significantly affect the activation energies of reactions. Modeling the interactions of the adsorbates with the catalyst surface and with each other can be efficiently achieved in the cluster expansion Hamiltonian formalism, which has recently been implemented in a graph-theoretical kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) scheme to describe multi-dentate species...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781375/the-agricultural-origins-of-time-preference
#8
Oded Galor, Ömer Özak
This research explores the origins of observed differences in time preference across countries and regions. Exploiting a natural experiment associated with the expansion of suitable crops for cultivation in the course of the Columbian Exchange, the research establishes that pre-industrial agro-climatic characteristics that were conducive to higher return to agricultural investment, triggered selection, adaptation and learning processes that generated a persistent positive effect on the prevalence of long-term orientation in the contemporary era...
October 2016: American Economic Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768945/background-on-establishing-a-working-group-to-create-home-clinical-cases-for-education
#9
Taketo Yoshitake
 In Japan there are concerns that there will be a surge in social insurance costs such as medical and nursing care expenses as a result of the baby boom generation reaching the late stages of old age (75 years old and beyond) around 2025 ("The 2025 Problem"). In 2012, the "Outline on Social Insurance and Tax Reform" was approved by the Japanese cabinet and government, including "construction of regional comprehensive care". To promote participation in home medical care by pharmacists, this article presents the roles demanded of pharmacists in regional comprehensive care from the standpoint of physicians, and the discussion of case studies bridging the gap from knowledge learned in lectures to practical applications...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764283/fabrication-and-appraisal-of-poly-lactic-co-glycolic-acid-moxifloxacin-nanoparticles-using-vitamin-e-tpgs-a-potential-intracanal-drug-delivery-agent
#10
Hardik Makkar, Gaurav Patri
INTRODUCTION: Nanotechnology is gaining momentum in the search for ideal biomaterials by dental researchers. The expansible nature of Endodontology deems exploration, learning and scrutinizing newer avenues which have the potential to be applied and investigated. The popularity of polymers as drug delivery vehicles has opened avenues for their application in the root canal system. This study utilized application of biodegradable polymers as potential drug delivery vehicles against Enterococcus faecalis, one of the main reasons for post treatment disease...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742814/wetlands-wild-bovidae-species-richness-and-sheep-density-delineate-risk-of-rift-valley-fever-outbreaks-in-the-african-continent-and-arabian-peninsula
#11
Michael G Walsh, Allard Willem de Smalen, Siobhan M Mor
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging, vector-borne viral zoonosis that has significantly impacted public health, livestock health and production, and food security over the last three decades across large regions of the African continent and the Arabian Peninsula. The potential for expansion of RVF outbreaks within and beyond the range of previous occurrence is unknown. Despite many large national and international epidemics, the landscape epidemiology of RVF remains obscure, particularly with respect to the ecological roles of wildlife reservoirs and surface water features...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742048/broad-learning-system-an-effective-and-efficient-incremental-learning-system-without-the-need-for-deep-architecture
#12
C L Philip Chen, Zhulin Liu
Broad Learning System (BLS) that aims to offer an alternative way of learning in deep structure is proposed in this paper. Deep structure and learning suffer from a time-consuming training process because of a large number of connecting parameters in filters and layers. Moreover, it encounters a complete retraining process if the structure is not sufficient to model the system. The BLS is established in the form of a flat network, where the original inputs are transferred and placed as "mapped features" in feature nodes and the structure is expanded in wide sense in the "enhancement nodes...
July 21, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739950/coevolution-of-cultural-intelligence-extended-life-history-sociality-and-brain-size-in-primates
#13
Sally E Street, Ana F Navarrete, Simon M Reader, Kevin N Laland
Explanations for primate brain expansion and the evolution of human cognition and culture remain contentious despite extensive research. While multiple comparative analyses have investigated variation in brain size across primate species, very few have addressed why primates vary in how much they use social learning. Here, we evaluate the hypothesis that the enhanced reliance on socially transmitted behavior observed in some primates has coevolved with enlarged brains, complex sociality, and extended lifespans...
July 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737009/non-additive-stabilization-by-halogenated-amino-acids-reveals-protein-plasticity-on-a-sub-angstrom-scale
#14
Azade S Hosseini, Christopher J Pace, Adam A Esposito, Jianmin Gao
It has been a long-standing goal to understand the structure-stability relationship of proteins, as optimal stability is essential for protein function and highly desirable for protein therapeutics. Halogenation has emerged as a minimally invasive strategy to probe the physical characteristics of proteins in solution, as well as enhance the structural stabilities of proteins for therapeutic applications. Although advances in synthetic chemistry and genetic code expansion have allowed for the rapid synthesis of proteins with diverse chemical sequences, much remains to be learned regarding the impact of these mutations on their structural integrity...
July 24, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729730/a-selective-inhibitor-of-histone-deacetylase-3-prevents-cognitive-deficits-and-suppresses-striatal-cag-repeat-expansions-in-huntington-s-disease-mice
#15
Nuria Suelves, Lucy Kirkham-McCarthy, Robert S Lahue, Silvia Ginés
Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder whose major symptoms include progressive motor and cognitive dysfunction. Cognitive decline is a critical quality of life concern for HD patients and families. The enzyme histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) appears to be important in HD pathology by negatively regulating genes involved in cognitive functions. Furthermore, HDAC3 has been implicated in the aberrant transcriptional patterns that help cause disease symptoms in HD mice. HDAC3 also helps fuel CAG repeat expansions in human cells, suggesting that HDAC3 may power striatal expansions in the HTT gene thought to drive disease progression...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723811/the-afya-bora-fellowship-an-innovative-program-focused-on-creating-an-interprofessional-network-of-leaders-in-global-health
#16
Wendy M Green, Carey Farquhar, Yohana Mashalla
PROBLEM: Most current health professions education programs are focused on the development of clinical skills. As a result, they may not address the complex and interconnected nature of global health. Trainees require relevant clinical, programmatic, and leadership skills to meet the challenges of practicing in an increasingly globalized environment. APPROACH: To develop health care leaders within sub-Saharan Africa, the Afya Bora Consortium developed a one-year fellowship for medical doctors and nurses...
July 18, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719054/evolutionary-cell-biology-of-proteins-from-protists-to-humans-and-plants
#17
REVIEW
Helmut Plattner
During evolution, the cell as a fine-tuned machine had to undergo permanent adjustments to match changes in its environment, while "closed for repair work" was not possible. Evolution from protists (protozoa and unicellular algae) to multicellular organisms may have occurred in basically two lineages, Unikonta and Bikonta, culminating in mammals and angiosperms (flowering plants), respectively. Unicellular models for unikont evolution are myxamoebae (Dictyostelium) and increasingly also choanoflagellates, whereas, for bikonts, ciliates are preferred models...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698965/what-impact-do-students-have-on-clinical-educators-and-the-way-they-practise
#18
REVIEW
Lisa Waters, Kristin Lo, Stephen Maloney
The clinical education setting plays an important part in teaching students about the real world of clinical practice. Traditionally the educational relationship between student and clinical educator has been considered one-way, with students being the ones that benefit. This review focuses on the areas of clinician practice and behaviour that students are reported to influence through clinical placements and as such, determine the overall impact students can have on supervising clinicians. Electronic searches were conducted across MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO and CINAHL in July 2016...
July 11, 2017: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696993/special-communication-of-a-case-of-hypovolemic-associated-eah-lessons-learned-during-recovery
#19
Tamara Hew-Butler, Rus Hamilton, Bridget Hamilton, Zachary Colesa
Severe exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) is largely dilutional, whereas contributions of sodium loss remain equivocal. We present a case of EAH with encephalopathy involving an experienced male cyclist with no recollection of the event. We thereby conducted a retrospective analysis of biochemical trajectories during hospital recovery. The normalization of serum [Na], in context with changes in other variables, offered a 'reverse' perspective of the underlying pathophysiology. The following biochemical changes were temporally observed, with the return of normonatremia: 1) a decrease in serum potassium and calcium concentrations (absence of extracellular fluid dilution); 2) a decrease in total protein, blood urea nitrogen, hematocrit and hemoglobin (plasma volume expansion); and 3) an increase in mean platelet and red cell corpuscular volumes (cellular expansion after total body water and sodium deficits)...
July 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689040/unsupervised-learning-techniques-reveal-heterogeneity-in-memory-cd8-t-cell-differentiation-following-acute-chronic-and-latent-viral-infections
#20
Mingyong Liu, Erik S Barton, Ryan N Jennings, Darby G Oldenburg, Juliann M Whirry, Douglas W White, Jason M Grayson
CD8(+) T lymphocytes are critical for the control of gammaherpesvirus latency. To determine how memory CD8(+) T cells generated during latency differ from those primed during acute or chronic viral infection, we adoptively transferred naive P14 CD8(+) T cells into uninfected recipients, and examined surface proteins, cytokines and transcription factors following infection with the Armstrong (acute) or Clone 13 (chronic) strains of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), or murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) expressing the LCMV epitope D(b)GP33-41...
September 2017: Virology
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