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Expansive learning

Sara Moccia, Gabriele O Vanone, Elena De Momi, Andrea Laborai, Luca Guastini, Giorgio Peretti, Leonardo S Mattos
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Early-stage diagnosis of laryngeal cancer is of primary importance to reduce patient morbidity. Narrow-band imaging (NBI) endoscopy is commonly used for screening purposes, reducing the risks linked to a biopsy but at the cost of some drawbacks, such as large amount of data to review to make the diagnosis. The purpose of this paper is to present a strategy to perform automatic selection of informative endoscopic video frames, which can reduce the amount of data to process and potentially increase diagnosis performance...
May 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Ewa Siucinska, Wojciech Brutkowski, Tytus Bernas
We found previously that fear conditioning by combined stimulation of a row B facial vibrissae (conditioned stimulus, CS) with a tail shock (unconditioned stimulus, UCS) leads to expansion of the cortical representation of the "trained" row, labeled with 2-deoxyglucose (2DG), in the layer IIIb/IV of the adult mouse the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) 24 h later. We have observed that learning - dependent these plastic changes are manifested by increased expression of somatostatin, cholecystokinin (SST+, CCK+) but not parvalbumin (PV+) immunopositive interneurons...
March 14, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Lisa Beccaria, Megan Y C A Kek, Henk Huijser
OBJECTIVES: In this paper, a review of nursing education literature is employed to ascertain the extent to which nursing educators apply theory to their research, as well as the types of theory they employ. In addition, the use of research methodologies in the nursing education literature is explored. DESIGN: An integrative review. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted for English-language, peer reviewed publications of any research design via Academic Search Complete, Science Direct, CINAHL, and Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition databases from 2001 to 2016, of which 140 were reviewed...
March 2, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Mohammed Alsuhaibani, Danushka Bollegala, Takanori Maehara, Ken-Ichi Kawarabayashi
Methods for representing the meaning of words in vector spaces purely using the information distributed in text corpora have proved to be very valuable in various text mining and natural language processing (NLP) tasks. However, these methods still disregard the valuable semantic relational structure between words in co-occurring contexts. These beneficial semantic relational structures are contained in manually-created knowledge bases (KBs) such as ontologies and semantic lexicons, where the meanings of words are represented by defining the various relationships that exist among those words...
2018: PloS One
Jinbo Chen, Uwe Scholz, Ruonan Zhou, Matthias Lange
In order to access and filter content of life-science databases, full text search is a widely applied query interface. But its high flexibility and intuitiveness is paid for with potentially imprecise and incomplete query results. To reduce this drawback, query assistance systems suggest those combinations of keywords with the highest potential to match most of the relevant data records. Widespread approaches are syntactic query corrections that avoid misspelling and support expansion of words by suffixes and prefixes...
March 12, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Ana Paula Dias Pereira, Zila M Sanchez
BACKGROUND: A school is a learning environment that contributes to the construction of personal values, beliefs, habits and lifestyles, provide convenient settings for the implementation of drug use prevention programs targeting adolescents, who are the population group at highest risk of initiating drug use. The objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of factors associated with implementing drug use prevention programs in Brazilian public and private middle and high urban schools...
March 7, 2018: BMC Public Health
Shuh Shing Lee, Chaoyan Dong, Su Ping Yeo, Matthew Ce Gwee, Dujeepa D Samarasekera
PURPOSE: Faculty development (FD) is essential to prepare faculty members to become effective teachers to meet the challenges in medical education. Despite the growth of FD programmes, most evaluations were often conducted using short questionnaires to assess participants' satisfaction immediately after they attended a programme. Consequently, there were calls for more rigorous evaluations based on observed changes in participants' behaviours. Hence, this study aims to explore how the FD workshops run by the Centre for Medical Education, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore have impacted behavioural changes in the educators...
March 2018: Korean Journal of Medical Education
Adina Dreier-Wolfgramm, Sabine Homeyer, Roman F Oppermann, Wolfgang Hoffmann
Objective: In Germany there is little evidence of interprofessional problem-based learning (PBL) to date. For this reason a corresponding course for medical and nursing students was implemented. The goal was to analyse the feasibility and usefulness from the point of view of the students. Method: For the purposes of evaluation a quantitative observational study was conducted with a pre-course survey, a teaching evaluation and a post-course survey. The pre- and post-course surveys took place before the commencement of and after the conclusion of learning...
2018: GMS Journal for Medical Education
Yohei Kondo, Kazuhiro Aoki, Shin Ishii
Living tissues undergo deformation during morphogenesis. In this process, cells generate mechanical forces that drive the coordinated cell motion and shape changes. Recent advances in experimental and theoretical techniques have enabled in situ measurement of the mechanical forces, but the characterization of mechanical properties that determine how these forces quantitatively affect tissue deformation remains challenging, and this represents a major obstacle for the complete understanding of morphogenesis...
March 1, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Heidi M Soeters, Lamine Koivogui, Lindsey de Beer, Candice Y Johnson, Dianka Diaby, Abdoulaye Ouedraogo, Fatoumata Touré, Fodé Ousmane Bangoura, Michelle A Chang, Nora Chea, Ellen M Dotson, Alyssa Finlay, David Fitter, Mary J Hamel, Carmen Hazim, Maribeth Larzelere, Benjamin J Park, Alexander K Rowe, Angela M Thompson-Paul, Anthony Twyman, Moumié Barry, Godlove Ntaw, Alpha Oumar Diallo
BACKGROUND: During the 2014-2016 Ebola epidemic in West Africa, a key epidemiological feature was disease transmission within healthcare facilities, indicating a need for infection prevention and control (IPC) training and support. METHODS: IPC training was provided to frontline healthcare workers (HCW) in healthcare facilities that were not Ebola treatment units, as well as to IPC trainers and IPC supervisors placed in healthcare facilities. Trainings included both didactic and hands-on components, and were assessed using pre-tests, post-tests and practical evaluations...
2018: PloS One
Xiangyong Cao, Feng Zhou, Lin Xu, Deyu Meng, Zongben Xu, John Paisley
This paper presents a new supervised classification algorithm for remotely sensed hyperspectral image (HSI) which integrates spectral and spatial information in a unified Bayesian framework. First, we formulate the HSI classification problem from a Bayesian perspective. Then, we adopt a convolutional neural network (CNN) to learn the posterior class distributions using a patch-wise training strategy to better use the spatial information. Next, spatial information is further considered by placing a spatial smoothness prior on the labels...
May 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Zhaoen Yang, Qian Gong, Lingling Wang, Yuying Jin, Jianping Xi, Zhi Li, Wenqiang Qin, Zuoren Yang, Lili Lu, Quanjia Chen, Fuguang Li
Members of the YABBY gene family, a small plant-specific family of genes, have been proposed to function in specifying abaxial cell fate. Although to date little has been learned about cotton YABBY genes, completion of the cotton genome enables a comprehensive genome-wide analysis of YABBY genes in cotton. Here, a total of 12, 12, and 23 YABBY genes were identified in Gossypium arboreum (2n = 26, A2 ), G. raimondii (2n = 26, D5 ), and G. hirsutum (2n = 4x = 52, [AD]t ), respectively. Sequence analysis showed that the N-terminal zinc-finger and C-terminal YABBY domains in YABBY proteins are highly conserved among cotton, Arabidopsis , and rice...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Segolene Gaillard, Salma Malik, Jenny Preston, Begonya Nafria Escalera, Pamela Dicks, Nathalie Touil, Sandrine Mardirossian, Joana Claverol-Torres, Behrouz Kassaï
Children and young people are seen as fundamental to the design and delivery of clinical research as active and reflective participants. In Europe, involvement of children and young people in clinical research is promoted extensively in order to engage young people in research as partners and to give them a voice to raise their own issues or opinions and for their involvement in planning and decision making in addition to learning research skills. Children and young people can be trained in clinical research through participation in young person advisory groups (YPAGs)...
February 19, 2018: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
Peter de Boves Harrington
A modified algorithm for training a restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) has been devised and demonstrated for improving the results for partial least squares (PLS) calibration of wheat and meat by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. In all cases, the PLS calibrations improved by using the abstract features generated from the RBM so long as the nonlinear mapping increased the dimensionality. The evaluations were validated using bootstrapped Latin partitions (BLPs) with 5 bootstraps and 3-Latin partitions which proved useful because of the statistical learning and random initial conditions of the RBM networks...
June 20, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Juliette Thariat, Jean Louis Habrand, Paul Lesueur, Abdulhamid Chaikh, Emmanuel Kammerer, Delphine Lecomte, Alain Batalla, Jacques Balosso, Thomas Tessonnier
Proton therapy is a radiotherapy, based on the use of protons, charged subatomic particles that stop at a given depth depending on their initial energy (pristine Bragg peak), avoiding any output beam, unlike the photons used in most of the other modalities of radiotherapy. Proton therapy has been used for 60 years, but has only become ubiquitous in the last decade because of recent major advances in particle accelerator technology. This article reviews the history of clinical implementation of protons, the nature of the technological advances that now allows its expansion at a lower cost...
February 5, 2018: Bulletin du Cancer
Ling Zhang, Le Lu, Ronald M Summers, Electron Kebebew, Jianhua Yao
Tumor growth is associated with cell invasion and mass-effect, which are traditionally formulated by mathematical models, namely reaction-diffusion equations and biomechanics. Such models can be personalized based on clinical measurements to build the predictive models for tumor growth. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of using deep convolutional neural networks to directly represent and learn the cell invasion and mass-effect, and to predict the subsequent involvement regions of a tumor. The invasion network learns the cell invasion from information related to metabolic rate, cell density, and tumor boundary derived from multimodal imaging data...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Sherif G Nour, Jonathan S Lewin
The expansive technological developments that occurred over the past decades have clearly moved the field of Interventional MRI beyond the arena of the "proof of concept" to a viable option for minimally invasive diagnosis and therapy. State-of-the-art MRI technology can currently be employed to identify an occult target pathology, confidently steer an interventional device into complex anatomy, accurately deliver a device, drug, or energy, and/or monitor the real time effect of a treatment. Implementing a full-scope interventional MRI service requires substantial physical and conceptual modifications of the traditional diagnostic MRI environment...
February 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Maryellen L Giger
Advances in both imaging and computers have synergistically led to a rapid rise in the potential use of artificial intelligence in various radiological imaging tasks, such as risk assessment, detection, diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy response, as well as in multi-omics disease discovery. A brief overview of the field is given here, allowing the reader to recognize the terminology, the various subfields, and components of machine learning, as well as the clinical potential. Radiomics, an expansion of computer-aided diagnosis, has been defined as the conversion of images to minable data...
March 2018: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
E Bartoli
BACKGROUND: The expansion of scientific publications makes more difficult the mining of relevant information necessary for a productive appraisal of authors' work, scientific interaction and exchange. Papers over-citation is unproductive, under-citation of innovative research generates delay and inefficiency. The extraction of information from the literature is mostly based on keywords (KWs). METHODS: I computed the chances of citation of one paper as 1/number of papers retrieved by the KWs published in that paper, and compared them with the chances obtained by selecting different KWs...
January 29, 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
Shashi N Kapadia, Erika L Abramson, Eileen J Carter, Angela S Loo, Rainu Kaushal, David P Calfee, Matthew S Simon
BACKGROUND: Misuse of antibiotics can lead to the development of antibiotic resistance, which adversely affects morbidity, mortality, length of stay, and cost. To combat the threat of antimicrobial resistance, The Joint Commission and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services have initiated or proposed requirements for hospitals to have antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs), but implementation remains challenging. A key-informant interview study was conducted to describe the characteristics and innovative strategies of leading ASPs...
February 2018: Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety
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