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Anne Werner, Kirsti Malterud
AIM: The aim of this study was to explore informal adult support experienced by children with parental alcohol problems to understand how professionals can show recognition in a similar way. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative interview study with retrospective accounts from nine adults growing up with problem-drinking parents. Data were analysed with systematic text condensation. Goffman's concept "frame" offered a lens to study how supportive situations were defined and to understand opportunities and limitations for translation of recognition acts and attitudes to professional contexts...
November 30, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
P Mortier, K Demyttenaere, R P Auerbach, P Cuijpers, J G Green, G Kiekens, R C Kessler, M K Nock, A M Zaslavsky, R Bruffaerts
BACKGROUND: College students are a worldwide increasing group of young people at risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviours (STB). However, no previous studies have prospectively investigated the first onset of STB during the college period. METHODS: Using longitudinal data from the Leuven College Surveys, 2337 (response rate [RR]=66.6%) incoming freshmen provided baseline data on STB, parental psychopathology, childhood-adolescent traumatic experiences, 12-month risk for mental disorders, and 12-month stressful experiences...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Lynne McCormack, Sherilyn Thomson
Objective: No known research explores the double-edged phenomenon of childhood trauma/adult mental health consumer. Therefore, whether receiving a psychiatric diagnosis in light of childhood trauma supports or impedes psychological wellbeing in adult life, is unknown. Method: Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) provided the methodological framework. Data were collected through the use of semistructured interviews. Analysis sought thematic representation from subjective interpretations of the experienced phenomenon: childhood trauma survivor/mental health consumer...
October 6, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Irene Cheung, Lorne Campbell, Etienne P LeBel
Finkel, Rusbult, Kumashiro, and Hannon (2002, Study 1) demonstrated a causal link between subjective commitment to a relationship and how people responded to hypothetical betrayals of that relationship. Participants primed to think about their commitment to their partner (high commitment) reacted to the betrayals with reduced exit and neglect responses relative to those primed to think about their independence from their partner (low commitment). The priming manipulation did not affect constructive voice and loyalty responses...
September 2016: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
Pareezad Zarolia, Max Weisbuch, Kateri McRae
Trust is integral to successful relationships. The development of trust stems from how one person treats others, and there are multiple ways to learn about someone's trust-relevant behavior. The present research captures the development of trust to examine if trust-relevant impressions and behavior are influenced by indirect behavioral information (i.e., descriptions of how a person treated another individual)-even in the presence of substantial direct behavioral information (i.e., self-relevant, first-hand experience with a person)...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Elani Graça Ferreira Cavalcante, Mahara Coelho Crisostomo Miranda, Ana Zaiz Flores Hormain Teixeira de Carvalho, Ivana Cristina Vieira de Lima, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz Galvão
OBJECTIVE: Learn the perceptions of patients with sexually transmitted infections and sexual partners who are notified of the infection. METHOD: A descriptive and qualitative study, based on the collective subject discourse technique, was conducted in four healthcare centers of reference in Fortaleza, Ceará, from March to July 2014. The sample comprised 21 subjects (11 index patients and 10 notified partners). RESULTS: The index patients reported complicity, concern about the partner's health and revelation of diagnosis aiming to preserve the relationship...
May 2016: Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da U S P
Lori S Katz
This is a program evaluation of the Warrior Renew treatment protocol delivered in an outpatient therapy group for survivors of military sexual trauma (MST) at a Department of Veterans Affairs medical center. The group was delivered via a manualized protocol with 12 weekly topics. It includes coping skills for affect management (e.g., triggers and anxiety) and addresses unique aspects of MST including anger/resentments because of injustice and lack of closure, betrayal, and self-blame. It also addresses interpersonal factors such as relationship patterns and healthy interpersonal skills...
August 18, 2016: Psychological Services
Polly Radcliffe, Ana Flávia Pires Lucas d'Oliveira, Susan Lea, Wagner Dos Santos Figueiredo, Gail Gilchrist
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: This paper describes how substance use features in the accounts of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators in treatment in England and Brazil. The aim of the research was to better understand cross cultural constructions of IPV perpetration amongst men in treatment for substance use. DESIGN AND METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 men in community substance use treatment in Sao Paolo, Brazil and London and the South East of England who had reported IPV perpetration in a questionnaire survey...
August 12, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Review
Linda Truebestein, Thomas A Leonard
Coiled-coils are found in proteins throughout all three kingdoms of life. Coiled-coil domains of some proteins are almost invariant in sequence and length, betraying a structural and functional role for amino acids along the entire length of the coiled-coil. Other coiled-coils are divergent in sequence, but conserved in length, thereby functioning as molecular spacers. In this capacity, coiled-coil proteins influence the architecture of organelles such as centrioles and the Golgi, as well as permit the tethering of transport vesicles...
September 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Maria Luz Gonzalez-Gadea, Mariano Sigman, Alexia Rattazzi, Claudio Lavin, Alvaro Rivera-Rei, Julian Marino, Facundo Manes, Agustin Ibanez
Recent theories of decision making propose a shared value-related brain mechanism for encoding monetary and social rewards. We tested this model in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and control children. We monitored participants' brain dynamics using high density-electroencephalography while they played a monetary and social reward tasks. Control children exhibited a feedback Error-Related Negativity (fERN) modulation and Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC) source activation during both tasks...
2016: Scientific Reports
Jennifer M Gómez, Carly P Smith, Robyn L Gobin, Shin Shin Tang, Jennifer J Freyd
The Hoffman Report (Hoffman et al., 2015) documented devastating information about the American Psychological Association (APA) and the profession of psychology in the U.S., prompting a public apology and a formal commitment to right their wrongs (APA, 2015). In the current paper, we utilize betrayal trauma theory (Freyd, 1997), including betrayal blindness (e.g., Freyd, 1996; Tang, 2015) and institutional betrayal (Smith & Freyd, 2014a), to understand and learn from APA's behaviors. We further situate this discussion in the context of inequality, both within APA and amidst American society generally...
July 18, 2016: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Bo Sun, Tielin Shi, Xianhua Tan, Zhiyong Liu, Youni Wu, Guanglan Liao
We demonstrate that moderate hydrogen annealing is a simple and effective approach to substantially improve the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanorods via increasing oxygen vacancies in outer layer. Hydrogenated TiO2 nanorods are obtained by annealing in hydrogen atmosphere at various temperatures ranging from 200 degrees C to 350 degrees C. TEM images directly illustrate the disordered layer on the surface of nanorods induced by hydrogen annealing. The photoelectrochemical measurements reveal that the photocurrent is improved first as the temperature increases and reaches to the maximum value at an appropriate temperature (250 degrees C), corresponding to about 50% enhancement compared to the pristine TiO2...
June 2016: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Nicholas D Schiff, Joseph J Fins
While often confused by non-medical specialists, brain death and disorders of consciousness such as coma, vegetative state, and minimally conscious state are clearly distinct and unambiguously distinguishable. Moreover, biological models underpin each category uniquely and with increasing precision. In this Primer, we frame the distinctions across the different conditions, point to recent work that advances measurements able to identify their differences, and explain two inter-related paradoxes. The first paradox is the brain dead patient whose 'phenotype' betrays the ultimate futility and lack of sustainability of the state...
July 11, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Simone Quercia
Betrayal aversion has been operationalized as the evidence that subjects demand a higher risk premium to take social risks compared to natural risks. This evidence has been first shown by Bohnet and Zeckhauser (2004) using an adaptation of the Becker - DeGroot - Marschak mechanism (BDM, Becker et al. (1964)). We compare their implementation of the BDM mechanism with a new version designed to facilitate subjects' comprehension. We find that, although the two versions produce different distributions of values, the size of betrayal aversion, measured as an average treatment difference between social and natural risk settings, is not different across the two versions...
May 2016: Journal of the Economic Science Association
Gonçalo Covas, Filipa Vaz, Gabriela Henriques, Mariana G Pinho, Sérgio R Filipe
Most bacterial cells are surrounded by a surface composed mainly of peptidoglycan (PGN), a glycopolymer responsible for ensuring the bacterial shape and a telltale molecule that betrays the presence of bacteria to the host immune system. In Staphylococcus aureus, as in most gram-positive bacteria, peptidoglycan is concealed by covalently linked molecules of wall teichoic acids (WTA)-phosphate rich molecules made of glycerol and ribitol phosphates which may be tailored by different amino acids and sugars.In order to analyze and compare the composition of WTA produced by different S...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Scott D Easton, Danielle M Leone-Sheehan, Patrick J O'Leary
Clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse (CPSA) during childhood represents a tragic betrayal of trust that inflicts damage on the survivor, the family, and the parish community. Survivors often report CPSA has a disturbing impact on their self-identity. Despite intense media coverage of clergy abuse globally in the Catholic Church (and other faith communities) over several decades, relatively few empirical studies have been conducted with survivors. Beyond clinical observations and advocacy group reports, very little is known about survivors' perceptions of how the abuse impacted their long-term self-identity...
May 25, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Andreea Tamaian, Bridget Klest, Christina Mutschler
Individuals who struggle with chronic medical conditions frequently use medical services and may depend on the medical system to ensure their overall well-being. As a result, they may be at a greater risk of feeling betrayed by the medical system when their needs are not being met. The current study aimed to qualitatively assess patients' negative experiences with the medical system that may lead to feelings of institutional betrayal. A total of 14 Canadian adults struggling with various chronic conditions completed an online open-ended questionnaire...
April 26, 2016: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Anne Werner, Kirsti Malterud
BACKGROUND: Children of parents with alcohol problems are at risk for serious long-term health consequences. Knowledge is limited about how to recognize those in need of support and how to offer respectful services. METHOD: From nine interviews with adult children from families with alcohol problems, we explored childhood experiences, emphasizing issues concerning potentially unmet needs for professional support. Smart's perspective on family secrets and Goffman's dramaturgical metaphor on social order of the family focusing on the social drama and the dramaturgy enacted by the children supported our cross-case thematic analysis...
2016: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
Sarah E Hampson, Grant W Edmonds, Lewis R Goldberg, Maureen Barckley, Bridget Klest, Joan P Dubanoski, Teresa A Hillier
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether lifetime experience of trauma is related to personality through instrumental and reactive trait processes, and whether lifetime trauma is a mechanism underlying the association between childhood conscientiousness and objectively assessed adult physical health. METHOD: Participants (N = 831) were 442 women and 389 men from the Hawaii longitudinal study of personality and health. Teacher assessments of personality were obtained when the participants were in elementary school...
July 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Lindsey L Monteith, Nazanin H Bahraini, Bridget B Matarazzo, Kelly A Soberay, Carly Parnitzke Smith
OBJECTIVES: We examined perceptions of institutional betrayal among Veterans exposed to military sexual trauma (MST) and whether perceptions of institutional betrayal are associated with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and suicidal ideation and attempt after MST. METHOD: A total of 49 Veterans with MST completed self-report measures and interviews in a Veterans Health Administration setting. RESULTS: Many participants reported perceptions that a military institution created an environment in which MST seemed common, likely to occur, and did not proactively prevent such experiences...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology
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