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T Coudon, H Hourani, C Nguyen, E Faure, F R Mancini, B Fervers, P Salizzoni
Identifying the long-term effects of airborne pollutants requires the computation of the spatial and temporal variability of their concentration in air to estimate the exposure of the population. To estimate exposure levels of individuals in a breast cancer case control study nested in a national prospective cohort, we determine here the differential impact of a variety of cadmium and dioxin sources on urban air over a large urban area and over a period of almost 20years. To that end, we couple an emission model, to estimate dioxin and cadmium atmospheric annual releases, with an urban dispersion model in order to compute pollutant concentration fields at a fine temporal (1h) and spatial (25m) resolution...
December 5, 2017: Environment International
Peng Hu, Emily Fabyanic, Deborah Y Kwon, Sheng Tang, Zhaolan Zhou, Hao Wu
Massively parallel single-cell RNA sequencing can precisely resolve cellular diversity in a high-throughput manner at low cost, but unbiased isolation of intact single cells from complex tissues such as adult mammalian brains is challenging. Here, we integrate sucrose-gradient-assisted purification of nuclei with droplet microfluidics to develop a highly scalable single-nucleus RNA-seq approach (sNucDrop-seq), which is free of enzymatic dissociation and nucleus sorting. By profiling ∼18,000 nuclei isolated from cortical tissues of adult mice, we demonstrate that sNucDrop-seq not only accurately reveals neuronal and non-neuronal subtype composition with high sensitivity but also enables in-depth analysis of transient transcriptional states driven by neuronal activity, at single-cell resolution, in vivo...
December 7, 2017: Molecular Cell
Marie Dujardin, François-Xavier Cantrelle, Guy Lippens, Xavier Hanoulle
The non structural protein 5A (NS5A) regulates the replication of the hepatitis C viral RNA through a direct molecular interaction of its domain 2 (NS5A-D2) with the RNA dependent RNA polymerase NS5B. Because of conflicting data in the literature, we study here this molecular interaction using fluorinated versions of the NS5A-D2 protein derived from the JFH1 Hepatitis C Virus strain. Two methods to prepare fluorine-labelled NS5A-D2 involving the biosynthetic incorporation of a 19F-tryptophan using 5-fluoroindole and the posttranslational introduction of fluorine by chemical conjugation of 2-iodo-N-(trifluoromethyl)acetamide with the NS5A-D2 cysteine side chains are presented...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular NMR
María C Gélvez-Rueda, Eline M Hutter, Duyen H Cao, Nicolas Renaud, Constantinos C Stoumpos, Joseph T Hupp, Tom J Savenije, Mercouri G Kanatzidis, Ferdinand C Grozema
The optoelectronic properties of hybrid perovskites can be easily tailored by varying their components. Specifically, mixing the common short organic cation (methylammonium (MA)) with a larger one (e.g., butyl ammonium (BA)) results in 2-dimensional perovskites with varying thicknesses of inorganic layers separated by the large organic cation. In both of these applications, a detailed understanding of the dissociation and recombination of electron-hole pairs is of prime importance. In this work, we give a clear experimental demonstration of the interconversion between bound excitons and free charges as a function of temperature by combining microwave conductivity techniques with photoluminescence measurements...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. C, Nanomaterials and Interfaces
Takeshi Satow, Toshihiko Aso, Sei Nishida, Taro Komuro, Tsukasa Ueno, Naoya Oishi, Yukako Nakagami, Masashi Odagiri, Takayuki Kikuchi, Kazumichi Yoshida, Keita Ueda, Takeharu Kunieda, Toshiya Murai, Susumu Miyamoto, Hidenao Fukuyama
Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a highly prevalent condition in the elderly population; however, the underlying pathophysiology in relation to the aging process remains unclear. To investigate the effect of removal of cerebrospinal fluid by lumbar "tap test" on the cerebral circulation in patients with iNPH, 14 patients with "probable" iNPH were studied using a novel blood tracking technique based on blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance signal intensity. By tracking the propagation of the low-frequency component of the BOLD signal, extended venous drainage times were observed in the periventricular region of the patients, which was reversed by tap test...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Philipp A Schroeder, Hans-Christoph Nuerk, Christian Plewnia
In societies with left-to-right reading direction, left-side vs. right-side behavioral decisions are faster for relatively small vs. large number magnitudes, and vice versa, a phenomenon termed Spatial-Numerical Associations of Response Codes (SNARC) effect. But also for non-numerical sequential items, SNARC-like effects were observed, suggesting a common neurocognitive mechanism based on the ordinal structures of both numbers and sequences. Modulation of prefrontal networks that are involved in providing spatial associations during cognitive behavior can contribute to elaborate their neuropsychological theoretical foundations...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Aaron J Grossberg, Elisabeth G Vichaya, Diana L Christian, Jessica M Molkentine, Daniel W Vermeer, Phillip S Gross, Paola D Vermeer, John H Lee, Robert Dantzer
Fatigue is the most common symptom of cancer at diagnosis, yet causes and effective treatments remain elusive. As tumors can be highly inflammatory, it is generally accepted that inflammation mediates cancer-related fatigue. However, evidence to support this assertion is mostly correlational. In this study, we directly tested the hypothesis that fatigue results from propagation of tumor-induced inflammation to the brain and activation of the central pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1 (IL-1). The heterotopic syngeneic murine head and neck cancer model (mEER) caused systemic inflammation and increased expression of Il1b in the brain while inducing fatigue-like behaviors characterized by decreased voluntary wheel running and exploratory activity...
December 7, 2017: Cancer Research
Weihua Jin, Bing Liu, Shuai Li, Jing Chen, Hong Tang, Di Jiang, Quanbin Zhang, Weihong Zhong
Polysaccharide (ST) was prepared from Sargassum thunbergii using hot water. Two fractions (ST-1 and ST-2) were prepared using anion exchange chromatography. One desulfated polysaccharide (ST-1-DS) was also prepared. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) performed on ST-1-DS showed that the desulfated polysaccharides contained methyl glycosides of mono-sulfated and di-sulfated galacto-fucooligosaccharides. This result suggested that ST-1 might contain sulfated galactofucan, which consists of a backbone of alternating (Gal)n and (Fuc)n and sulfated randomly on Gal and mainly on C-2 in Fuc...
December 4, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Beate Heilmann, Kaisa Hakkila, Jens Georg, Taina Tyystjärvi, Wolfgang R Hess, Ilka M Axmann, Dennis Dienst
BACKGROUND: The 6S RNA is a global transcriptional riboregulator, which is exceptionally widespread among most bacterial phyla. While its role is well-characterized in some heterotrophic bacteria, we subjected a cyanobacterial homolog to functional analysis, thereby extending the scope of 6S RNA action to the special challenges of photoautotrophic lifestyles. RESULTS: Physiological characterization of a 6S RNA deletion strain (ΔssaA) demonstrates a delay in the recovery from nitrogen starvation...
December 8, 2017: BMC Microbiology
Rachel Wamser-Nanney
Maternal support has been conceptualized as a key factor in predicting children's functioning following sexual abuse; however, empirical evidence for this assumption is rather limited. Prior studies may have failed to find a relationship between maternal support and children's outcomes due to the methodological weaknesses of the prior literature such as the use of maternal support measures without adequately reported psychometric properties. Moreover, relatively few studies have investigated whether maternal support corresponds with children's own self-reported symptoms...
December 4, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
Christine A Armstrong, Vera Moiseeva, Laura C Collopy, Siân R Pearson, Tomalika R Ullah, Shidong T Xi, Jennifer Martin, Shaan Subramaniam, Sara Marelli, Hanna Amelina, Kazunori Tomita
Shelterin, the telomeric protein complex, plays a crucial role in telomere homeostasis. In fission yeast, telomerase is recruited to chromosome ends by the shelterin component Tpz1 and its binding partner Ccq1, where telomerase binds to the 3' overhang to add telomeric repeats. Recruitment is initiated by the interaction of Ccq1 with the telomerase subunit Est1. However, how telomerase is released following elongation remains to be established. Here, we show that Ccq1 also has a role in the suppression of telomere elongation, when coupled with the Clr4 histone H3 methyl-transferase complex and the Clr3 histone deacetylase and nucleosome remodelling complex, SHREC...
December 4, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
Maslin Osathanunkul, Srisulak Dheeranupattana, Siriphron Rotarayanont, Siriwoot Sookkhee, Khukrit Osathanunkul, Panagiotis Madesis
DNA barcoding coupled high resolution melting (Bar-HRM) is an emerging method for species discrimination based on DNA dissociation kinetics. The aim of this work was to evaluate the suitability of different primer sets, derived from selected DNA regions, for Bar-HRM analysis of species in Kaempferia (Zingiberaceae). Four primer pairs were evaluated (rbcL, rpoC, trnL and ITS1). It was observed that the ITS1 barcode was the most useful DNA barcoding region overall for species discrimination out of all of the regions and primers assessed...
December 7, 2017: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
Margarita G Ilyina, Edward M Khamitov, Sergey Petrovich Ivanov, Akhat G Mustafin, Sergey L Khursan
The acidities of 18 5,6-substituted uracils have been numerically estimated as pKa values in terms of three theoretical models. The first scheme includes the calculation of the gas-phase acidity of uracil with the G3MP2B3 method and taking into account the solvent effect using the polarizable continuum approximation PCM(SMD)-TPSS/aug-cc-pVTZ. The second model is one-step and implies calculating of the free Gibbs energies of the hydrate complex of uracil (and its anion) with 5 water molecules by the TPSS/aug-cc-pVTZ method...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
J A Drader, N Boubals, B Camès, D Guillaumont, P Guilbaud, G Saint-Louis, L Berthon
The radiolytic degradation of three N,N-dialkyl amide ligands relevant to nuclear fuel reprocessing was studied. The degradation of these ligands: N,N di-2-ethyhexylbutyramide (DEHBA), N,N di-2-ethyhexylisobutyramide (DEHiBA) and N,N di-2-ethyhexyl-3-dimethylbutanamide (DEHDMBA) was examined to evaluate the effect of the structure on the formation of degradation products as well as to compare alpha induced degradation to gamma induced degradation. In situ alpha radiolysis by introduction of plutonium(iv) as the alpha source in the solution and ex situ gamma radiolysis with 60Co as the gamma source were compared...
December 7, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Tingting Liu, Yuhong Chen, Haifeng Wang, Meiling Zhang, Lihua Yuan, Cairong Zhang
The hydrogen storage properties of pristine β12-borophene and Li-decorated β12-borophene are systemically investigated by means of first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. The adsorption sites, adsorption energies, electronic structures, and hydrogen storage performance of pristine β12-borophene/H₂ and Li-β12-borophene/H₂ systems are discussed in detail. The results show that H₂ is dissociated into Two H atoms that are then chemisorbed on β12-borophene via strong covalent bonds...
December 7, 2017: Materials
Lena Trotochaud, Ashley R Head, Sven Pletincx, Osman Karslıoğlu, Yi Yu, Astrid Waldner, Line Kyhl, Tom Hauffman, Herman Terryn, Bryan W Eichhorn, Hendrik Bluhm
We use ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS) to study chemical changes, including hydroxylation and water adsorption, at copper oxide surfaces from ultra-high vacuum to ambient relative humidities of ~5%. Polycrystalline CuO and Cu2O surfaces were prepared by selective oxidation of metallic copper foils. For both oxides, hydroxylation occurs readily, even at high vacuum conditions. Hydroxylation on both oxides plateaus near ~0.01% relative humidity (RH) at a coverage of ~1 monolayer. In contrast to previous studies, neither oxide shows significant accumulation of molecular water; rather, both surfaces show a high affinity for adventitious carbon contaminants...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Valentina Niccolai, Anne Klepp, Peter Indefrey, Alfons Schnitzler, Katja Biermann-Ruben
Motor cortex activation observed during body-related verb processing hints at simulation accompanying linguistic understanding. By exploiting the up- and down-regulation that anodal and cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) exert on motor cortical excitability, we aimed at further characterizing the functional contribution of the motor system to linguistic processing. In a double-blind sham-controlled within-subjects design, online stimulation was applied to the left hemispheric hand-related motor cortex of 20 healthy subjects...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Masanori Matsuishi, Yoshitaka Eda, Emi Saito, Shohei Yamamoto, Kenji Kanamori, Yuto Goto, Yutaro Kobayashi, Akihiro Okitani
Denaturation of actin and myosin in myofibrils induced by heating at 50°C was investigated to reveal the mechanism of irreversible liberation of actin from myofibrils on heating at lower temperatures than conventional cooking. Denaturation of these proteins was determined by Mg2+ -ATPase (adenosine triphosphatase) and Ca2+ -ATPase activities. When minced meat was heated for 20 min, actin was liberated accompanying denaturation of 80% of actin and 50% of myosin. Heating of the myofibrillar fraction (MFF) isolated from meat homogenate induced much slower denaturation of actin than myosin...
December 7, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
Bartosz Setner, Zbigniew Szewczuk
Quaternary ammonium salts (QAS), both linear and bicyclic, are often utilized to improve the mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of peptides by fixing a permanent positive charge on the analyzed molecule. However, during collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments, QAS undergo unwanted side reactions-Hofmann elimination as well as a tertiary amine loss- rendering the data interpretation complicated. In this work, we present 2-thia- and 2-oxa-5-azoniaspiro[4.4]nonyl groups as heterocyclic derivatives of the highly stable ionization group, 5-azoniaspiro[4...
December 6, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Aliana López de Victoria, Anthony F T Moore, Apostolos G Gittis, Eda Koculi
DbpA is an Escherichia coli DEAD-box RNA helicase implicated in RNA structural isomerization in the peptide bond formation site. In addition to the RecA-like catalytic core conserved in all of the members of DEAD-box family, DbpA contains a structured C-terminal domain, which is responsible for anchoring DbpA to hairpin 92 of 23S ribosomal RNA during the ribosome assembly process. Here, surface plasmon resonance was used to determine the equilibrium dissociation constant and the microscopic rate constants of the DbpA C-terminal domain association and dissociation to a fragment of 23S ribosomal RNA containing hairpin 92...
November 30, 2017: ACS Omega
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