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Katsuya Araki, Kotomi Sugawara, Eri H Hayakawa, Kumi Ubukawa, Isuzu Kobayashi, Hideki Wakui, Naoto Takahashi, Kenichi Sawada, Hideki Mochizuki, Wataru Nunomura
Although the neuronal protein α-synuclein (α-syn) is thought to play a central role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), its physiological function remains unknown. It is known that α-syn is also abundantly expressed in erythrocytes. However, its role in erythrocytes is also unknown. In the present study, we investigated the localization of α-syn in human erythroblasts and erythrocytes. Protein expression of α-syn increased during terminal differentiation of erythroblasts (from day 7 to day 13), whereas its mRNA level peaked at day 11...
April 24, 2018: International Journal of Hematology
Shruthi Venugopal, Chieh Kao, Ritu Chandna, Konerirajapuram N Sulochana, Vivekanandan Subramanian, Mo Chen, R Manjunatha Kini, Ruowen Ge
Anti-angiogenesis therapy is an established therapeutic strategy for cancer. The endogenous angiogenic inhibitor angiostatin contains the first 3-4 kringle domains of plasminogen and inhibits both angiogenesis and vascular permeability. We present here a 10-residue peptide, Angio-3, derived from plasminogen kringle 3, which retains the functions of angiostatin in inhibiting both angiogenesis and vascular permeability. NMR studies indicate that Angio-3 holds a solution structure similar to the corresponding region of kringle 3...
April 24, 2018: Angiogenesis
Albert M Iskandarov, Tomofumi Tada
The effects of cation dopants in zirconia on the H2 oxidation mechanism at the pore/nickel/zirconia triple phase boundary (TPB) were theoretically examined. Y, Sc, Al, Ce, and Ca were considered as dopants, and on-boundary, O-migration, and H-migration reaction mechanisms were examined. Based on density functional theory calculations, Y as a dopant favored the on-boundary mechanism with water molecule formation within the immediate proximity of the TPB. The corresponding rate-limiting step is H transfer from the nickel surface to the boundary...
April 25, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Evgenia Ntini, Annita Louloupi, Julia Liz, Jose M Muino, Annalisa Marsico, Ulf Andersson Vang Ørom
Long ncRNAs are often enriched in the nucleus and at chromatin, but whether their dissociation from chromatin is important for their role in transcription regulation is unclear. Here, we group long ncRNAs using epigenetic marks, expression and strength of chromosomal interactions; we find that long ncRNAs transcribed from loci engaged in strong long-range chromosomal interactions are less abundant at chromatin, suggesting the release from chromatin as a crucial functional aspect of long ncRNAs in transcription regulation of their target genes...
April 24, 2018: Nature Communications
Mathieu Massicotte, Fabien Vialla, Peter Schmidt, Mark B Lundeberg, Simone Latini, Sten Haastrup, Mark Danovich, Diana Davydovskaya, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Vladimir I Fal'ko, Kristian S Thygesen, Thomas G Pedersen, Frank H L Koppens
Two-dimensional (2D) semiconducting materials are promising building blocks for optoelectronic applications, many of which require efficient dissociation of excitons into free electrons and holes. However, the strongly bound excitons arising from the enhanced Coulomb interaction in these monolayers suppresses the creation of free carriers. Here, we identify the main exciton dissociation mechanism through time and spectrally resolved photocurrent measurements in a monolayer WSe2 p-n junction. We find that under static in-plane electric field, excitons dissociate at a rate corresponding to the one predicted for tunnel ionization of 2D Wannier-Mott excitons...
April 24, 2018: Nature Communications
Petra Mazancová, Veronika Némethová, Dušana Treľová, Lucia Kleščíková, Igor Lacík, Filip Rázga
Ionically crosslinked chitosan/tripolyphosphate (Chit/TPP) particles have been widely tested in biomedical applications, particularly as potential carriers for controlled drug delivery. Since Chit/TPP particles are typically prepared under acidic conditions, their application in physiological environment and correct evaluation of biological data ultimately require knowledge on their physico-chemical properties and overall behaviour at physiological pH, as they may differ substantially from those exhibited after preparation...
July 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Artem Shatillo, Arto Lipponen, Raimo A Salo, Heikki Tanila, Alexei Verkhratsky, Rashid Giniatullin, Olli H Gröhn
We report spontaneous hemodynamic activity termed "Spontaneous BOLD Waves" (SBWs) detected by BOLD fMRI in Sprague-Dawley rats under medetomidine anesthesia. These SBWs, which lasted several minutes, were observed in cortex, thalamus and hippocampus. The SBWs' correlates were undetectable in electrophysiological recordings, suggesting an exclusive gliovascular phenomenon dissociated from neuronal activity. SBWs were insensitive to the NMDA receptors antagonist MK-801 but were inhibited by the α1-adrenoceptor blocker prazosin...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Gurusamy Saravanakumar, Hyeongmok Park, Jinhwan Kim, Dongsik Park, Swapan Pramanick, Dae Heon Kim, Won Jong Kim
Incorporation of a desired stimuli-responsive unit in a stereospecific manner at the specific location within a non-linear block copolymer architecture is a challenging task in synthetic polymer chemistry. Herein, we report a facile and versatile method to synthesize AB2 miktoarm block copolymers bearing a singlet oxygen (1O2)-labile regio and stereospecific -aminoacrylate linkage with 100% E-configuration at the junction via a combination of amino-yne click chemistry and ring opening polymerization. Using this strategy, a series of 1O2-responsive AB2 amphiphilic miktoarm copolymers composed of hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEG) as the A constituent and hydrophobic polycaprolactone (PCL) as the B constituent (MA-PEG-b-PCL2) was synthesized by varying the block length of PCL...
April 24, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Valentin Pitzen, Sophie Askarzada, Ralph Gräf, Irene Meyer
Dictyostelium centrosomes consist of a nucleus-associated cylindrical, three-layered core structure surrounded by a corona consisting of microtubule-nucleation complexes embedded in a scaffold of large coiled-coil proteins. One of them is the conserved CDK5RAP2 protein. Here we focus on the role of Dictyostelium CDK5RAP2 for maintenance of centrosome integrity, its interaction partners and its dynamic behavior during interphase and mitosis. GFP-CDK5RAP2 is present at the centrosome during the entire cell cycle except from a short period during prophase, correlating with the normal dissociation of the corona at this stage...
April 23, 2018: Cells
Zaid B Jildeh, Jan Oberländer, Patrick Kirchner, Patrick H Wagner, Michael J Schöning
In this article, we present an overview on the thermocatalytic reaction of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) gas on a manganese (IV) oxide (MnO 2 ) catalytic structure. The principle of operation and manufacturing techniques are introduced for a calorimetric H 2 O 2 gas sensor based on porous MnO 2 . Results from surface analyses by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the catalytic material provide indication of the H 2 O 2 dissociation reaction schemes. The correlation between theory and the experiments is documented in numerical models of the catalytic reaction...
April 21, 2018: Nanomaterials
B Sudarshana Reddy, P Pavankumar, L Sridhar, Soumen Saha, G Narahari Sastry, S Prabhakar
RATIONALE: The intercellular and intracellular transport of charged species (Na+ /K+ ) entail interaction of the ions with neutral organic molecules and formation of adduct ions. The rate of transport of the ions across the cell membrane(s) may depend on the stability of the adduct ions, which in turn rely on structural aspects of the organic molecules that interact with the ions. METHODS: Positive ion ESI mass spectra were recorded for the solutions containing fatty acids (FAs) and monovalent cations (X=Li+ , Na+ , K+ , Rb+ and Cs+ )...
April 24, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Marion Girod
Mass spectrometry offers an arsenal of tools for diverse proteomic investigations. This perspective article reviews some of the recent developments in the field of coupling laser induced dissociation with mass spectrometry (LID-MS). Strategies involving labelling with a chromophore to induce specific photo-absorption properties are considered, with a focus on specific amino acid derivatization. Some of the opportunities and challenges of LID-MS after targeted labelling for increasing specificity in complex sample analysis are discussed...
April 24, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Dan Zhou, Kedong Wang, Xue Li
This study calculates the potential energy curves of 18 Λ-S and 50 Ω states, which arise from the C(3 Pg ) + P+ (3 Pg ) dissociation channel of the CP+ cation. The calculations are made using the CASSCF method, followed by the icMRCI approach with the Davidson correction. Core-valence correlation and scalar relativistic corrections, as well as extrapolation to the complete basis set limit are included. The transition dipole moments are computed for 25 pairs of Λ-S states. The spin-orbit coupling effect on the spectroscopic and vibrational properties is evaluated...
April 17, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Dao Guan, Ji Dai, Yoshimasa Watanabe, Guanghao Chen
The self-forming dynamic membrane bioreactor (SFDMBR) is a biological wastewater treatment technology based on the conventional membrane bioreactor (MBR) with membrane material modification to a large pore size (30-100 μm). This modification requires a dynamic layer formed by activated sludge to provide effective filtration function for high-quality permeate production. The properties of the dynamic layer are therefore important for permeate quality in SFDMBRs. The interaction between the structure of the dynamic layer and the performance of SFDMBRs is little known but understandably complex...
April 18, 2018: Water Research
Kei Nishida, Atsushi Tamura, Nobuhiko Yui
In prior research, it has been demonstrated that methylated β-cyclodextrins-threaded acid-labile polyrotaxanes (Me-PRXs) exhibit a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) and form coacervate droplets above their LCST. In this study, the encapsulation of proteins in coacervate droplets and the pH-responsive release of proteins, through the acid-induced dissociation of the Me-PRX, were investigated. The coacervate droplets encapsulate various proteins, such as bovine serum albumin (BSA), lysozyme, and β-galactosidase, at pH 7...
April 24, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Thomas Matheve, Guido Claes, Enzo Olivieri, Annick Timmermans
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility of a functional exercise program supported by serious gaming for patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain (LBP). METHODS: Ten patients with chronic nonspecific LBP and an underlying motor control impairment were recruited. Subjects performed a partially supervised exercise program (36 sessions, 18 weeks) that included 30 minutes of general conditioning and 90 minutes of individually tailored functional motor control exercises (MCEs)...
April 24, 2018: Games for Health
Yuting Luo, Xu Li, Xingke Cai, Xiaolong Zou, Feiyu Kang, Hui-Ming Cheng, Bilu Liu
The development of abundant and cheap electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) has attracted increasing attention over recent years. However, to achieve low-cost HER electrocatalysis, especially in alkaline media, is still a big challenge due to the sluggish water dissociation kinetics as well as the poor long-term stability of catalysts. In this paper we report the design and synthesis of a two-dimensional (2D) MoS2 confined Co(OH)2 nanoparticle electrocatalyst, which accelerates water dissociation and exhibits good durability in alkaline solutions, leading to significant improvement in HER performance...
April 24, 2018: ACS Nano
Eike Mucha, Maike Lettow, Mateusz Marianski, Daniel A Thomas, Weston B Struwe, David J Harvey, Gerard Meijer, Peter H Seeberger, Gert von Helden, Kevin Pagel
Fucose is an essential deoxysugar that is found in a wide range of biologically relevant glycans and glycoconjugates. A recurring problem in mass spectrometric analyses of fucosylated glycans is the intramolecular migration of fucose units, which can lead to erroneous sequence assignments. This migration reaction is typically assigned to the activation during collision-induced dissociation (CID) in tandem mass spectrometry (MS). In this work, we utilize cold-ion spectroscopy and show for the first time that fucose migration is not limited to fragments obtained in tandem MS and can also be observed in intact glycan ions...
April 24, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Nadia Peerboom, Eneas Schmidt, Edward Trybala, Stephan Block, Tomas Bergström, Hudson P Pace, Marta Bally
Discovery and development of new antiviral therapies essentially rely on two key factors: an in-depth understanding of the mechanisms involved in viral infection and the development of fast and versatile drug screening platforms. To meet those demands, we present a biosensing platform to probe virus-cell membrane interactions on a single particle level. Our method is based on the formation of supported lipid bilayers from cell membrane material. Using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we report the contribution of viral and cellular components to the interaction kinetics of herpes simplex virus type 1 with the cell membrane...
April 24, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
Thomas R Cundari, Brian P Jacobs, Samantha N MacMillan, Peter T Wolczanski
The effects of dispersion on migratory insertion reactions and related iron-carbon bond dissociation energies pertaining to (Me2IPr)FeR2 (R = neoPe, 1-nor), and the conversion of (Me2IPr)Fe([double bond, length as m-dash]NAd)R2 to (Me2IPr)Fe{N(Ad}R)R are investigated via calculations and structural comparisons. Dispersion appears to be an underappreciated, major contributor to common structure and reactivity relationships.
April 24, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
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