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recent advances in cidp

Eduardo Nobile-Orazio, Mariangela Bianco, Andrea Nozza
Purpose of review Several advances have been made on the pathogenesis and therapy of neuropathies associated with paraproteinemia (monoclonal gammopathy). It is important for the neurologist to understand the pathogenetic relevance of this association especially when the hematological disease does not require per se any therapy. Recent findings Treatment of the neuropathy in patients with malignant paraproteinemia is mainly addressed by the hematologist while the neurologist is mainly involved in the initial diagnosis and in deciding whether the neuropathy is caused by the disease or by the chemotherapy used for the disease...
October 16, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Silvia Sorce, Roland Stocker, Tamara Seredenina, Rikard Holmdahl, Adriano Aguzzi, Adriano Chio, Antoine Depaulis, Freddy Heitz, Peter Olofsson, Tomas Olsson, Venceslas Duveau, Despina Sanoudou, Sara Skosgater, Antonia Vlahou, Dominique Wasquel, Karl-Heinz Krause, Vincent Jaquet
Neurodegenerative disease are frequently characterized by microglia activation and/or leukocyte infiltration in the parenchyma of the central nervous system and at the molecular level by increased oxidative modifications of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. NADPH oxidases (NOX) emerged as a novel promising class of pharmacological targets for the treatment of neurodegeneration due to their role in oxidant generation and presumably in regulating microglia activation. The unique function of NOX is the generation of superoxide anion (O2(•-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)...
November 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Nidhi Garg, Susanna B Park, Steve Vucic, Con Yiannikas, Judy Spies, James Howells, William Huynh, José M Matamala, Arun V Krishnan, John D Pollard, David R Cornblath, Mary M Reilly, Matthew C Kiernan
Lower motor neuron (LMN) syndromes typically present with muscle wasting and weakness and may arise from pathology affecting the distal motor nerve up to the level of the anterior horn cell. A variety of hereditary causes are recognised, including spinal muscular atrophy, distal hereditary motor neuropathy and LMN variants of familial motor neuron disease. Recent genetic advances have resulted in the identification of a variety of disease-causing mutations. Immune-mediated disorders, including multifocal motor neuropathy and variants of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, account for a proportion of LMN presentations and are important to recognise, as effective treatments are available...
June 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Mu Yang, Corentin Peyret, Xiang Qun Shi, Nicolas Siron, Jeong Ho Jang, Sonia Wu, Sylvie Fournier, Ji Zhang
Autoimmune peripheral neuropathies such as Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) affect millions of people worldwide. Despite significant advances in understanding the pathology, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of immune-mediated neuropathies remain elusive. T lymphocytes definitely play an important role in disease pathogenesis and CD4(+) T cells have been the main area of research for decades. This is partly due to the fact that the most frequent animal model to study autoimmune peripheral neuropathy is experimental allergic neuritis (EAN)...
2015: Frontiers in Immunology
Takahisa Deguchi, Yoshihiko Nishio, Hiroshi Takashima
The term "diabetic neuropathy" refers to many varieties of neuropathies, including diabetic peripheral neuropathies (DPNs). DPNs are categorized into generalized and focal/multifocal varieties. Diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN) and diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) are typical DPNs, and their development is clearly linked to hyperglycemia and subsequent metabolic and ischemic change. On the other hand, other forms of neuropathy, including multifocal diabetic neuropathies (e.g., lumbosacral, thoracic, and cervical radiculoplexus neuropathies) are thought to be associated with inflammatory or immune processes...
February 2014: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
D Adams
Improvement of therapeutic strategies for peripheral neuropathies requires multicentric clinical trials. For chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), a randomized controlled multicentric study compared IgIV to pulses of methylprednisolone (MP) given for 6 months. The primary endpoint was treatment discontinuation due to inefficacy or intolerance; 45 patients were enrolled: more patients had interrupted MP than IVIg, usually because of inefficacy. A multicentric randomized clinical trial (PREDICT) evaluated long-term remission of CIDP after short-term corticosteroid therapy (pulses of dexamethasone or prednisolone); 39 patients were enrolled: 26% achieved cure or remission, a relapse occurred in 50% after a delay of 11 to 17 months...
December 2013: Revue Neurologique
Francesc Graus, Josep Dalmau
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes relevant advances in paraneoplastic neuropathies with emphasis on particular syndromes and the impact of new therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: Sensory neuronopathy may present with symptoms that do not raise the suspicion of a paraneoplastic origin. A recent study on sensory neuronopathies of different causes identified paraneoplastic cases in a group of older (>60 years) male patients with subacute onset early pain, and frequent involvement of the arms...
October 2013: Current Opinion in Neurology
Marinos C Dalakas
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is the most common chronic autoimmune neuropathy. Despite clinical challenges in diagnosis-owing in part to the existence of disease variants, and different views on how many electrophysiological abnormalities are needed to document demyelination-consensus criteria seem to have been reached for research or clinical practice. Current standard of care involves corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) and/or plasmapheresis, which provide short-term benefits...
August 16, 2011: Nature Reviews. Neurology
John D Pollard, Patricia J Armati
Early pathological studies in patients with acute and chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathies, and the animal model experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) showed similarities in the process of demyelination. These studies focused on compact myelin proteins and peptides as targets of immune attack in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), and EAN. However, serological studies in patients with subsets of GBS highlighted the importance of gangliosides - glycolipids enriched in non-compact Schwann cell regions and the node, paranodal, and internodal axolemma...
March 2011: Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System: JPNS
R Nemni, M Sessa
In recent years many important advances have been made in the knowledge of the mechanisms that may produce peripheral nerve damage. Data in the literature indicate that in some chronic demyelinating neuropathy autoantibodies against myelin antigens may play a pathogenic role. The pathogenic role of T cells, cytokines, complement, and class II molecules has also been studied. Identification of specific immune-related demyelinating polyneuropathies provides clues to future therapeutic approaches. This paper focuses on the chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, chronic demyelinating neuropathies associated with monoclonal gammapathies of undetermined significance, and multifocal motor neuropathy, and reviews their clinical, patophysiological and immunological features...
May 1996: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Martin Stangel
Since the incidental discovery in 1981 that intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) are immunomodulatory, they have been investigated in a large number of putative autoimmune diseases. This has led to licensing for idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, Kawasaki disease, and in neurological disorders for Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Although not licensed, randomized controlled trials have also shown IVIg efficacy in other neuroimmunological diseases such as multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN), chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy (CIDP), myasthenia gravis, dermatomyositis, and stiff-person syndrome...
September 2008: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
Helmar C Lehmann, Hans-Peter Hartung
Immune-mediated neuropathies are a heterogeneous group of peripheral nerve disorders, which are classified by time course, clinical pattern, affected nerves and pathological features. Plasma exchange (PE) and intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) are mainstays in the treatment of immune-mediated neuropathies. Of all treatments currently used, IVIg has probably the widest application range in immune-mediated neuropathies and efficacy has been well documented in several randomized controlled trials for Guillain-Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP)...
February 2011: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Kamakshi Patel, Minal Bhanushali, Suraj Ashok Muley
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is a chronic, proximal and distal, asymmetrical or symmetrical, motor and sensory demyelinating polyneuropathy with a progressive course for at least 2 months. The accurate diagnosis is crucial as CIDP is amenable to treatment. Recent advances have provided new strategies and options for management of this syndrome. In this article, we review the clinical and diagnostic features as well as discuss recent insights and treatment strategies along with our experience in the management of patients with CIDP...
May 2010: Neurology India
Sindhu Ramchandren, Richard A Lewis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The management of peripheral neuropathy associated with monoclonal gammopathies has been advanced by recent clinical studies. We review the causal association between monoclonal gammopathy and neuropathy, and critically review the recent evidence on treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: IgM monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is the most commonly found monoclonal gammopathy associated with neuropathy. Neuropathies associated with specific lymphoproliferative disorders may not respond to treatments aimed at that disorder...
October 2009: Current Opinion in Neurology
Andreas J Steck, Anna K Stalder, Susanne Renaud
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) neuropathy is an antibody-mediated demyelinating neuropathy. The clinical picture is characterized by a distal and symmetric, mostly sensory neuropathy. Monoclonal immunoglobulin M anti-MAG antibodies are uniquely found in this condition and are believed to be pathogenic. This review focuses on recent progress in understanding the mechanisms of this neuropathy and discusses new therapeutic advances. RECENT FINDINGS: Different electrophysiological parameters have been demonstrated to distinguish the anti-MAG-associated polyneuropathy from chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy...
October 2006: Current Opinion in Neurology
J Finsterer
This review focuses on the actual status and recent advances in the treatment of immune-mediated neuropathies, including: Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) with its subtypes acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, acute motor axonal neuropathy, acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy, Miller Fisher syndrome, and acute pandysautonomia; chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) with its subtypes classical CIDP, CIDP with diabetes, CIDP/monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), sensory CIDP, multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN), multifocal acquired demyelinating sensory and motor neuropathy or Lewis-Sumner syndrome, multifocal acquired sensory and motor neuropathy, and distal acquired demyelinating sensory neuropathy; IgM monoclonal gammopathies with its subtypes Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, myelin-associated glycoprotein-associated gammopathy, polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M-protein, skin changes syndrome, mixed cryoglobulinemia, gait ataxia, late-onset polyneuropathy syndrome, and MGUS...
August 2005: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Peter D Donofrio
Evaluation of peripheral neuropathy is a common reason for referral to a neurologist. Recent advances in immunology have identified an inflammatory component in many neuropathies and have led to treatment trials using agents that attenuate this response. This article reviews the clinical presentation and treatment of the most common subacute inflammatory neuropathies, Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and Fisher syndrome, and describes the lack of response to corticosteroids and the efficacy of treatment with plasma exchange and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG)...
September 2003: Muscle & Nerve
James C Cleland, Eric L Logigian, Pariwat Thaisetthawatkul, David N Herrmann
Median neuropathy at the wrist can confound the electrodiagnosis of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), since both conditions can prolong median distal motor latency. Dispersion of the distal CMAP (DCMAP) has recently emerged as a potentially useful adjunct in the electrodiagnosis of CIDP, with good specificity in distinguishing CIDP from certain axon-loss disorders. However, it is uncertain whether focal compression neuropathies produce dispersion of the DCMAP in a manner similar to CIDP...
August 2003: Muscle & Nerve
Amanda C Peltier, James W Russell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Peripheral neuropathy is a common neurotoxic effect of medications. When medications are used to treat life-threatening illnesses, balancing the toxic effects of peripheral neuropathy with the therapeutic benefits of the drug can be difficult. This article examines recent research into the cellular mechanisms associated with neuropathy after treatment with medications to treat cancer, and HIV, and to prevent transplant rejection. RECENT FINDINGS: Cisplatin and suramin induce a length, dose, and time-dependent axonal sensorimotor polyneuropathy...
October 2002: Current Opinion in Neurology
S I Pascual-Pascual
INTRODUCTION: In last decade many advances have occurred in knowledge of pathogenic, in the different types of clinic expression and in the therapy of both acute and chronic polyneuritis. OBJECTIVE: To review the recent advances in the childhood expression of these disorders. DEVELOPMENT AND CONCLUSIONS: Into the broad term of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) several types are considered: demyelinating, motor sensory axonal and motor axonal, and the Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS)...
August 1, 2002: Revista de Neurologia
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