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Cellular Therapy

Behjat Javadi
Cancer is the second leading cause of death with profound socio-economic consequences worldwide. Growing evidence suggests the crucial role of diet on cancer prevention and treatment. In Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM) there is a major focus on contribution of special diet and foods to cancer management. In the present article, the cytotoxic and antitumor activities of several food items including plants and animal products recommended by TPM as anticancer agents are discussed. Strong evidence supports the anticancer effects of beetroot (Beta vulgris) and its major compound betanin, cinnamon and cinnamaldehyde, barley (H...
March 15, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Guillermo Montalban-Bravo, Courtney D DiNardo
Isocitrate dehydrogenases (IDHs) are enzymes involved in multiple metabolic and epigenetic cellular processes. Mutations in IDH1 or IDH2 are detected in approximately 20% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and induce amino acid changes in conserved residues resulting in neomorphic enzymatic function and production of an oncometabolite, 2-hydroxyglutarate (R-2-HG). This leads to DNA hypermethylation, aberrant gene expression, cell proliferation and abnormal differentiation. IDH mutations diversely affect prognosis of patients with AML based on the location of the mutation and other co-occurring genomic abnormalities...
March 15, 2018: Future Oncology
Juan Li, Yang Du, Zhenqi Jiang, Yuchen Tian, Nianxiang Qiu, Yinjie Wang, Muhammad Zubair Lqbal, Menying Hu, Ruifen Zou, Lijia Luo, Shiyu Du, Jie Tian, Aiguo Wu
Due to the molecular and cellular heterogeneity of glioma, discovery of novel targeted sites and ligands for glioma imaging and therapy remains challenging. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y1 receptors (Y1 Rs) are highly over expressed in various brain tumors including glioma, and can serve as potential targeting sites for glioma imaging and therapy. Here, we show by in vivo fluorescent imaging that a highly selective Y1 R ligand, [Asn6 , Pro34 ] NPY (AP-NPY), facilitated circumvention of the blood brain barrier (BBB) by nanomicelles specifically targeting glioma...
March 15, 2018: Nanoscale
Zachary Niday, Anastasios V Tzingounis
Exome and targeted sequencing have revolutionized clinical diagnosis. This has been particularly striking in epilepsy and neurodevelopmental disorders, for which new genes or new variants of preexisting candidate genes are being continuously identified at increasing rates every year. A surprising finding of these efforts is the recognition that gain of function potassium channel variants are actually associated with certain types of epilepsy, such as malignant migrating partial seizures of infancy or early-onset epileptic encephalopathy...
March 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
Bahar Bilgen, Chathuraka T Jayasuriya, Brett D Owens
The meniscus is the most commonly injured structure in the human knee. Meniscus deficiency has been shown to lead to advanced osteoarthritis (OA) due to abnormal mechanical forces, and replacement strategies for this structure have lagged behind other tissue engineering endeavors. The challenges include the complex 3D structure with individualized size parameters, the significant compressive, tensile and shear loads encountered, and the poor blood supply. In this progress report, a review of the current clinical treatments for different types of meniscal injury is provided...
March 15, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Kelly Kyker-Snowman, Bracha Erlanger Avigdor, Mansoor Nasim, Ashley Cimino-Mathews, Sarah J Wheelan, Pedram Argani, Ben Ho Park
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Tumor heterogeneity is a now well-recognized phenomenon that can affect the classification, prognosis and treatment of human cancers. Heterogeneity is often described in primary breast cancers based upon histologic subtypes, hormone- and HER2-receptor status, and immunolabeling for various markers, which can be seen within a single tumor as mixed cellular populations, or as separate discrete foci. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN/METHODS: Here, we present a case report of a patient's primary breast cancer that had two separate but adjacent histologic components, one that was estrogen receptor (ER) positive, and the other ER negative...
March 15, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Omkara Swami Muddineti, Preeti Kumari, Balaram Ghosh, Swati Biswas
PURPOSE: Transferrin receptor (TfR) is up-regulated in various malignant tumors not only to meet the iron requirement, but also to increase the cell survival via participation in various cellular signaling pathways. Here we explored transferrin as ligand for Poly(ethylene Glycol) (PEG)-ylated vitamin-E/lipid (PE) core micelles (VPM). METHODS: Transferrin modified polymer was synthesized and drug loaded micelles were evaluated in 2D Hela and HepG2 cancer cells for cellular uptake and cytotoxicity and in 3D Hela spheroids for growth inhibition, uptake and penetration studies...
March 14, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
Shantisree Sandeepani Rayagiri, Daniele Ranaldi, Alexander Raven, Nur Izzah Farhana Mohamad Azhar, Olivier Lefebvre, Peter S Zammit, Anne-Gaëlle Borycki
A central question in stem cell biology is the relationship between stem cells and their niche. Although previous reports have uncovered how signaling molecules released by niche cells support stem cell function, the role of the extra-cellular matrix (ECM) within the niche is unclear. Here, we show that upon activation, skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells) induce local remodeling of the ECM and the deposition of laminin-α1 and laminin-α5 into the basal lamina of the satellite cell niche. Genetic ablation of laminin-α1, disruption of integrin-α6 signaling or blocking matrix metalloproteinase activity impairs satellite cell expansion and self-renewal...
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Ryosuke Koyama, Wataru Hakamata, Takako Hirano, Toshiyuki Nishio
Three Golgi mannosidases (GMs), namely Golgi α-mannosidases IA, IB, and IC, remove mannose residues from N-glycans and regulate the quality control and transportation of nascent proteins. GM inhibitors regulate several biological events such as cell-cell communication, differentiation, and apoptosis in cancer cells. As a result, GM inhibitor-based therapies have gained significant attention for cancer treatment. However, to date, no GM inhibitor has been approved and none is in clinical development for anti-cancer treatment...
March 13, 2018: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Bangari Haldipur, Prudhvi Lal Bhukya, Vidya Arankalle, Kavita Lole
Molecular mechanisms of liver pathology and clinical disease in HEV infection remain unclear. MicroRNAs are known to modulate viral pathogenesis either by directly altering viral gene expression or by enhancing cellular antiviral responses. Given the importance of microRNA-122 (miR-122) in liver pathobiology, we investigated possible role of miR-122 in HEV infection. In silico predictions using genotype 1, 2, 3 and 4 HEV sequences showed that majority of genomes (203/222) harbor at least one miR-122/miR-122* target site...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
Robert A Fenstermaker, Sheila A Figel, Jing-Xin Qiu, Tara A Barone, Sanam Sahjram Dharma, Evan K Winograd, Phillip M Galbo, Laura M Wiltsie, Michael J Ciesielski
PURPOSE: Survivin is an inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) that is highly expressed in many cancers and represents an attractive molecule for targeted cancer therapy. Although primarily regarded as an intracellular protein with diverse actions, survivin has also been identified in association with circulating tumor exosomes. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We have reported that active specific vaccination with a long peptide surviving immunogen leads to the development of survivin-specific CD8-mediated tumor cell lysis and prolongation of survival in tumor-bearing mice...
March 14, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Thenappan Thenappan, Mark L Ormiston, John J Ryan, Stephen L Archer
Pulmonary hypertension is defined as a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure of 25 mm Hg or above. This review deals with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a type of pulmonary hypertension that primarily affects the pulmonary vasculature. In PAH, the pulmonary vasculature is dynamically obstructed by vasoconstriction, structurally obstructed by adverse vascular remodeling, and pathologically non-compliant as a result of vascular fibrosis and stiffening. Many cell types are abnormal in PAH, including vascular cells (endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts) and inflammatory cells...
March 14, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Carla A Piccinato, Rosa M Neme, Natália Torres, Elivane da Silva Victor, Heloísa F Brudniewski, Júlio C Rosa E Silva, Rui A Ferriani
The cellular function in endometriosis lesions depends on a highly estrogenic milieu. Lately, it is becoming evident that, besides the circulating levels of estrogens, the balance of synthesis versus inactivation (metabolism) of estrogens by intralesion steroid-metabolizing enzymes also determines the local net estrogen availability. In order to extend the knowledge of the role of estrogen-metabolizing enzymes in endometriosis, we investigated the gene and protein expression of a key uridine diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) for estrogen glucuronidation, UGT1A1, in eutopic endometrial samples obtained from nonaffected and endometriosis-affected women and also from endometriotic lesions...
January 1, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
Marilda Savoia Nascimento, Anna Maria Simonsen Stolf, Heitor Franco de Andrade Junior, Ramendra Pati Pandey, Eufrosina Setsu Umezawa
BACKGROUND: Vimentin is a main structural protein of the cell, a component of intermediate cell filaments and immersed in cytoplasm. Vimentin is mimicked by some bacterial proteins and anti-vimentin antibodies occur in autoimmune cardiac disease, as rheumatic fever. In this work we studied vimentin distribution on LLC-MK2 cells infected with T. cruzi and anti-vimentin antibodies in sera from several clinical pictures of Chagas' disease or American Trypanosomiasis, in order to elucidate any vimentin involvement in the humoral response of this pathology...
March 12, 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
Frances Rocamora, Lei Zhu, Kek Yee Liong, Arjen Dondorp, Olivo Miotto, Sachel Mok, Zbynek Bozdech
Due to their remarkable parasitocidal activity, artemisinins represent the key components of first-line therapies against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. However, the decline in efficacy of artemisinin-based drugs jeopardizes global efforts to control and ultimately eradicate the disease. To better understand the resistance phenotype, artemisinin-resistant parasite lines were derived from two clones of the 3D7 strain of P. falciparum using a selection regimen that mimics how parasites interact with the drug within patients...
March 14, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Ellen Go, Stefan P Tarnawsky, W Chris Shelley, Kimihiko Banno, Yang Lin, Chang-Hyun Gil, Emily K Blue, Laura S Haneline, Kathleen M O'Neil, Mervin C Yoder
OBJECTIVE: Endothelial dysfunction is central to the pathogenesis of many rheumatic diseases, typified by vascular inflammation and damage. Immunosuppressive drugs induce disease remission and lead to improved patient survival. However, there remains a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease in these patients even after adequate disease control. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of mycophenolic acid (MPA), a commonly used immunosuppressive drug in rheumatology, on blood vessel or circulating endothelial colony forming cell number and function...
2018: PloS One
Kentaro Inamura
Immunohistochemistry is a widely available technique that is less challenging and can provide clinically meaningful results quickly and cost-efficiently in comparison with other techniques. In addition, immunohistochemistry allows for the evaluation of cellular localization of proteins in the context of tumor structure. In an era of precision medicine, pathologists are required to classify lung cancer into specific subtypes and assess biomarkers relevant to molecular-targeted therapies. This review summarizes the hot topics of immunohistochemistry in lung cancer, including (i) adenocarcinoma vs squamous cell carcinoma; (ii) neuroendocrine markers; (iii) ALK, ROS1, and EGFR; (iv) PD-L1 (CD274); (v) lung carcinoma vs malignant mesothelioma; and (vi) NUT carcinoma...
March 14, 2018: Cancers
Cordula Netzer, Pascal Distel, Uwe Wolfram, Hans Deyhle, Gregory F Jost, Stefan Schären, Jeroen Geurts
Facet joint osteoarthritis is a prominent feature of degenerative spine disorders, highly prevalent in ageing populations, and considered a major cause for chronic lower back pain. Since there is no targeted pharmacological therapy, clinical management of disease includes analgesic or surgical treatment. The specific cellular, molecular, and structural changes underpinning facet joint osteoarthritis remain largely elusive. The aim of this study was to determine osteoarthritis-related structural alterations in cortical and trabecular subchondral bone compartments...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Cláudia Manuela Botelho, Odete Gonçalves, Rogério Marques, Viruthachalam Thiagarajan, Henrik Vorum, Andreia Castro Gomes, Maria Teresa Neves-Petersen
Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) plays a key role in regulating cell survival, proliferation and migration, and its overexpression and activation has been correlated with cancer progression. Cancer therapies targeting EGFR have been applied in the clinic with some success. We show, by confocal microscopy analysis, that illumination of adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cells (Human A549 - EGFR biosensor cell line) with 280 nm at irradiance levels up to 20 times weaker than the UVB solar output for short periods of time (15-45 min) prevents EGF-mediated activation of EGFR located on the cell membrane, preventing or reducing cellular disaggregation, formation of filopodia and cell migration...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
Kumar Parijat Tripathi, Marina Piccirillo, Mario Rosario Guarracino
BACKGROUND: The endomembrane system, known as secretory pathway, is responsible for the synthesis and transport of protein molecules in cells. Therefore, genes involved in the secretory pathway are essential for the cellular development and function. Recent scientific investigations show that ER and Golgi apparatus may provide a convenient drug target for cancer therapy. On the other hand, it is known that abundantly expressed genes in different cellular organelles share interconnected pathways and co-regulate each other activities...
March 8, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
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