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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545257/the-reactive-sulfur-species-concept-15-years-on
#1
REVIEW
Gregory I Giles, Muhammad Jawad Nasim, Wesam Ali, Claus Jacob
Fifteen years ago, in 2001, the concept of "Reactive Sulfur Species" or RSS was advocated as a working hypothesis. Since then various organic as well as inorganic RSS have attracted considerable interest and stimulated many new and often unexpected avenues in research and product development. During this time, it has become apparent that molecules with sulfur-containing functional groups are not just the passive "victims" of oxidative stress or simple conveyors of signals in cells, but can also be stressors in their own right, with pivotal roles in cellular function and homeostasis...
May 23, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545183/therapeutic-potential-of-novel-nano-based-curcumin-compounds-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#2
Homa Mollaei, Esmaeil Babaei
Despite recent advances in cancer medication, malignant tumors continue to be the second leading cause of death worldwide. Furthermore, introducing a therapeutic compound with low-side effects as well as low-price for consumers is controversial. Recent efforts have been focusing on traditional medicines as a rich source of herbal agents. Curcumin, the major turmeric phytochemical, has been widely assessed as an anti-cancer compound in vitro and in vivo. However, the use of curcumin in cancer treatment has limitations because of its low solubility, poor tissue absorption, rapid metabolism and rapid systemic elimination...
April 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544846/genomic-dna-interactions-mechanize-peptidotoxin-mediated-anti-cancer-nanotherapy
#3
Santosh K Misra, Aaron S Schwartz-Duval, Dipanjan Pan
Host defense peptides (HDPs) are a class of evolutionarily conserved substances of the innate immune response that has been identified as major players in the defense system in many living organisms. Some of the HDPs are also referred as peptidotoxins which offer immense potential for anti-cancer therapy. However, their therapeutic potential is yet to be fully translated mainly due to their off-target toxicity. Here we show that their nano-enabled delivery may become beneficial in controlling their delivery in intra-cellular space...
May 25, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544818/ubiquitination-in-melanoma-pathogenesis-and-treatment
#4
REVIEW
Jinyuan Ma, Weinan Guo, Chunying Li
Melanoma is one of the most aggressive skin cancers with fiercely increasing incidence and mortality. Since the progressive understanding of the mutational landscape and immunologic pathogenic factors in melanoma, the targeted therapy and immunotherapy have been recently established and gained unprecedented improvements for melanoma treatment. However, the prognosis of melanoma patients remains unoptimistic mainly due to the resistance and nonresponse to current available drugs. Ubiquitination is a posttranslational modification which plays crucial roles in diverse cellular biological activities and participates in the pathogenesis of various cancers, including melanoma...
May 23, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544767/a-poly-propyleneimine-dendrimer-based-polyplex-system-for-single-chain-antibody-mediated-targeted-delivery-and-cellular-uptake-of-sirna
#5
Stefanie Tietze, Isabell Schau, Susanne Michen, Franka Ennen, Andreas Janke, Gabriele Schackert, Achim Aigner, Dietmar Appelhans, Achim Temme
Therapeutics based on small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) offer a great potential to treat so far incurable diseases or metastatic cancer. However, the broad application of siRNAs using various nonviral carrier systems is hampered by unspecific toxic side effects, poor pharmacokinetics due to unwanted delivery of siRNA-loaded nanoparticles into nontarget organs, or rapid renal excretion. In order to overcome these obstacles, several targeting strategies using chemically linked antibodies and ligands have emerged...
May 22, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544604/thymic-peripheral-crosstalk-in-lymphodepletion-therapy
#6
EDITORIAL
M E Snyder, D L Farber
T cell depletion is widely used as induction therapy in solid organ transplants and particularly in kidney transplantation, to reduce the episodes of acute cellular rejection. The resultant reduction in T cell numbers is usually temporary, as T cells are actively replenished due to thymic output and/or lymphopenia-induced proliferation of remaining, depletion-resistant T cells. However, the extent of T cell replenishment and the persistence of lymphopenia varies between individuals, with potential impacts on protective or pathogenic immune responses...
May 22, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544595/severe-cytokine-release-syndrome-in-a-patient-receiving-pd-1-directed-therapy
#7
Seth J Rotz, Daniel Leino, Sara Szabo, Jennifer L Mangino, Brian K Turpin, Joseph G Pressey
Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) is a phenomenon of immune hyperactivation described in the setting of cellular and bispecific T-cell engaging immunotherapy. Checkpoint blockade using anti-programmed cell death 1 (anti-PD-1) inhibitors is an approach to antitumor immune system stimulation. A 29-year-old female with alveolar soft part sarcoma developed severe CRS after treatment with anti-PD-1 therapy. CRS was characterized by high fevers, encephalopathy, hypotension, hypoxia, hepatic dysfunction, and evidence of coagulopathy, and resolved after infusion of the interleukin-6 inhibitor tocilizumab and corticosteroids...
May 24, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544521/oral-nucleic-acid-therapy-using-multicompartmental-delivery-systems
#8
REVIEW
Husain Attarwala, Murui Han, Jonghan Kim, Mansoor Amiji
Nucleic acid-based therapeutics has the potential for treating numerous diseases by correcting abnormal expression of specific genes. Lack of safe and efficacious delivery strategies poses a major obstacle limiting clinical advancement of nucleic acid therapeutics. Oral route of drug administration has greater delivery challenges, because the administered genes or oligonucleotides have to bypass degrading environment of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in addition to overcoming other cellular barriers preventing nucleic acid delivery...
May 24, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544497/cell-tracking-using-gold-nanoparticles-and-computed-tomography-imaging
#9
REVIEW
Rinat Meir, Rachela Popovtzer
Cell-based therapies utilize transplantation of living cells with therapeutic traits to alleviate numerous diseases and disorders. The use of such biological agents is an attractive alternative for diseases that existing medicine cannot effectively treat. Although very promising, translating cell therapy to the clinic has proven to be challenging, due to inconsistent results in preclinical and clinical studies. To examine the underlying cause for these inconsistencies, it is crucial to noninvasively monitor the accuracy of cell injection, and cell survival and migration patterns...
May 24, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544264/ampk-%C3%AE-1-reduces-tumor-progression-and-improves-survival-in-p53-null-mice
#10
Vanessa P Houde, Sara Donzelli, Andrea Sacconi, Sandra Galic, Joanne A Hammill, Jonathan L Bramson, Robert A Foster, Theodoros Tsakiridis, Bruce E Kemp, Giuseppe Grasso, Giovanni Blandino, Paola Muti, Gregory R Steinberg
The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a heterotrimeric protein complex that is an important sensor of cellular energy status. Reduced expression of the AMPK β1 isoform has been linked to reduced survival in different cancers but whether this accelerates tumor progression and the potential mechanism mediating these effects is not known. Further, it is unknown whether AMPK β1 is implicated in tumorigenesis and if so what tissues may be most sensitive. In the current study we find that in the absence of the tumor suppressor p53, germline genetic deletion of AMPK β1 accelerates the appearance of a T cell lymphoma that reduces lifespan compared to p53 deficiency alone...
May 24, 2017: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544095/phenotypic-assays-for-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#11
Ok-Ryul Song, Nathalie Deboosere, Vincent Delorme, Christophe J Queval, Gaspard Deloison, Elisabeth Werkmeister, Frank Lafont, Alain Baulard, Raffaella Iantomasi, Priscille Brodin
Tuberculosis (TB) is still a major global threat, killing more than one million persons each year. With the constant increase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to first- and second-line drugs, there is an urgent need for the development of new drugs to control the propagation of TB. Although screenings of small molecules on axenic M. tuberculosis cultures were successful for the identification of novel putative anti-TB drugs, new drugs in the development pipeline remains scarce. Host-directed therapy may represent an alternative for drug development against TB...
May 19, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543763/7-8-3-trihydroxyflavone-protects-h-r-induced-apoptosis-and-induces-in-vivo-growth-of-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes
#12
Jiaxiang Li, Cuiping Wang, Bao Zhang Baiyun Tang
BACKGROUND: Cellular therapy of human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hES-CMs) holds great promise for regenerating infarcted cardiac tissues. Yet, the major challenge remains as little cells survived after grafting. In this study, we examined whether treating hES-CMs with 7, 8, 3'-Trihydroxyflavone (THF) may improve hES-CMs developments both in vitro and in vivo. METHOD: HES-CMs were differentiated in vitro, and treated with 5 μ59M THF for 24 h...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543431/the-effect-of-substrate-stiffness-on-cancer-cell-volume-homeostasis
#13
Meng Wang, Na Chai, Baoyong Sha, Manyun Guo, Jian Zhuang, Feng Xu, Fei Li
Existing studies on the mechanism of cell volume regulation are mainly relevant to ion channels and osmosis in extracellular fluid. Recently, accumulating evidence has shown that cellular mechanical microenvironment also influences the cell volume. Herein, we investigated the regulation of substrate stiffness on the cell volume homeostasis of MCF-7 cells and their following migration behaviors. We found that cell volume increases with increasing substrate stiffness, which could be affected by blocking the cell membrane anion permeability and dopamine receptor...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543283/targeting-pp2a-and-proteasome-activity-ameliorates-features-of-allergic-airway-disease-in-mice
#14
Prema M Nair, Malcolm R Starkey, Tatt Jhong Haw, Gang Liu, Jay C Horvat, Jonathan C Morris, Nikki M Verrills, Andrew R Clark, Alaina J Ammit, Philip M Hansbro
BACKGROUND: Asthma is an allergic airway disease (AAD) caused by aberrant immune responses to allergens. Protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A) is an abundant serine/threonine phosphatase with anti-inflammatory activity. The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) controls many cellular processes, including the initiation of inflammatory responses by protein degradation. We assessed if enhancing PP2A activity with Fingolimod (FTY720) or 2-amino-4-(4-(heptyloxy) phenyl)-2-methylbutan-1-ol (AAL(S) ), or inhibiting proteasome activity with Bortezomib (BORT) could suppress experimental AAD...
May 24, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542953/zebrafish-tmem230a-cooperates-with-the-delta-notch-signaling-pathway-to-modulate-endothelial-cell-number-in-angiogenic-vessels
#15
Silvia Carra, Lorenzo Sangiorgio, Paride Pelucchi, Solei Cermenati, Alessandra Mezzelani, Valentina Martino, Mira Palizban, Alberto Albertini, Martin Götte, James Kehler, Gianluca Deflorian, Monica Beltrame, Antonio Giordano, Rolland Reinbold, Franco Cotelli, Gianfranco Bellipanni, Ileana Zucchi
During embryonic development, new arteries and veins form from preexisting vessels in response to specific angiogenic signals. Angiogenic signaling is complex since not all endothelial cells exposed to angiogenic signals respond equally. Some cells will be selected to become tip cells and acquire migration and proliferation capacity necessary for vessel growth while others, the stalk cells become trailer cells that stay connected with pre-existing vessels and act as a linkage to new forming vessels. Additionally, stalk and tip cells have the capacity to interchange their roles...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542649/evaluation-of-connectivity-map-discovered-celastrol-as-a-radiosensitizing-agent-in-a-murine-lung-carcinoma-model-feasibility-study-of-diffusion-weighted-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#16
Hong Young Jun, Tae-Hoon Kim, Jin Woo Choi, Young Hwan Lee, Kang Kyoo Lee, Kwon-Ha Yoon
This study was designed to identify potential radiosensitizing (RS) agents for combined radio- and chemotherapy in a murine model of human lung carcinoma, and to evaluate the in vivo effect of the RS agents using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI). Radioresistance-associated genes in A549 and H460 cells were isolated on the basis of their gene expression profiles. Celastrol was selected as a candidate RS by using connectivity mapping, and its efficacy in lung cancer radiotherapy was tested...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542590/the-mth1-inhibitor-th588-demonstrates-anti-tumoral-effects-alone-and-in-combination-with-everolimus-5-fu-and-gamma-irradiation-in-neuroendocrine-tumor-cells
#17
Elke Tatjana Aristizabal Prada, Michael Orth, Svenja Nölting, Gerald Spöttl, Julian Maurer, Christoph Auernhammer
Modulation of the redox system in cancer cells has been considered a promising target for anti-cancer therapy. The novel MTH1 inhibitor TH588 proved tremendous potential in terms of cancer cell eradication, yet its specificity has been questioned by recent reports, indicating that TH588 may also induce cancer cell death by alternative mechanisms than MTH1 inhibition. Here we used a panel of heterogeneous neuroendocrine tumor cells in order to assess cellular mechanisms and molecular signaling pathways implicated in the effects of TH588 alone as well as dual-targeting approaches combining TH588 with everolimus, cytotoxic 5-fluorouracil or γ-irradiation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542546/albendazole-increases-the-inflammatory-response-and-the-amount-of-em2-positive-small-particles-of-echinococcus-multilocularis-spems-in-human-hepatic-alveolar-echinococcosis-lesions
#18
Franz J Ricken, Juliane Nell, Beate Grüner, Julian Schmidberger, Tanja Kaltenbach, Wolfgang Kratzer, Andreas Hillenbrand, Doris Henne-Bruns, Peter Deplazes, Peter Möller, Peter Kern, Thomas F E Barth
BACKGROUND: Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is caused by the metacestode stage of Echinococcus multilocularis. The inflammatory response to this infection is influenced by the interaction of the parasite with the host. We aimed to analyze human liver lesions infected with Echinococcus multilocularis and the changes of the cellular infiltrates during albendazole (ABZ) treatment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed liver tissue samples from 8 untreated patients, 5 patients treated with two daily doses of 400 mg ABZ for up to two months and 7 patients treated for more than two months with the same ABZ therapy...
May 25, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542439/host-mediated-inflammatory-influence-on-glioblastoma-multiforme-recurrence-following-high-dose-ionizing-radiation
#19
J Tyson McDonald, Xuefeng Gao, Cole Steber, Jawon Lee Breed, Caitlin Pollock, Lili Ma, Lynn Hlatky
Despite optimal clinical treatment, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) inevitably recurs. Standard treatment of GBM, exposes patients to radiation which kills tumor cells, but also modulates the molecular fingerprint of any surviving tumor cells and the cross-talk between those cells and the host. Considerable investigation of short-term (hours to days) post-irradiation tumor cell response has been undertaken, yet long-term responses (weeks to months) which are potentially even more informative of recurrence, have been largely overlooked...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542428/age-dependent-electrical-and-morphological-remodeling-of-the-drosophila-heart-caused-by-herg-seizure-mutations
#20
Karen Ocorr, Alexander Zambon, Yoav Nudell, Santiago Pineda, Soda Diop, Min Tang, Takeshi Akasaka, Erika Taylor
Understanding the cellular-molecular substrates of heart disease is key to the development of cardiac specific therapies and to the prevention of off-target effects by non-cardiac targeted drugs. One of the primary targets for therapeutic intervention has been the human ether a go-go (hERG) K+ channel that, together with the KCNQ channel, controls the rate and efficiency of repolarization in human myocardial cells. Neither of these channels plays a major role in adult mouse heart function; however, we show here that the hERG homolog seizure (sei), along with KCNQ, both contribute significantly to adult heart function as they do in humans...
May 19, 2017: PLoS Genetics
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