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Leptin, obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439667/myricetin-induced-brown-adipose-tissue-activation-prevents-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-in-db-db-mice
#1
Tao Hu, Xiaoxue Yuan, Gang Wei, Haoshu Luo, Hyuek Jong Lee, Wanzhu Jin
PURPOSE: Myricetin, a dietary flavonoid, is effective in the treatment of obesity and insulin resistance by increasing glucose transport and lipogenesis in adipocyte and diminishing systemic inflammation in obesity. However, it has not been revealed yet whether myricetin is associated with brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation that tightly mediates systemic energy metabolism. Therefore, this study assessed whether myricetin activated brown adipose tissue in db/db mouse. METHODS: Myricetin (400 mg/kg) in distilled water was fed daily by oral gavage to leptin receptor-deficient db/db male mice at 4 weeks of age for 14 weeks...
April 24, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439492/leptin-signaling-and-cancer-chemoresistance-perspectives
#2
EDITORIAL
Pierre V Candelaria, Antonio Rampoldi, Adriana Harbuzariu, Ruben R Gonzalez-Perez
Obesity is a major health problem and currently is endemic around the world. Obesity is a risk factor for several different types of cancer, significantly promoting cancer incidence, progression, poor prognosis and resistance to anti-cancer therapies. The study of this resistance is critical as development of chemoresistance is a serious drawback for the successful and effective drug-based treatments of cancer. There is increasing evidence that augmented adiposity can impact on chemotherapeutic treatment of cancer and the development of resistance to these treatments, particularly through one of its signature mediators, the adipokine leptin...
April 10, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439190/review-metabolic-syndrome-in-black-south-african-women
#3
REVIEW
Philippe Jean-Luc Gradidge, Nigel J Crowther
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing in African populations, and is particularly high in Black South African women (42%) vs women in the United Kingdom (23%) and the United States of America (36%). This population group is also known to have the highest prevalence of obesity in the sub-Saharan African region (42%), and consequently, a high risk of non-communicable diseases. In this article, we discuss factors (abdominal subcutaneous fat, visceral fat, lean mass, adiponectin, leptin, vitamin D, smoking and menopausal status) that have been investigated for their possible association with metabolic syndrome in African women, and discuss some recommendations for management of the syndrome...
2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438610/hyperglycemia-increases-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-via-mapk1-and-mapk3-signaling-to-etv1-and-kit-leading-to-rapid-gastric-emptying
#4
Yujiro Hayashi, Yoshitaka Toyomasu, Siva Arumugam Saravanaperumal, Michael R Bardsley, John A Smestad, Andrea Lorincz, Seth T Eisenman, Gianluca Cipriani, Molly H Nelson Holte, Fatimah J Al Khazal, Sabriya A Syed, Gabriella B Gajdos, Kyoung Moo Choi, Gary J Stoltz, Katie E Miller, Michael L Kendrick, Brian P Rubin, Simon J Gibbons, Adil E Bharucha, David R Linden, Louis James Maher, Gianrico Farrugia, Tamas Ordog
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Depletion of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) is common in diabetic gastroparesis. However, in approximately 20% of patients with diabetes, gastric emptying (GE) is accelerated. GE is also faster in obese individuals, and is associated with increased blood levels of glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes. To understand the fate of ICCs in hyperinsulinemic, hyperglycemic states characterized by rapid GE, we studied mice with mutation of the leptin receptor (Lepr(db/db)), which in our colony had accelerated GE...
April 21, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437574/dietary-lactalbumin-and-lactoferrin-interact-with-inulin-to-modulate-energy-balance-in-obese-rats
#5
Arashdeep Singh, Rizaldy C Zapata, Adel Pezeshki, Prasanth K Chelikani
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether diets enriched with the whey protein components lactalbumin and lactoferrin interact additively with inulin to improve energy balance by decreasing food intake and body weight (BW). METHODS: In four experiments, diet-induced obese rats were randomized to diets containing either lactalbumin or lactoferrin at low (20% kcal) or high (40% kcal) doses, and inulin at low (7.5% w/w) or high (15% w/w) doses, alone or in combination. Energy intake (EI), energy expenditure (EE), respiratory quotient (RQ), BW, body composition, plasma insulin, and leptin concentrations were measured...
April 24, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436331/lep-expression-and-its-role-in-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#6
Muhammad Imran Qadir, Zara Ahmed
Obesity is metabolic disorder that increases the risk of diabetes, heart disease, and other metabolic syndromes in human beings. One sign of diabetes is increased blood glucose levels in the body. Glucose levels increase due to problems with insulin secretion or insulin resistance. Maturity onset of diabetes of the young is more common in adults and occurs due to insulin resistance. Both diabetes and obesity are major problems that are responsible for the death of millions of individuals every year, worldwide...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435397/leptin-receptor-q223r-polymorphism-in-egyptian-female-patients-with-breast-cancer
#7
Mona Abo-Bakr El-Hussiny, Mohmed Ali Atwa, Waleed Elnahas Rashad, Dalia A Shaheen, Nora Marzouk Elkady
AIM OF THE STUDY: Breast cancer is the most common cause of death in women. Obesity has been associated with increased risk of breast cancer in post-menopausal women. It induces chronic inflammation, which increases local and systemic levels of cytokines and adipokines such as leptin. Leptin (LEP) and leptin receptor (LEPR) genes have several polymorphisms in humans. This study aims to assess the association between blood levels of leptin and LEPR Q223R gene polymorphism in patients of cancer breast...
2017: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433698/adipose-crosstalk-with-other-cell-types-in-health-and-disease
#8
REVIEW
Chan Hee J Choi, Paul Cohen
In addition to storing and mobilizing energy, adipocytes secrete circulating factors to signal to other tissues and coordinate energy metabolism. These functions can become disrupted in the setting of obesity, contributing to the development of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Since the discovery of leptin and adiponectin, an increasing number of adipokines have been identified and their functions elucidated. More recent studies have highlighted other modes by which adipose tissue can participate in crosstalk with other cell types and tissues...
April 19, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432296/aminoglycosides-but-not-ptc124-ataluren-rescue-nonsense-mutations-in-the-leptin-receptor-and-in-luciferase-reporter-genes
#9
Florian Bolze, Sabine Mocek, Anika Zimmermann, Martin Klingenspor
In rare cases, monogenetic obesity is caused by nonsense mutations in genes regulating energy balance. A key factor herein is the leptin receptor. Here, we focus on leptin receptor nonsense variants causing obesity, namely the human W31X, murine Y333X and rat Y763X mutations, and explored their susceptibilities to aminoglycoside and PTC124 mediated translational read-through in vitro. In a luciferase based assay, all mutations - when analysed within the mouse receptor - were prone to aminoglycoside mediated nonsense suppression with the highest susceptibility for W31X, followed by Y763X and Y333X...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428025/adipokines-as-atherothrombotic-risk-factors-in-obese-subjects-associations-with-haemostatic-markers-and-common-carotid-wall%C3%A2-thickness
#10
É Csongrádi, M Káplár, B Nagy, C A Koch, A Juhász, L Bajnok, Z Varga, I Seres, Z Karányi, M T Magyar, L Oláh, A Facskó, J Kappelmayer, G Paragh
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Some crucial associations between obesity-related altered adipokine levels and the main factors of atherosclerotic, atherothrombotic processes are not fully known. We analysed the relationships of classic adipokines, namely leptin, resistin, adiponectin, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6) with the markers of platelet activation, including mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet surface/soluble P-selectin, platelet-derived microparticles (PMPs), the parameters of coagulation abnormalities and common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in obese patients with or without atherosclerotic comorbidities in comparison to age- and sex-matched controls...
March 8, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427343/loss-of-pericyte-smoothened-activity-in-mice-with-genetic-deficiency-of-leptin
#11
Guanhua Xie, Marzena Swiderska-Syn, Mark L Jewell, Mariana Verdelho Machado, Gregory A Michelotti, Richard T Premont, Anna Mae Diehl
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with multiple diseases, but it is unclear how obesity promotes progressive tissue damage. Recovery from injury requires repair, an energy-expensive process that is coupled to energy availability at the cellular level. The satiety factor, leptin, is a key component of the sensor that matches cellular energy utilization to available energy supplies. Leptin deficiency signals energy depletion, whereas activating the Hedgehog pathway drives energy-consuming activities...
April 20, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426873/high-fat-diet-induced-leptin-and-wnt-expression-rna-sequencing-and-pathway-analysis-of-mouse-colonic-tissue-and-tumors
#12
Harrison M Penrose, Sandra Heller, Chloe Cable, Hani Nakhoul, Melody Baddoo, Erik Flemington, Susan E Crawford, Suzana D Savkovic
Obesity, an immense epidemic affecting approximately half a billion adults, has doubled in prevalence in the last several decades. Epidemiological data support that obesity, due to intake of a high-fat, western diet, increases the risk of colon cancer; however, the mechanisms underlying this risk remain unclear. Here, utilizing next generation RNA sequencing, we aimed to determine the high-fat diet (HFD) mediated expression profile in mouse colon and the azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium model of colon cancer...
March 1, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421791/association-of-4-hydroxynonenal-with-classical-adipokines-and-insulin-resistance-in-a-chinese-non-diabetic-obese-population
#13
Lin Guo, Xi-Mei Zhang, Yun-Bo Zhang, Xiang Huang, Mei-Hua Chi
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide. Oxidative stress plays an etiological role in a variety of obesity-related metabolic disorders. 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) is the most abundant and reactive aldehydic product derived from the peroxidation of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids with diverse biological effects that are not well detailed. Obesity is associated with decreased plasma adiponectin concentrations and increased production of lipid peroxidation products, including 4-HNE, in adipose tissue...
March 30, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421328/association-of-adiponectin-leptin-and-resistin-with-inflammatory-markers-and-obesity-in-dementia
#14
Małgorzata Bednarska-Makaruk, Ałła Graban, Anna Wiśniewska, Wanda Łojkowska, Anna Bochyńska, Magdalena Gugała-Iwaniuk, Ksenia Sławińska, Agnieszka Ługowska, Danuta Ryglewicz, Hanna Wehr
The aim of the study was to determine the role of adiponectin, leptin and resistin in various types of dementia and to investigate their association with inflammatory markers, insulin resistance and abdominal obesity. In 205 patients with dementia [89 with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 47 with vascular dementia (VaD), 69 with mixed dementia (MD)], 113 persons with mild cognitive impairment and in 107 controls serum adiponectin, leptin and resistin levels, pro-inflammatory [interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and chitotriosidase] and anti-inflammatory (25-OH vitamin D, HDL-cholesterol and paraoxonase 1) markers, as well as glucose metabolism parameters (glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR) were determined...
April 18, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419655/cytokine-and-adipokine-are-biofactors-can-act-in-blood-and-colostrum-of-obese-mothers
#15
Mahmi Fujimori, Eduardo Luzia França, Tassiane Cristina Morais, Vanessa Fiorin, Luiz Carlos de Abreu, Adenilda Cristina Honório-França
Breast milk contains bioactive components that contribute to newborn development. However, colostrum may undergo biochemical and immunological changes as a function of maternal overweight and obesity. To investigate this hypothesis, this study determined the levels of hormones and immunological markers in the serum and colostrum of overweight and obese mothers. Colostrum and serum samples were collected from 15 normoweight, 15 overweight, and 15 obese women for determination of leptin, adiponectin, cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10), and C-reactive protein (CRP)...
March 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419227/neural-programmatic-role-of-leptin-tnf%C3%AE-melanocortin-and-glutamate-in-blood-pressure-regulation-versus-obesity-related-hypertension-in-male-c57bl-6-mice
#16
Bin Yu, Dongsheng Cai
Continuous nutritional surplus sets the stage for hypertension development. While moderate dietary obesity in mice is normotensive, the homeostatic balance is disrupted concurrent with an increased risk of hypertension, but it remains unclear how the obesity-associated pre-hypertensive state is converted into overt hypertension. Here, using mice with high-fat-diet (HFD) feeding-induced moderate obesity vs. control-diet (CD) feeding lean mice, we comparatively studied the effects of central leptin and TNFα as well as the involvement of the neuropeptide melanocortin pathway versus the neurotransmitter glutamate pathway...
April 13, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416193/lep-rs7799039-lepr-rs1137101-and-adipoq-rs2241766-and-1501299-polymorphisms-are-associated-with-obesity-and-chemotherapy-response-in-mexican-women-with-breast-cancer
#17
Alejandra Méndez-Hernández, Martha Patricia Gallegos-Arreola, Hortensia Moreno-Macías, Jorge Espinosa Fematt, Rebeca Pérez-Morales
BACKGROUND: Obesity plays a major role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Leptin (LEP) and adiponectin (ADIPOQ) are important in the regulation of adipose tissue. The response to cancer treatment depends on the histological and molecular tumor type, clinical stage, and genetic variability that might promote carcinogenic development. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between overweight/obesity and polymorphisms in the LEP (rs7799039), LEP receptor (LEPR; rs1137101), and ADIPOQ genes (rs2241766, rs1501299) with the response to breast cancer treatment in Mexican women...
March 22, 2017: Clinical Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414093/imbalance-in-leptin-adiponectin-levels-and-leptin-receptor-expression-as-chief-contributors-to-triple-negative-breast-cancer-progression-in-northeast-india
#18
Rizwana Sultana, Amal Ch Kataki, Bibhuti Bhusan Borthakur, Tarun K Basumatary, Sujoy Bose
BACKGROUND: Triple-Negative breast cancer (TNBC), accounts for a large percentage of breast cancer cases in India including Northeast India. TNBC has an unclear molecular aetiology and hence limited targeted therapies. Human breast is comprised of glandular, ductal, connective, and adipose tissues. Adipose tissue is composed of adipocytes. The adipocytes apart from being energy storage depots, are also active sources of adipocytokines and/or adipokines. The role of adipokines in breast cancer including TNBC has been sporadically documented...
April 14, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414075/vitamin-b2-deficiency-enhances-the-pro-inflammatory-activity-of-adipocyte-consequences-for-insulin-resistance-and-metabolic-syndrome-development
#19
Agnieszka Irena Mazur-Bialy, Ewa Pocheć
AIMS: Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ important for regulation of such physiological processes as energy metabolism or lipids homeostasis. In an obesity state, it participates in the induction of chronic systemic inflammation accompanied by pro-inflammatory cytokines and fatty acid elevation. For this reasons, adipose tissue is involved in, e.g., insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes or hyperlipidemia development. In our previous study, we have shown that riboflavin deficiency induces a pathological pro-inflammatory response of macrophages, the main component of adipose tissue...
April 14, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413193/effect-of-dietary-purified-xanthohumol-from-hop-humulus-lupulus-l-pomace-on-adipose-tissue-mass-fasting-blood-glucose-level-and-lipid-metabolism-in-kk-ay-mice
#20
Koki Takahashi, Kyoichi Osada
We previously showed that xanthohumol-rich hop extract (XRHE, ~18% xanthohumol) exerts anti-obesity effects in rats fed a high-fat diet through regulation of fatty acid metabolism. In this study, we examined the effects of dietary purified xanthohumol from XRHE (PX, ~91.9% xanthohumol) in KK-Ay mice in order to understand the anti-obesity effects of xanthohumol alone because XRHE contains 82% unknown compounds. Dietary consumption of PX significantly inhibited an increase in the visceral fat weight of mice compared to those fed control diet without PX...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
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