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Leptin, obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772056/maternal-plasma-leptin-levels-in-relation-to-the-duration-of-the-active-phase-of-labor
#1
Sara Carlhäll, Karin Källén, Annika Thorsell, Marie Blomberg
INTRODUCTION: Obese women have increased leptin levels and longer duration of labor compared to normal weight women. Leptin has an inhibitory effect on myometrial contractility in vitro. Our purpose was to examine whether maternal leptin levels in active labor were associated with the duration of the active phase of labor. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 914 women. Maternal blood samples were collected in active labor. The plasma-leptin concentration was obtained using a direct sandwich-based ELISA...
May 17, 2018: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770757/soya-protein-%C3%AE-conglycinin-ameliorates-fatty-liver-and-obesity-in-diet-induced-obese-mice-through-the-down-regulation-of-ppar%C3%AE
#2
Dongyang Li, Reina Ikaga, Tomomi Yamazaki
Diets high in fat can result in obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The improvement of obesity and NAFLD is an important issue. β-Conglycinin, one of the soya proteins, is known to prevent hyperlipidaemia, obesity and NAFLD. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of β-conglycinin on the improvement of obesity and NAFLD in high-fat (HF) diet-induced obese (DIO) mice and clarify the mechanism underlying these effects in liver and white adipose tissue (WAT). DIO male ddY mice were divided into six groups: HF, medium-fat (MF) and low-fat (LF) groups fed casein, and HF, MF and LF groups in all of which the casein was replaced by β-conglycinin...
June 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766824/adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-the-treatment-of-obesity-a-systematic-review-of-longitudinal-studies-on-preclinical-evidence
#3
Fatima Saleh, Leila Itani, Simona Calugi, Riccardo Dalle Grave, Marwan El Ghoch
BACKGROUND: Obesity is an increasing global health problem, but its treatment is not yet optimal, especially in the long term. For this reason, preclinical studies have been conducted relating to a new therapeutic strategy for obesity based on adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs). The aim of our systematic review is to summarize these findings deriving from the animal model in order to establish whether there is sufficient evidence to justify going forward to clinical studies...
May 15, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766682/distinct-ultradian-rhythms-in-plasma-clusterin-concentrations-in-lean-and-obese-korean-subjects
#4
Jong Han Choi, Eunheui Jeong, Byung Soo Youn, Min Seon Kim
BACKGROUND: Blood levels of many hormones show rhythmic fluctuations with variable duration of cycles. Clusterin/apolipoprotein J is a glycoprotein which is highly expressed in the plasma and has modulatory roles in immune and inflammatory reactions, neurobiology, lipid metabolism, and leptin signaling. In this study, we examined the diurnal fluctuations of plasma clusterin concentrations in lean and obese young men. METHODS: For the study, 14 subjects (five lean and five obese men; two lean and two obese women) were admitted to the research ward and blood samples were drawn every 30 minutes during light-on period (6:00 AM to 10:00 PM) and every hour during light-off period...
May 4, 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763838/the-overweight-increases-circulating-inflammatory-mediators-commonly-associated-with-obesity-in-young-individuals
#5
Laís Roquete Lopes, Silvana Mara Luz Turbino Ribeiro, Vivian Paulino Figueiredo, Ana Luísa Junqueira Leite, Roney Luiz de Carvalho Nicolato, Juliana Assis Estanislau Gomes, Fernando Luiz Pereira de Oliveira, Andre Talvani
Obesity is a serious and growing world healthy problem affecting developed and developing countries. The new conception of obesity as a basal inflammatory condition has opened a new window of possibilities to identify inflammatory biomarkers to be used in the diagnosis or prognosis of obesity-associated comorbidities. This present work aims the identification of the adipokines (leptin and resistin), chemokines (CCL2, CCL5, CXCL16) and the BMP-2 and their association with the clinical, biochemical (fasting glucose, hemogram, cholesterol, T3, T4 and TSH) and anthropometric (weight, height, body circumferences, skinfold thickness and percentage of body fat) parameters in young adults (18-30 years old) presenting obesity and overweight...
May 11, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762052/effects-of-physical-exercise-on-adiponectin-leptin-and-inflammatory-markers-in-childhood-obesity-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Felice Sirico, Antonio Bianco, Giovanni D'Alicandro, Clotilde Castaldo, Stefania Montagnani, Rocco Spera, Franca Di Meglio, Daria Nurzynska
BACKGROUND: New findings on adipose tissue physiology and obesity-associated inflammation status suggest that modification of the adipokine level can be relevant for the long-term prevention of obesity-associated chronic disease. OBJECTIVES: The scope of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of physical exercise in reducing the systemic inflammation related to obesity in children. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review with meta-analysis of controlled randomized trials, identified through electronic database search, which investigated the effect of physical exercise, without concomitant dietary intervention, on adiponectin, leptin, and/or other inflammatory markers in children up to age 18 years with a body mass index greater than the 95th percentile for age and sex...
May 15, 2018: Childhood Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761750/obesity-disrupts-rhythmic-clock-gene-expression-in-maternal-adipose-tissue-during-rat-pregnancy
#7
Rachael C Crew, Peter J Mark, Brendan J Waddell
Obesity during pregnancy causes numerous maternal and fetal health complications, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity has previously been linked to disruption of the intrinsic adipose clock gene network that is crucial for normal metabolic function. This adipose clock also undergoes major change as part of the maternal metabolic adaptation to pregnancy, but whether this is affected by maternal obesity is unknown. Consequently, in this study we tested the hypothesis that obesity disturbs rhythmic gene expression in maternal adipose tissue across pregnancy...
June 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760587/the-role-of-adipokines-in-skeletal-muscle-inflammation-and-insulin-sensitivity
#8
REVIEW
Thomas Nicholson, Chris Church, David J Baker, Simon W Jones
Background: There is currently an unmet clinical need to develop better pharmacological treatments to improve glucose handling in Type II Diabetes patients with obesity. To this end, determining the effect of obesity-associated adipokines on skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity has emerged as an important area of drug discovery research. This review draws together the data on the functional role of adipokines on skeletal muscle insulin signalling, highlights several understudied novel adipokines and provides a perspective on the direction of future research...
2018: Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760351/leptin-aggravates-reflux-esophagitis-by-increasing-tissue-levels-of-macrophage-migration-inhibitory-factor-in-rats
#9
Tsugihiro Murata, Kiyotaka Asanuma, Nobuyuki Ara, Katsunori Iijima, Waku Hatta, Shin Hamada, Naoki Asano, Tomoyuki Koike, Akira Imatani, Atsushi Masamune, Tooru Shimosegawa
Leptin, produced primarily by the adipose tissue, acts as a pro-inflammatory modulator, thereby contributing to the development of obesity-related disease. Although high levels of leptin in the obese are closely related to gastroesophageal reflux disease, the mechanism by which leptin influences esophageal inflammation remains unknown. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is produced by immune cells, such as T lymphocytes and macrophages, and MIF is known to induce the production of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and interleukin 6 (IL-6)...
2018: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759068/childhood-retinol-binding-protein-4-rbp4-levels-predicting-the-10-year-risk-of-insulin-resistance-and-metabolic-syndrome-the-bcams-study
#10
Ge Li, Issy C Esangbedo, Lu Xu, Junling Fu, Lujiao Li, Dan Feng, Lanwen Han, Xinhua Xiao, Mingyao Li, Jie Mi, Ming Li, Shan Gao, Steven M Willi
BACKGROUND: Elevated retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) levels may contribute to the development of metabolic abnormalities, but prospective studies evaluating the association between childhood RBP4 levels and metabolic syndrome (MS) in adulthood are lacking. We investigated whether RBP4 levels during childhood predict cardiometabolic risk at 10-year follow-up. METHODS: The relationships between RBP4 levels, the established adipokines (leptin and adiponectin) and the components of MS were examined in 3445 school-aged children recruited in 2004 for the Beijing Child and Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome study...
May 14, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758496/cord-blood-concentrations-of-leptin-zinc-%C3%AE-2-glycoprotein-and-adiponectin-and-adiposity-gain-during-the-first-3-mo-of-life
#11
Verônica L V Euclydes, Natalia P Castro, Lourdes R Lima, Cyro Brito, Laisa Ribeiro, Fernanda Agapito Simões, Guaraci Requena, Liania Alves Luzia, Patricia Helen Rondó
OBJECTIVES: Adipose tissue development starts in intrauterine life and cytokines are involved in this process. Therefore, understanding the role of cytokines in the fat mass gain of infants is crucial to prevent obesity later in life. Furthermore, recent evidence indicates a sex-specific link between cytokines and adipose tissue development. The objective of this study was to assess sex-specific relationships of cord blood concentrations of the cytokines leptin, zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG), and adiponectin with infant adiposity during the first 3 mo of life...
March 22, 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757972/short-term-soy-protein-isolate-feeding-prevents-liver-steatosis-and-reduces-serum-alt-and-ast-levels-in-obese-female-zucker-rats
#12
Reza Hakkak, Clinton Heath Gauss, Andrea Bell, Soheila Korourian
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a common liver disorder worldwide and is associated with obesity. We investigated effects of obesity and short-term intake of soy protein with isoflavones (SPI) on body weight change, energy intake, liver steatosis, and serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and leptin levels. Seventeen lean and seventeen obese ( fa / fa ) female Zucker rats were randomly assigned to either casein or SPI diet for 8 weeks. Body weight was recorded twice weekly; feed intake was measured weekly...
May 14, 2018: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756980/alteration-of-inflammatory-adipokines-after-four-months-of-smoking-abstinence-in-multidisciplinary-intervention-program
#13
Mayla Cardoso Fernandes Toffolo, Arthur Da Silva Gomes, Henriqueta Vieira Van Keulen, Maira Barros Louro, Flávia Márcia Castro E Silva, Sheila Cristina Potente Dutra Luquetti, Aline Silva de Aguiar, Ana Paula Ferreira
BACKGROUND: many endocrine-metabolic changes are involved in smoking. OBJECTIVES: to evaluate serum concentrations of inflammatory adipokines in smokers at baseline and after four months of treatment for smoking cessation. METHODS: the serum concentrations of inflammatory cytokines were evaluated in smokers and abstinent. Nutritional assessment was based on measurements of body weight, height, and waist circumference (WC), to calculate body mass index (BMI), body adiposity index (BAI) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR)...
February 27, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755549/evaluation-of-diabetogenic-mechanism-of-high-fat-diet-in-combination-with-arsenic-exposure-in-male-mice
#14
Akram Ahangarpour, Soheila Alboghobeish, Mohsen Rezaei, Mohammad Javad Khodayar, Ali Akbar Oroojan, Marzieh Zainvand
Obesity is a main reason of type 2 diabetes and also chronic exposure to arsenic (As) can produce diabetic symptoms. In previous studies, the association between high-fat diet and arsenic in the incidence of diabetes was found, but the role of beta cells activity, liver mitochondrial oxidative stress, and hepatic enzymes (leptin, adiponectin and beta amylase) was unclear. Thus, present study was conducted to evaluate the diabetogenic mechanism of arsenic followed by concomitant administration of high-fat diet (HFD) in male mice...
2018: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755407/circulating-and-adipose-tissue-mrna-levels-of-zinc-%C3%AE-2-glycoprotein-leptin-high-molecular-weight-adiponectin-and-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-in-colorectal-cancer-patients-with-or-without-obesity
#15
Huijuan Zhu, Meijuan Liu, Nianrong Zhang, Hui Pan, Guole Lin, Naishi Li, Linjie Wang, Hongbo Yang, Kemin Yan, Fengying Gong
Objectives: To explore zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG), leptin, high-molecular-weight adiponectin (HMW-ADPN), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels in serum and subcutaneous and visceral white adipose tissue (sWAT and vWAT) among normal weight (NW) and overweight/obese (OW/OB) patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: A total of 76 Chinese CRC patients (42 NW + CRC, 34 OW/OB + CRC) and 40 healthy controls were recruited. Serum levels of the adipokines of interest were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method, and their mRNA levels in sWAT and vWAT were determined by reverse transcription quantitative PCR methods...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754264/one-year-impact-of-bariatric-surgery-on-serum-anti-mullerian-hormone-levels-in-severely-obese-women
#16
Clara Vincentelli, Marie Maraninchi, René Valéro, Sophie Béliard, Flavia Maurice, Olivier Emungania, Bruno Berthet, Elise Lombard, Anne Dutour, Bénédicte Gaborit, Blandine Courbiere
INTRODUCTION: Although bariatric surgery seems to increase spontaneous fertility by improving ovulatory function in young women, its impact on ovarian reserve remains largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate changes in serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) levels in reproductive-age severely obese women after bariatric surgery (BS). METHODS: AMH levels were measured retrospectively in 39 women (mean age 34.6 ± 1.1 years, range 18-45) that underwent a sleeve gastrectomy or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) at baseline, and 6 and 12 months after BS...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752338/identification-of-genetic-basis-of-obesity-and-mechanistic-link-of-genes-and-lipids-in-pakistani-population
#17
N M Shabana, Saleem Ullah Shahid, Shahida Hasnain
Background : We aimed to identify the genetic causes of common forms of obesity in the Pakistani people and find out the mechanistic link by observing the relationship of genes and serum lipid traits. Methods : 475 subjects were genotyped for two mutations in (leptin:N103K and proopiomelanocortin:R236G) and ten common variants in different genes. Serum lipids were also measured. Results : The prevalence of mutations was very low (one heterozygous subject each for both mutations), but fairly high minor/risk allele frequency (M/RAF) was observed for all SNPs...
May 11, 2018: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750244/regulation-of-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-and-distribution-by-agouti-related-protein-in-male-mice
#18
Matthew T Maier, Anna Vilhelmsson, Sharon M Louie, Eirini Vagena, Daniel K Nomura, Suneil K Koliwad, Allison W Xu
Proper regulation of energy metabolism requires CNS neurons to respond dynamically to signals that reflect the body's energy reserve, and one such signal is leptin. Agouti-related protein (AgRP) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that is markedly upregulated in leptin deficiency, a condition that is associated with severe obesity, diabetes and hepatic steatosis. Since deleting AgRP in mice does not alter energy balance, we sought to determine whether AgRP plays an indispensable role in regulating energy and hepatic lipid metabolism in the sensitized background of leptin deficiency...
May 9, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748097/time-resolved-hypothalamic-open-flow-micro-perfusion-reveals-normal-leptin-transport-across-the-blood-brain-barrier-in-leptin-resistant-mice
#19
Maximilian Kleinert, Petra Kotzbeck, Thomas Altendorfer-Kroath, Thomas Birngruber, Matthias H Tschöp, Christoffer Clemmensen
OBJECTIVE: The inability of leptin to suppress food intake in diet-induced obesity, sometimes referred to as leptin resistance, is associated with several distinct pathological hallmarks. One prevailing theory is that impaired transport of leptin across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) represents a molecular mechanism that triggers this phenomenon. Recent evidence, however, has challenged this notion, suggesting that leptin BBB transport is acquired during leptin resistance. METHODS: To resolve this debate, we utilized a novel cerebral Open Flow Microperfusion (cOFM) method to examine leptin BBB transport in male C57BL/6J mice, fed a chow diet or high fat diet (HFD) for 20 days...
April 27, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746501/dietary-challenges-differentially-affect-activity-and-sleep-wake-behavior-in-mus-musculus-isolating-independent-associations-with-diet-energy-balance-and-body-weight
#20
Isaac J Perron, Brendan T Keenan, Karthikeyani Chellappa, Nicholas F Lahens, Nicole L Yohn, Keith R Shockley, Allan I Pack, Sigrid C Veasey
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Associated with numerous metabolic and behavioral abnormalities, obesity is classified by metrics reliant on body weight (such as body mass index). However, overnutrition is the common cause of obesity, and may independently contribute to these obesity-related abnormalities. Here, we use dietary challenges to parse apart the relative influence of diet and/or energy balance from body weight on various metabolic and behavioral outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy male mice (mus musculus) were subjected to the diet switch feeding paradigm, generating groups with various body weights and energetic imbalances...
2018: PloS One
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