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Ryan C Johnson, Michael W Ellis, Carey D Schlett, Eugene V Millar, Patrick T LaBreck, Deepika Mor, Emad M Elassal, Jeffrey B Lanier, Cassie L Redden, Tianyuan Cui, Nimfa Teneza-Mora, Danett K Bishop, Eric R Hall, Kimberly A Bishop-Lilly, D Scott Merrell
: Military trainees are at high risk for skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs). Although Staphylococcus aureus is associated with purulent SSTI, it is unclear to what degree this pathogen causes nonpurulent cellulitis. To inform effective prevention strategies and to provide novel insights into SSTI pathogenesis, we aimed to determine the etiology of SSTI in this population. We conducted a prospective observational study in US Army Infantry trainees with SSTI (cutaneous abscesses and cellulitis) from July 2012 through December 2014...
2016: PloS One
Marc Aerts, Girma Minalu, Stefan Bösner, Frank Buntinx, Bernard Burnand, Jörg Haasenritter, Lilli Herzig, J André Knottnerus, Staffan Nilsson, Walter Renier, Carol Sox, Harold Sox, Norbert Donner-Banzhoff
OBJECTIVE: To construct a clinical prediction rule for coronary artery disease (CAD) presenting with chest pain in primary care. STUDY DESIGN: Meta-Analysis using 3099 patients from 5 studies. To identify candidate predictors, we used random forest trees, multiple imputation of missing values and logistic regression within individual studies. To generate a prediction rule on the pooled data, we applied a regression model that took account of the differing standard data sets collected by the 5 studies...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Maria A Lilli, Evdokia Syranidou, Andriana Palliou, Nikolaos P Nikolaidis, George Karatzas, Nicolas Kalogerakis
A methodology was developed to assess the impact of geogenic origin hexavalent chromium uptake by carrots, and the risk of human consumption of carrots grown in Asopos River basin in Greece. A field scale experiment was conducted with carrots cultivated in treatment plots, with and without compost amendment, in order to assess the impact of carbon in the mobility and uptake of chromium by plants. The results suggested that there is a trend for chromium mobilization and uptake in the surface and the leaves of the carrots cultivated in the treatment plot with the higher carbon addition, but not in the core of the carrots...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Research
Ashlee Lillis, DelWayne Bohnenstiehl, Jason W Peters, David Eggleston
Coral populations, and the productive reef ecosystems they support, rely on successful recruitment of reef-building species, beginning with settlement of dispersing larvae into habitat favourable to survival. Many substrate cues have been identified as contributors to coral larval habitat selection; however, the potential for ambient acoustic cues to influence coral settlement responses is unknown. Using in situ settlement chambers that excluded other habitat cues, larval settlement of a dominant Caribbean reef-building coral, Orbicella faveolata, was compared in response to three local soundscapes, with differing acoustic and habitat properties...
2016: PeerJ
Carmine Muto, Valeria Calvi, Giovanni Luca Botto, Domenico Pecora, Lorenzo Maria Zuccaro, Alessandro Costa, Gianfranco Ciaramitaro, Riccardo Airò Farulla, Gerardo Nigro, Bernardino Tuccillo, Marco Racheli, Alessio Lilli, Albino Reggiani, Maurizio Malacrida, Sergio Valsecchi, Giampiero Maglia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 3, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Sara Boucher, Olivia Edwards, Andrew Gray, Shyamala Nada-Raja, Jason Lillis, Tracy L Tylka, Caroline C Horwath
BACKGROUND: Middle-aged women are at risk of weight gain and associated comorbidities. Deliberate restriction of food intake (dieting) produces short-term weight loss but is largely unsuccessful for long-term weight management. Two promising approaches for the prevention of weight gain are intuitive eating (ie, eating in accordance with hunger and satiety signals) and the development of greater psychological flexibility (ie, the aim of acceptance and commitment therapy [ACT]). OBJECTIVES: This pilot study investigated the usage, acceptability, and feasibility of "Mind, Body, Food," a Web-based weight gain prevention intervention prototype that teaches intuitive eating and psychological flexibility skills...
October 14, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
Trisha C Parker, Anaam Mohammed, Traci Leong, Shelley Mays, Shabnam Jain, Victoria Churchill, Fatima Ali, Lilly C Immergluck
OBJECTIVE: Rotavirus (RV) is one of the most common diarrheal diseases affecting children less than 5 years of age. RV vaccines have greatly reduced this burden in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine possible disparities and socio-economic differences in RV vaccination rates. DESIGN: Children with acute gastroenteritis were enrolled. Stool was tested for presence of rotavirus using an enzyme immunoassay kit. Vaccination records were abstracted from the state immunization registry and healthcare providers to examine complete and incomplete vaccination status...
October 14, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
Robert Z Tashjian, Daniel T Lilly, Aaron M Isaacson, Cory E Georgopoulos, Stephen P Bettwieser, Robert T Burks, Patrick E Greis, Angela P Presson, Erin K Granger, Yue Zhang
Reported rates of venous thromboembolism (VTE) after shoulder arthroplasty (SA) range from 0.2% to 13%. Few studies have evaluated the incidence of VTE in a large patient population from a single institution. We conducted a study to determine the incidence of VTE (deep venous thrombosis [DVT] and pulmonary embolism [PE]) in a large series of SAs. Cases of SAs performed at our institution between January 1999 and May 2012 were retrospectively reviewed for development of symptomatic VTE within the first 90 days after surgery...
September 2016: American Journal of Orthopedics
Jeffrey S Lillie, Alexander S Liberson, David A Borkholder
Hypertension is a significant worldwide health issue. Continuous blood pressure monitoring is important for early detection of hypertension, and for improving treatment efficacy and compliance. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) has the potential to allow for a continuous blood pressure monitoring device; however published studies demonstrate significant variability in this correlation. In a recently presented physics-based mathematical model of PWV, flow velocity is additive to the classic pressure wave as estimated by arterial material properties, suggesting flow velocity correction may be important for cuff-less non-invasive blood pressure measures...
October 11, 2016: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
José A Sacristán, Luís Lizan, Marta Comellas, Pilar Garrido, Cristina Avendaño, Juan J Cruz-Hernández, Javier Espinosa, Tatiana Dilla
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to explore the main factors explaining the relative weight of the different attributes that determine the value of oncologic treatments from the different perspectives of healthcare policy makers (HCPM), oncologists, patients and the general population in Spain. METHODS: Structured interviews were conducted to assess: (1) the importance of the attributes on treatment choice when comparing a new cancer drug with a standard cancer treatment; (2) the importance of survival, quality of life (QoL), costs and innovation in cancer; and (3) the most worrying side effects related to cancer drugs...
October 7, 2016: Advances in Therapy
Ileana Vilcu, Lilli Probst, Bayarsaikhan Dorjsuren, Inke Mathauer
BACKGROUND: Many low- and middle-income countries with a social health insurance system face challenges on their road towards universal health coverage (UHC), especially for people in the informal sector and vulnerable population groups or the informally employed. One way to address this is to subsidize their contributions through general government revenue transfers to the health insurance fund. This paper provides an overview of such health financing arrangements in Asian low- and middle-income countries...
October 4, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
Silvina R Mastaglia, Gabriel Aguilar, Beatriz Oliveri
Bisphosphonates (BPs) are the most widely used drugs to treat osteoporosis. However, recent reports associated to long-term BPs use with atypical low-impact fractures and prodromal pain. It is estimated that 26% of the cases of atypical fractures associated with the long-term use of BPs show delayed healing or nonunion. Teriparatide [PTH1-34] (TPTD) is an anabolic drug shown to be effective in stimulating bone formation. The aim was to describe the course of a right diaphyseal femoral fracture sustained by a patient on long-term BPs treatment...
June 2016: Eur J Rheumatol
Ofer Havakuk, Michal Laufer Perl, Ofir Praisler, Michael Barkagan, Ben Sadeh, Gilad Margolis, Maayan Konigstein, Lilly Veltman Fuks, Gad Keren, Ehud Chorin, Yaron Arbel
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) was shown to be related to a variety of diseases. High level of vigilance for the diagnosis of MetS is expected among health providers. We evaluated the level of awareness to MetS among physician and nurses working in a central hospital. METHODS AND RESULTS: A specially designed anonymous questionnaire was used, including both open and multiple choice questions set to evaluate the participant's awareness to MetS. The study included 126 participants, 71% physicians and 29% nurses...
September 21, 2016: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
Rajesh Krishna, Lilly East, Patrick Larson, Tara Siringhaus, Lisa Herpok, Crystal Bethel-Brown, Helen Manthos, John Brejda, Michael Gartner
Raltegravir is a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 integrase strand transfer inhibitor currently marketed at a dose of 400 mg twice daily (BID). Raltegravir for once daily regimen (QD) at a dose of 1200 mg (2 x 600 mg) is under development and offers a new treatment option for HIV-1 infected treatment-naive subjects. Since raltegravir is eliminated mainly by metabolism via an UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1-mediated glucuronidation pathway, co-administration of UGT1A1 inducers may alter plasma levels of raltegravir...
October 5, 2016: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
Christina J Sun, Alice Ma, Amanda E Tanner, Lilli Mann, Beth A Reboussin, Manuel Garcia, Jorge Alonzo, Scott D Rhodes
Background. Little is known about the role of discrimination on depression among Latino sexual and gender identity minorities. This manuscript examined the relationship between ethnic/racial discrimination and sexual discrimination on clinically significant depressive symptoms among Latino sexual minority men (i.e., gay and bisexual men and other men who have sex with men) and Latina transgender women. Methods. A community-based participatory research partnership recruited participants (N = 186; 80.6% cisgender men) in North Carolina to a social network-based HIV intervention...
2016: Depression Research and Treatment
Valentino Antonio Pironti, Meng-Chuan Lai, Ulrich Müller, Edward Thomas Bullmore, Barbara Jacquelyn Sahakian
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) shows clear, albeit heterogeneous, cognitive dysfunctions. However, personality traits are not well understood in adults with ADHD, and it is unclear whether they are predisposing factors or phenotypical facets of the condition. AIMS: To assess whether personality traits of impulsivity, sensation seeking and sensitivity to punishment and reward are predisposing factors for ADHD or aspects of the clinical phenotype...
July 2016: BJPsych Open
Anjali Sankar, Tianhao Zhang, Bilwaj Gaonkar, Jimit Doshi, Guray Erus, Sergi G Costafreda, Lauren Marangell, Christos Davatzikos, Cynthia H Y Fu
BACKGROUND: At present, we do not have any biological tests which can contribute towards a diagnosis of depression. Neuroimaging measures have shown some potential as biomarkers for diagnosis. However, participants have generally been from the same ethnic background while the applicability of a biomarker would require replication in individuals of diverse ethnicities. AIMS: We sought to examine the diagnostic potential of the structural neuroanatomy of depression in a sample of a wide ethnic diversity...
July 2016: BJPsych Open
Gin S Malhi, Yulisha Byrow, Frederick Cassidy, Andrea Cipriani, Koen Demyttenaere, Mark A Frye, Michael Gitlin, Sidney H Kennedy, Terence A Ketter, Raymond W Lam, Rupert McShane, Alex J Mitchell, Michael J Ostacher, Sakina J Rizvi, Michael E Thase, Mauricio Tohen
SUMMARY: The appeal of ketamine - in promptly ameliorating depressive symptoms even in those with non-response - has led to a dramatic increase in its off-label use. Initial promising results await robust corroboration and key questions remain, particularly concerning its long-term administration. It is, therefore, timely to review the opinions of mood disorder experts worldwide pertaining to ketamine's potential as an option for treating depression and provide a synthesis of perspectives - derived from evidence and clinical experience - and to consider strategies for future investigations...
May 2016: BJPsych Open
Aleksandra Kupferberg, Oliver M Hager, Urs Fischbacher, Laura S Brändle, Melanie Haynes, Gregor Hasler
BACKGROUND: Price's social competition hypothesis interprets the depressive state as an unconscious, involuntary losing strategy, which enables individuals to yield and accept defeat in competitive situations. AIMS: We investigated whether patients who suffer from major depressive disorder (MDD) would avoid competition more often than either patients suffering from borderline personality disorder (BPD) or healthy controls. METHOD: In a simple paper-folding task healthy participants and patiens with MDD and BPD were matched with two opponents, one with an unknown diagnosis and one who shared their clinical diagnosis, and they had to choose either a competitive or cooperative payment scheme for task completion...
March 2016: BJPsych Open
Michael Bodnar, Ashok K Malla, Carolina Makowski, M Mallar Chakravarty, Ridha Joober, Martin Lepage
BACKGROUND: Current neuroscience literature has related treatment with aripiprazole to improved memory performance and subcellular changes in the hippocampus. AIMS: To explore the volumetric changes in hippocampal grey matter in people with a first episode of psychosis (FEP) treated with second-generation antipsychotics. METHOD: Baseline and 1-year follow-up magnetic resonance images were obtained. Hippocampal volumes were estimated by using FreeSurfer and MAGeT-Brain...
March 2016: BJPsych Open
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