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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930705/how-we-become-who-we-are-ashley-carla-and-the-rest-of-us
#1
Jamie Lindemann Nelson
Lisa Freitag and Joan Liaschenko's thoughtful and important article goes directly to the under-examined heart of Ashley's case, namely to what sustains her in a habitable and intelligible identity. Though quite sympathetic with their conclusion and line of argument, I try to trouble their proceedings a bit, largely by wondering how having a specific such identity, out of several that may be in-principle available, matters to someone with Ashley's cognitive scope. I do this not simply to be contrary, but because their article also seems to me to raise issues in the ethics of bioethics-in particular, what I call the dilemma of ethical endeavor: How ought one publicly pursue deeply important and complex issues, the very raising of which may offend interlocutors who indeed have grounds for resentment...
2017: Journal of Clinical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928348/cross-cultural-adaptation-of-jefferson-scale-of-empathy-health-professions-students-version-an-experience-with-developing-the-tamil-translation
#2
Kathiresan Jeyashree, Soundappan Kathirvel, Muthu K Prathibha
BACKGROUND: Empathy is a key cognitive attribute among healthcare professionals that fosters better patient- healthcare provider relationships. The Jefferson scale of empathy (JSE) measures self-rated empathy among various groups of healthcare professionals-health professionals, medical students and health professions students (HPS). The authors present the experience in translating the JSE-HPS version into an Indian regional language with insights into the issues faced in every step...
May 2017: Education for Health: Change in Training & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924492/the-essentials-of-a-global-index-for-cognitive-function
#3
Joseph Mathew Antony, Ian Weaver, Matthew Rueffer, Najla Guthrie, Malkanthi Evans
Cognition is comprised of the faculties: perception, creativity, intuition, and ratiocination. Optimal levels of cognition are needed for independent functioning and balanced living. With an aging population that continues to grow, dietary supplements that tilt the balance towards maintenance of cognition are being marketed for vulnerable populations facing these challenges. Randomized clinical trials provide the causal inference necessary to define the efficacy of emerging nutraceuticals. Cognition testing, in particular, requires a battery of tests that encompass all brain regions involved in cognition so as to provide endpoints necessary for product validation...
2017: Translational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922835/rewards-and-cognitive-control-in-the-human-prefrontal-cortex
#4
Sandrine Duverne, Etienne Koechlin
The human prefrontal cortex (PFC) subserves cognitive control, that is, the ability to form behavioral strategies that coordinate actions and thoughts in relation to internal goals. Cognitive control involves the medial and lateral PFC but we still poorly understand how these regions guide strategy selection according to expected rewards. We addressed this issue using neuroimaging, computational modeling and model-based analyses of information flows between medial and lateral PFC. We show here that the (dorsal) medial PFC encodes and conveys to lateral PFC reward expectations driving strategy selection, while strategy selection originates in lateral PFC and propagates backward to medial PFC...
October 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922173/accommodating-individuals-with-traumatic-brain-injury-an-analysis-of-employer-initiated-cases-handled-by-the-job-accommodation-network
#5
D J Hendricks, Elaine Sampson
BACKGROUND: The Job Accommodation Network (JAN) has provided customized accommodation information to employers, individuals with disabilities, and their representatives (e.g., family, rehabilitation counselors, union representatives) since 1983. For each inquiry where such information is sought, detailed records are maintained regarding the type of inquiries made and the information provided. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the current study is to present a descriptive analysis of the employer-initiated cases related to traumatic brain injury (TBI) handled by the accommodation specialists at JAN during the five years from 2012 through 2016...
September 14, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918700/dementia-and-migration-family-care-patterns-merging-with-public-care-services
#6
Mette Sagbakken, Ragnhild Storstein Spilker, Reidun Ingebretsen
This article focuses on cognitive impairment and dementia in the context of transnational migration. Based on data from focus group discussions and interviews, we conclude that to adjust to the needs of care within ethnic-minority communities, it is important to consider not only the availability of household and kin members but also the present understanding of obligation and reciprocity underlying the perception of care. Another important issue to realize is that caregivers, women in particular, might feel obliged to conform to a traditional caregiver role, but without the support from a wider extended family, and in the context of other pressing roles and duties...
September 1, 2017: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917697/trajectories-of-brain-system-maturation-from-childhood-to-older-adulthood-implications-for-lifespan-cognitive-functioning
#7
Raluca Petrican, Margot J Taylor, Cheryl L Grady
The human brain's intrinsic functional architecture reflects behavioural history and can help elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying age-related cognitive changes. To probe this issue, we used resting state (N = 586) and behavioural (N = 255) data from a lifespan sample and tested the interactions among ten intrinsic neural systems, derived from a well-established whole-brain parcellation. Our results revealed three distinguishable profiles, whose expression strengthened with increasing age and which characterized developmental differences in connectivity within the ten systems, between networks thought to underlie cognitive control and non-control systems, and among the non-control networks...
September 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915817/cultural-adaptation-of-a-pediatric-functional-assessment-for-rehabilitation-outcomes-research
#8
Kristen E Arestad, David MacPhee, Chun Y Lim, Mary A Khetani
BACKGROUND: Significant racial and ethnic health care disparities experienced by Hispanic children with special health care needs (CSHCN) create barriers to enacting culturally competent rehabilitation services. One way to minimize the impact of disparities in rehabilitation is to equip practitioners with culturally relevant functional assessments to accurately determine service needs. Current approaches to culturally adapting assessments have three major limitations: use of inconsistent translation processes; current processes assess for some, but not all, elements of cultural equivalence; and limited evidence to guide decision making about whether to undertake cultural adaptation with and without language translation...
September 15, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914977/autism-theory-of-mind-and-the-reactive-attitudes
#9
Kenneth A Richman, Raya Bidshahri
Whether to treat autism as exculpatory in any given circumstance appears to be influenced both by models of autism and by theories of moral responsibility. This article looks at one particular combination of theories: autism as theory of mind challenges and moral responsibility as requiring appropriate experience of the reactive attitudes. In pursuing this particular combination of ideas, we do not intend to endorse them. Our goal is, instead, to explore the implications of this combination of especially prominent ideas about autism and about moral responsibility...
September 15, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914403/self-transformation-at-the-boundary-of-religious-conversion-and-psychosis
#10
Szabolcs Kéri
The relationship between religious conversion, as a form of spiritual emergency, and psychosis is one of the fundamental issues at the meeting point of theology and clinical psychology. In the present study, we assessed 53 individuals referred to a psychiatry center with the initial diagnosis of a psychotic episode by focusing on the clinical diagnosis (psychosis vs. spiritual emergency), subjective experiences (basic symptoms), and neuropsychological functions. Twenty-nine individuals meet the diagnosis of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, but 24 persons experienced only religious and spiritual problems (religious conversion)...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912743/act-on-numbers-numerical-magnitude-influences-selection-and-kinematics-of-finger-movement
#11
Rosa Rugani, Sonia Betti, Francesco Ceccarini, Luisa Sartori
In the past decade hand kinematics has been reliably adopted for investigating cognitive processes and disentangling debated topics. One of the most controversial issues in numerical cognition literature regards the origin - cultural vs. genetically driven - of the mental number line (MNL), oriented from left (small numbers) to right (large numbers). To date, the majority of studies have investigated this effect by means of response times, whereas studies considering more culturally unbiased measures such as kinematic parameters are rare...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912733/resilience-and-cognitive-bias-in-chinese-male-medical-freshmen
#12
Li Peng, Hong-Wen Cao, Yongju Yu, Min Li
BACKGROUND: Psychological resilience has become a hot issue in positive psychology research. However, little is known about cognitive bias difference of individuals with different resilience levels. This study aimed to explore the characteristics of cognitive bias and its role in Chinese medical freshmen with different resilience levels. METHODS: 312 Chinese medical freshmen were surveyed by the Chinese version of Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, 92 of whom were, respectively, allocated into high (n = 46) and low (n = 46) resilient group to complete computerized tests using an attentional shifting task and an emotional picture recognition task...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912704/reliability-of-eeg-measures-of-interaction-a-paradigm-shift-is-needed-to-fight-the-reproducibility-crisis
#13
Yvonne Höller, Andreas Uhl, Arne Bathke, Aljoscha Thomschewski, Kevin Butz, Raffaele Nardone, Jürgen Fell, Eugen Trinka
Measures of interaction (connectivity) of the EEG are at the forefront of current neuroscientific research. Unfortunately, test-retest reliability can be very low, depending on the measure and its estimation, the EEG-frequency of interest, the length of the signal, and the population under investigation. In addition, artifacts can hamper the continuity of the EEG signal, and in some clinical situations it is impractical to exclude artifacts. We aimed to examine factors that moderate test-retest reliability of measures of interaction...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912675/deceptive-but-not-honest-manipulative-actions-are-associated-with-increased-interaction-between-middle-and-inferior-frontal-gyri
#14
Maxim Kireev, Alexander Korotkov, Natalia Medvedeva, Ruslan Masharipov, Svyatoslav Medvedev
The prefrontal cortex is believed to be responsible for execution of deceptive behavior and its involvement is associated with greater cognitive efforts. It is also generally assumed that deception is associated with the inhibition of default honest actions. However, the precise neurophysiological mechanisms underlying this process remain largely unknown. The present study was aimed to use functional magnetic resonance imaging to reveal the underlying functional integration within the prefrontal cortex during the task which requires that subjects to deliberately mislead an opponent through the sequential execution of deceptive and honest claims...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912672/maximizing-the-potential-of-longitudinal-cohorts-for-research-in-neurodegenerative-diseases-a-community-perspective
#15
Catherine J Moody, Derick Mitchell, Grace Kiser, Dag Aarsland, Daniela Berg, Carol Brayne, Alberto Costa, Mohammad A Ikram, Gail Mountain, Jonathan D Rohrer, Charlotte E Teunissen, Leonard H van den Berg, Joanna M Wardlaw
Despite a wealth of activity across the globe in the area of longitudinal population cohorts, surprisingly little information is available on the natural biomedical history of a number of age-related neurodegenerative diseases (ND), and the scope for intervention studies based on these cohorts is only just beginning to be explored. The Joint Programming Initiative on Neurodegenerative Disease Research (JPND) recently developed a novel funding mechanism to rapidly mobilize scientists to address these issues from a broad, international community perspective...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912551/the-antipsychotic-drugs-olanzapine-and-haloperidol-modify-network-connectivity-and-spontaneous-activity-of-neural-networks-in-vitro
#16
Egor Dzyubenko, Georg Juckel, Andreas Faissner
Impaired neural synchronization is a hallmark of psychotic conditions such as schizophrenia. It has been proposed that schizophrenia-related cognitive deficits are caused by an unbalance of reciprocal inhibitory and stimulatory signaling. This supposedly leads to decreased power of induced gamma oscillations during the performance of cognitive tasks. In light of this hypothesis an efficient antipsychotic treatment should modify the connectivity and synchronization of local neural circuits. To address this issue, we investigated a model of hippocampal neuronal networks in vitro...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912012/the-effects-of-aerobic-exercise-on-depression-like-anxiety-like-and-cognition-like-behaviours-over-the-healthy-adult-lifespan-of-c57bl-6-mice
#17
Julie A Morgan, Gaurav Singhal, Frances Corrigan, Emily J Jaehne, Magdalene C Jawahar, Bernhard T Baune
Preclinical studies have demonstrated exercise improves various types of behaviours such as anxiety-like, depression-like, and cognition-like behaviours. However, these findings were largely conducted in studies utilising short-term exercise protocols, and the effects of lifetime exercise on these behaviours remain unknown. This study investigates the behavioural effects of lifetime exercise in normal healthy aging C57BL/6 mice over the adult lifespan. 12 week-old C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to voluntary wheel running or non-exercise (control) groups...
September 11, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911965/physiological-roles-of-cns-muscarinic-receptors-gained-from-knockout-mice
#18
REVIEW
Morgane Thomsen, Gunnar Sørensen, Ditte Dencker
Because the five muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes have overlapping distributions in many CNS tissues, and because ligands with a high degree of selectivity for a given subtype long remained elusive, it has been difficult to determine the physiological functions of each receptor. Genetically engineered knockout mice, in which one or more muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtype has been inactivated, have been instrumental in identifying muscarinic receptor functions in the CNS, at the neuronal, circuit, and behavioral level...
September 11, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906176/developmental-dysgraphia-an-overview-and-framework-for-research
#19
Michael McCloskey, Brenda Rapp
Developmental deficits in the acquisition of writing skills (developmental dysgraphias) are common and have significant consequences, yet these deficits have received relatively little attention from researchers. We offer a framework for studying developmental dysgraphias (including both spelling and handwriting deficits), arguing that research should be grounded in theories describing normal cognitive writing mechanisms and the acquisition of these mechanisms. We survey the current state of knowledge concerning developmental dysgraphia, discussing potential proximal and distal causes...
September 14, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905640/neurobiological-mechanisms-of-exercise-and-psychotherapy-in-depression-the-speed-study-rationale-design-and-methodological-issues
#20
Stephan Heinzel, Michael A Rapp, Thomas Fydrich, Andreas Ströhle, Christina Terán, Gunnar Kallies, Melanie Schwefel, Andreas Heissel
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Even though cognitive behavioral therapy has become a relatively effective treatment for major depressive disorder and cognitive behavioral therapy-related changes of dysfunctional neural activations were shown in recent studies, remission rates still remain at an insufficient level. Therefore, the implementation of effective augmentation strategies is needed. In recent meta-analyses, exercise therapy (especially endurance exercise) was reported to be an effective intervention in major depressive disorder...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials
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