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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526055/developing-a-proxy-version-of-the-adult-social-care-outcome-toolkit-ascot
#1
Stacey Rand, James Caiels, Grace Collins, Julien Forder
BACKGROUND: Social care-related quality of life is a key outcome indicator used in the evaluation of social care interventions and policy. It is not, however, always possible to collect quality of life data by self-report even with adaptations for people with cognitive or communication impairments. A new proxy-report version of the Adult Social Care Outcomes Toolkit (ASCOT) measure of social care-related quality of life was developed to address the issues of wider inclusion of people with cognitive or communication difficulties who may otherwise be systematically excluded...
May 19, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523232/male-to-female-gender-dysphoria-gender-specific-differences-in-resting-state-networks
#2
Benjamin Clemens, Jessica Junger, Katharina Pauly, Josef Neulen, Christiane Neuschaefer-Rube, Dirk Frölich, Gianluca Mingoia, Birgit Derntl, Ute Habel
INTRODUCTION: Recent research found gender-related differences in resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies examining the differences in rs-FC between men, women, and individuals who report a discrepancy between their anatomical sex and their gender identity, i.e. gender dysphoria (GD). METHODS: To address this important issue, we present the first fMRI study systematically investigating the differences in typical resting-state networks (RSNs) and hormonal treatment effects in 26 male-to-female GD individuals (MtFs) compared with 19 men and 20 women...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523206/tackling-the-challenge-of-the-aging-society-detecting-and-preventing-cognitive-and-physical-decline-through-games-and-consumer-technologies
#3
REVIEW
David Wortley, Ji-Young An, Almas Heshmati
OBJECTIVES: This study seeks to review some of the approaches employed to address health and well-being issues in the elderly population. METHODS: This article reviews and analyses a range of projects and approaches designed for the elderly population and aimed at preserving and/or enhancing physical and cognitive capabilities in later life. RESULTS: Various intervention measures have been developed across the globe to preserve and/or enhance physical and cognitive capabilities of the elderly population...
April 2017: Healthcare Informatics Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522269/learning-from-moral-inconsistency
#4
Richmond Campbell
Moral inconsistency is an understudied phenomenon in cognitive moral psychology and deserves in depth empirical study. Moral inconsistency, as understood here, is not formal inconsistency but inconsistency in moral emotion and belief in response to particular cases. It occurs when persons treat cases as morally different that are really morally the same, even from their moral perspective. Learning to recognize and avoid such moral inconsistency in non-trivial but is a form of moral learning that complements and enhances other psychological and social mechanisms through which persons learn how to apply shared moral norms when their applications are uncertain and threaten to lapse into moral inconsistency...
May 15, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522182/hodotopy-neuroplasticity-and-diffuse-gliomas
#5
H Duffau
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The historical approach in neurooncology is used to mainly investigate the tumor, with very few considerations regarding the brain itself. Nonetheless, to select the best personalized therapeutic management for each patient with a diffuse glioma, i.e. to optimize the "onco-functional balance", the brain reaction induced by glioma growth and migration should be studied. Indeed, due to strong interactions between the glioma and the brain, cerebral adaptive phenomena often occur in order to maintain neurological and cognitive functions, as well as to compensate glioma spreading...
May 15, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521554/social-factors-predictive-of-social-integration-for-adults-with-brain-injury
#6
Elisabeth Batchos, Amanda Easton, Christopher Haak, Nicole Ditchman
INTRODUCTION: Individuals with acquired brain injury (ABI) may not only struggle with physical and cognitive impairments, but may also face challenges reintegrating into the community socially. Research has demonstrated that following ABI, individuals' social networks tend to dwindle, support may decline, and isolation increases. This study examined factors impacting social integration in a community-based sample of 102 individuals with ABI. METHODS: Potential predictors included emotional support, instrumental support, problem solving confidence, and approach-avoidance style (AAS) of problem solving, while controlling for age, gender, education, and time since injury...
May 18, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521373/paediatric-medicines-regulatory-and-scientific-issues
#7
Chrysa Daousani, Vangelis D Karalis
In the past, dosage regimens authorized for adults were extrapolated to children relying mainly on empirical dosage adjustments. However, children are not small adults, but a distinct and heterogeneous group in terms of physiology, disease occurrence, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and also psychological, cognitive, and behavioral aspects. Even though it would be helpful to know the physiological changes and the special drug treatment needs in children, this task could not be performed due to ethical reasons...
May 18, 2017: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521070/drug-therapy-for-symptoms-associated-with-anxiety-in-adult-palliative-care-patients
#8
REVIEW
Susan Salt, Caroline A Mulvaney, Nancy J Preston
BACKGROUND: This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2004 (Issue 1) and previously updated in 2012 (Issue 10). Anxiety is common in palliative care patients. It can be a natural response to the complex uncertainty of having a life-limiting illness or impending death, but it may represent a clinically significant issue in its own right. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of drug therapy for treating symptoms of anxiety in adults with a progressive life-limiting illness who are thought to be in their last year of life...
May 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520745/high-handaxe-symmetry-at-the-beginning-of-the-european-acheulian-the-data-from-la-noira-france-in-context
#9
Radu Iovita, Inbal Tuvi-Arad, Marie-Hélène Moncel, Jackie Despriée, Pierre Voinchet, Jean-Jacques Bahain
In the last few decades, new discoveries have pushed the beginning of the biface-rich European Acheulian from 500 thousand years (ka) ago back to at least 700 ka, and possibly to 1 million years (Ma) ago. It remains, however, unclear to date if handaxes arrived in Europe as a fully developed technology or if they evolved locally from core-and-flake industries. This issue is also linked with another long-standing debate on the existence and behavioral, cognitive, and social meaning of a possibly chronological trend for increased handaxe symmetry throughout the Lower Paleolithic...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516347/uniting-the-pre-health-humanities-with-the-introductory-composition-course
#10
Amy Rubens
Drawing on my experiences at a teaching-focused university, I show how locating the health humanities in first-year or introductory composition courses improves learning and offers an economical, flexible, and far-reaching approach to bringing a health humanities education to all baccalaureate-level learners, regardless of whether they aspire to careers in the health professions. In terms of improving learning, health humanities composition courses support the disciplinary aims of both fields. Accessible, relevant issues in the health humanities, such as interventions in health debates or representations of illness and healthcare settings, nourish the cognitive and social conditions needed to develop college-level writing skills...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513102/how-bilingualism-protects-the-brain-from-aging-insights-from-bimodal-bilinguals
#11
Le Li, Jubin Abutalebi, Karen Emmorey, Gaolang Gong, Xin Yan, Xiaoxia Feng, Lijuan Zou, Guosheng Ding
Bilingual experience can delay cognitive decline during aging. A general hypothesis is that the executive control system of bilinguals faces an increased load due to controlling two languages, and this increased load results in a more "tuned brain" that eventually creates a neural reserve. Here we explored whether such a neuroprotective effect is independent of language modality, i.e., not limited to bilinguals who speak two languages but also occurs for bilinguals who use a spoken and a signed language. We addressed this issue by comparing bimodal bilinguals to monolinguals in order to detect age-induced structural brain changes and to determine whether we can detect the same beneficial effects on brain structure, in terms of preservation of gray matter volume (GMV), for bimodal bilinguals as has been reported for unimodal bilinguals...
May 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511634/human-factors-considerations-in-designing-for-infection-prevention-and-control-in-neonatal-care-findings-from-a-pre-design-inquiry
#12
Chantal Trudel, Sue Cobb, Kathryn Momtahan, Janet Brintnell, Ann Mitchell
Qualitative data collection methods drawn from the early stages of human-centred design frameworks combined with thematic analysis were used to develop an understanding of infection prevention practice within an existing neonatal intensive care unit. Findings were used to generate a framework of understanding which in turn helped inform a baseline approach for future research and design development. The study revealed that a lack of clarity between infection transmission zones and a lack of design attributes needed to uphold infection prevention measures may be undermining healthcare workers' understanding and application of good practice...
May 17, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508716/neural-correlates-of-individual-differences-in-fixation-duration-during-natural-reading
#13
John M Henderson, Wonil Choi, Steven G Luke, Joseph Schmidt
Reading requires integration of language and cognitive processes with attention and eye movement control. Individuals differ in their reading ability, but little is known about the neurocognitive processes associated with these individual differences. To investigate this issue, we combined eyetracking and fMRI, simultaneously recording eye movements and BOLD activity while subjects read text passages. We found that the variability and skew of fixation duration distributions across individuals, as assessed by ex-Gaussian analyses, decreased with increasing neural activity in regions associated with the cortical eye movement control network (Left FEF, Left IPS, Left IFG, and Right IFG)...
May 16, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508698/negative-impact-of-litigation-procedures-on-patient-outcomes-four-years-after-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-results-from-the-paris-traumatic-brain-injury-study
#14
Eléonore Bayen, Claire Jourdan, Idir Ghout, Pascale Pradat-Diehl, Emmanuelle Darnoux, Gaëlle Nelson, Claire Vallat-Azouvi, James Charenton, Philippe Aegerter, Alexis Ruet, Philippe Azouvi
PURPOSE: To analyze the effect of litigation procedures on long-term outcomes in severe traumatic brain injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective observational follow-up of an inception cohort including 504 adults with severe traumatic brain injury recruited in 2005-2007 in the Parisian area, France, with initial, one- and four-year outcomes measures. RESULTS: Four years after the traumatic brain injury, 147 patients, out of 257 who survived the acute phase, were assessed...
May 16, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507527/perceived-insider-status-and-feedback-reactions-a-dual-path-of-feedback-motivation-attribution
#15
Xiao Chen, JianQiao Liao, Weijiong Wu, Wei Zhang
Many studies have evaluated how the characteristics of feedback receiver, feedback deliverer and feedback information influence psychological feedback reactions of the feedback receiver while largely neglecting that feedback intervention is a kind of social interaction process. To address this issue, this study proposes that employees' perceived insider status (PIS), as a kind of employee-organization relationship, could also influence employees' reactions to supervisory feedback. In particular, this study investigates the influence of PIS focusing on affective and cognitive feedback reactions, namely feedback satisfaction and feedback utility...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506018/return-to-work-predictors-of-stroke-survivors-and-their-spousal-caregivers
#16
Celia H Schulz, Kyler M Godwin, Gayle I Hersch, Leslie K Hyde, Jocelyn J Irabor, Sharon K Ostwald
BACKGROUND: Return to work is an issue of concern for stroke survivors and their spouses. Ramifications may include loss of income and self-efficacy. OBJECTIVE: This study describes the return to work patterns of stroke survivors and their spousal caregivers post stroke. METHODS: One hundred fifty-nine dyads were examined for their return to work patterns at baseline (post hospital discharge) and then at 3 month intervals for one year. Relationships were determined between work and gender, age, ethnicity, education, type of insurance, type of stroke, location of stroke, motor and cognitive functional status, depression, mutuality, and life satisfaction...
May 6, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503674/identifying-brain-nociceptive-information-transmission-in-patients-with-chronic-somatic-pain
#17
Don A Davis, Mariam E Ghantous, Melissa A Farmer, Alexis T Baria, A Vania Apkarian
INTRODUCTION: Recent advances regarding mechanisms of chronic pain emphasize the role of corticolimbic circuitry in predicting risk for chronic pain, independently from site of injury-related parameters. These results compel revisiting the role of peripheral nociceptive signaling in chronic pain. We address this issue by examining what brain circuitry transmit information regarding the intensity of chronic pain and how this information may be related to a common co-morbidity, depression...
October 2016: Pain Reports (Baltimore, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503254/management-of-potential-long-term-toxicities-in-breast-cancer-patients
#18
C C O'Sullivan, K J Ruddy
Breast cancer is the most common non-cutaneous malignancy among women, and there are over 3 million breast cancer survivors living in the United States today. Excellent cure rates with modern therapies are associated with substantial toxicities for many women; it is important that health care providers attend to the resulting symptoms and issues to optimize quality of life in this population. In this article, we review management options for potential long term toxicities in breast cancer survivors, with a particular focus on bone health, fertility preservation, premature menopause, cardiac dysfunction, and cognitive impairment...
December 2016: Current Breast Cancer Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502554/the-9-to-5-rodent-time-for-change-scientific-and-welfare-implications-of-circadian-and-light-effects-on-laboratory-mice-and-rats
#19
Penny Hawkins, Huw D R Golledge
Rodents, particularly rats and mice, are the most commonly used laboratory animals and are extensively used in neuroscience research, including as translational models for human disorders. It is common practice to carry out scientific procedures on rats and mice during the daytime, which is the inactive period for these nocturnal species. However, there is increasing evidence for circadian and light-induced effects on rodent physiology and behaviour which may affect the validity of results obtained from mice and rats in neuroscience studies...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502553/a-shortened-protocol-for-assessing-cognitive-bias-in-rats
#20
Nichola M Brydges, Lynsey Hall
BACKGROUND: Reliable measurement of affective state in animals is a significant goal of animal welfare. Such measurements would also improve the validity of pre-clinical mental health research which relies on animal models. However, at present, affective states in animals are inaccessible to direct measurement. In humans, changes in cognitive processing can give reliable indications of emotional state. Therefore, similar techniques are increasingly being used to gain proxy measures of affective states in animals...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
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