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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342356/the-dark-side-of-total-synthesis-strategies-and-tactics-in-psychoactive-drug-production
#1
Schuyler A Chambers, Jenna M DeSousa, Eric D Huseman, Steven D Townsend
Humankind has used and abused psychoactive drugs for millennia. Formally, a psychoactive drug is any agent that alters cognition and mood. The term "psychotropic drug" is neutral and describes the entire class of substrates, licit and illicit, of interest to governmental drug policy. While these drugs are prescribed for issues ranging from pain management to anxiety, they are also used recreationally. In fact, the current opioid epidemic is the deadliest drug crisis in American history. While the topic is highly politicized with racial, gender, and socioeconomic elements, there's no denying the toll drug mis- and overuse is taking on this country...
January 17, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341386/at-the-core-of-reasoning-dissociating-deductive-and-non-deductive-load
#2
John P Coetzee, Martin M Monti
In recent years, neuroimaging methods have been used to investigate how the human mind carries out deductive reasoning. According to some, the neural substrate of language is integral to deductive reasoning. According to others, deductive reasoning is supported by a language-independent distributed network including left frontopolar and frontomedial cortices. However, it has been suggested that activity in these frontal regions might instead reflect non-deductive factors such as working memory load and general cognitive difficulty...
January 16, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341200/human-agency-in-disaster-planning-a-systems-approach
#3
John Hamer Powell, Michael Hammond, Albert Chen, Navonil Mustafee
Current approaches to risk management place insufficient emphasis on the system knowledge available to the assessor, particularly in respect of the dynamic behavior of the system under threat, the role of human agents (HAs), and the knowledge available to those agents. In this article, we address the second of these issues. We are concerned with a class of systems containing HAs playing a variety of roles as significant system elements-as decisionmakers, cognitive agents, or implementers-that is, human activity systems...
January 16, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341066/cerebral-near-infrared-spectroscopy-nirs-for-perioperative-monitoring-of-brain-oxygenation-in-children-and-adults
#4
REVIEW
Yun Yu, Kaiying Zhang, Ling Zhang, Huantao Zong, Lingzhong Meng, Ruquan Han
BACKGROUND: Various techniques have been employed for the early detection of perioperative cerebral ischaemia and hypoxia. Cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is increasingly used in this clinical scenario to monitor brain oxygenation. However, it is unknown whether perioperative cerebral NIRS monitoring and the subsequent treatment strategies are of benefit to patients. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of perioperative cerebral NIRS monitoring and corresponding treatment strategies in adults and children, compared with blinded or no cerebral oxygenation monitoring, or cerebral oxygenation monitoring based on non-NIRS technologies, on the detection of cerebral oxygen desaturation events (CDEs), neurological outcomes, non-neurological outcomes and socioeconomic impact (including cost of hospitalization and length of hospital stay)...
January 17, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340300/shared-mechanisms-in-the-estimation-of-self-generated-actions-and-the-prediction-of-other-s-actions-by-humans
#5
Tsuyoshi Ikegami, Gowrishankar Ganesh
The question of how humans predict outcomes of observed motor actions by others is a fundamental problem in cognitive and social neuroscience. Previous theoretical studies have suggested that the brain uses parts of the forward model (used to estimate sensory outcomes of self-generated actions) to predict outcomes of observed actions. However, this hypothesis has remained controversial due to the lack of direct experimental evidence. To address this issue, we analyzed the behavior of darts experts in an understanding learning paradigm and utilized computational modeling to examine how outcome prediction of observed actions affected the participants' ability to estimate their own actions...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338674/would-you-be-willing-to-zap-your-child-s-brain-public-perspectives-on-parental-responsibilities-and-the-ethics-of-enhancing-children-with-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation
#6
Katy Wagner, Hannah Maslen, Justin Oakley, Julian Savulescu
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is an experimental brain stimulation technology that may one day be used to enhance the cognitive capacities of children. Discussion about the ethical issues that this would raise has rarely moved beyond expert circles. However, the opinions of the wider public can lead to more democratic policy decisions and broaden academic discussion of this issue. METHODS: We performed a quantitative survey of members of the US public...
January 17, 2018: AJOB Empirical Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338150/the-role-of-cannabinoids-in-pain-control-the-good-the-bad-and-the-ugly
#7
Joseph V Pergolizzi, Jo Ann Lequang, Robert Taylor, Robert B Raffa, Daniel Colucci
Cannabinoids appear to possess many potential medical uses, which may extend to pain control. A narrative review of the literature has found a variety of studies testing botanical and synthetic cannabinoids in different pain syndromes (acute pain, cancer pain, chronic noncancer pain, fibromyalgia pain, migraine, neuropathic pain, visceral pain, and others). Results from these studies are mixed; cannabinoids appear to be most effective in controlling neuropathic pain, allodynia, medication-rebound headache, and chronic noncancer pain, but do not seem to offer any advantage over nonopioid analgesics for acute pain...
January 16, 2018: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336611/interventions-to-improve-benzodiazepine-tapering-success-in-the-elderly-a-systematic-review
#8
Carol Dou, Johannes Rebane, Stan Bardal
BACKGROUND: Long-term benzodiazepine use in the elderly population is a significant public health problem that leads to impaired cognitive functioning, medication dependence and increased risks for adverse drug reactions. The aim of this review was to examine randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the efficacy of different methods for tapering and discontinuing benzodiazepines. METHOD: We used four databases (Ovid, PubMed, Academic Search Complete, Web of Science) to retrieve randomized controlled trials published in peer-reviewed journals that explored different methods for tapering benzodiazepine use in a primarily geriatric population...
January 16, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336276/streamlining-the-medication-review-process-by-use-of-a-new-review-tool-chart
#9
Quincy Ostrem, Stephen Carlson, Brady Hamilton
OBJECTIVE: The Carlson-Hamilton Adult Medication Review Tool (CHART) represents an effort to improve the approach to geriatric care by streamlining the medication review process and identifying potential medication issues that may be relevant to patient's cognitive presentation and impact clinical decision making. SETTING: CHART was created at a behavioral health facility. The most common primary diagnoses on this unit include new onset psychosis and recent mental status changes...
January 1, 2018: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336168/dementia-in-eastern-mediterranean-countries-a-systematic-review
#10
Sara Mahmoud Yaghmour, Ruth Bartlett, Tula Brannelly
Globally, there is an increase in the older population, whose lives are affected by local cultural norms. In Eastern Mediterranean countries, dementia is conventionally hidden from view with few dedicated services or recognition for diagnosis. The aim of this systematic review is to explore the limited literature on dementia and cognitive impairment among older people in Eastern Mediterranean countries to present an evaluation of current practices and to consolidate knowledge for future planning. Thirty-three studies were identified for inclusion in the review, and four themes were apparent...
January 1, 2018: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336025/how-children-invented-humanity
#11
REVIEW
David F Bjorklund
I use the commentaries of Legare, Clegg, and Wen and of Frankenhuis and Tiokhin as jumping-off points to discuss an issue hinted at both in my essay and their commentaries: How a developmental perspective can help us achieve a better understanding of evolution. I examine briefly how neoteny may have contributed to human morphology; how developmental plasticity in great apes, and presumably our common ancestor with them, may have led the way to advances in social cognition; and how the "invention" of childhood contributed to unique human cognitive abilities...
January 16, 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335233/internet-based-group-intervention-for-ovarian-cancer-survivors-feasibility-and-preliminary-results
#12
Ellen M Kinner, Jessica S Armer, Bonnie A McGregor, Jennifer Duffecy, Susan Leighton, Marya E Corden, Janine Gauthier Mullady, Frank J Penedo, Susan K Lutgendorf
BACKGROUND: Development of psychosocial group interventions for ovarian cancer survivors has been limited. Drawing from elements of cognitive-behavioral stress management (CBSM), mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), we developed and conducted preliminary testing of an Internet-based group intervention tailored specifically to meet the needs of ovarian cancer survivors. The Internet-based platform facilitated home delivery of the psychosocial intervention to a group of cancer survivors for whom attending face-to-face programs could be difficult given their physical limitations and the small number of ovarian cancer survivors at any one treatment site...
January 15, 2018: JMIR Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329108/cracking-novel-shared-targets-between-epilepsy-and-alzheimer-s-disease-need-of-the-hour
#13
Nitika Garg, Rupa Joshi, Bikash Medhi
Epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are interconnected. It is well known that seizures are linked with cognitive impairment, and there are various shared etiologies between epilepsy and AD. The connection between hyperexcitability of neurons and cognitive dysfunction in the progression of AD or epileptogenesis plays a vital role for improving selection of treatment for both diseases. Traditionally, seizures occur less frequently and in later stages of age in patients with AD which in turn implies that neurodegeneration causes seizures...
January 12, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327349/status-of-the-trait-concept-in-contemporary-personality-psychology-are-the-old-questions-still-the-burning-questions
#14
MaƂgorzata Fajkowska, Shulamith Kreitler
This special issue of Journal of Personality addresses one of the cardinal concerns of personality psychology, namely, the status of traits in contemporary personality science. Trait theory is a major scientific model for personality explanation and research. Although there have been critiques of traits, typically formulated from the point of view of the social-cognitive perspective, the trait approach can be viewed as a continuously developing paradigm. However, personality psychology persists in tackling burning questions concerning the status of traits that need to be answered...
February 2018: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326402/ageing-in-individuals-with-intellectual-disability-issues-and-concerns-in-hong-kong
#15
REVIEW
M My Tse, R Yc Kwan, J L Lau
INTRODUCTION: The increasing longevity of people with intellectual disability is testimony to the positive developments in medical intervention. Nonetheless early-onset age-related issues and concerns cause deterioration of their overall well-being. This paper aimed to explore the issues and concerns about individuals with intellectual disability as they age. METHODS: Articles that discussed people with intellectual disability over 30 years of age, and those that identified ageing health issues and concerns were included...
January 12, 2018: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325614/ethical-issues-in-neurogenetics
#16
Wendy R Uhlmann, J Scott Roberts
Many neurogenetic conditions are inherited and therefore diagnosis of a patient will have implications for the patient's relatives and can raise ethical issues. Predictive genetic testing offers asymptomatic relatives the opportunity to determine their risk status for a neurogenetic condition, and professional guidelines emphasize patients' autonomy and informed, voluntary decision making. Beneficence and nonmaleficence both need to be considered when making decisions about disclosure and nondisclosure of genetic information and test results...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324924/mobile-phone-use-for-5-minutes-can-cause-significant-memory-impairment-in-humans
#17
F Kalafatakis, D Bekiaridis-Moschou, Eirini Gkioka, Magda Tsolaki
INTRODUCTION: Concerns about the possible adverse health effects of mobile phones (MP) have increased along with the expansion of their use. A number of research papers have tried to address this issue. Although many investigations concluded that MP use does have negative consequences, in terms of cognitive function of the human brain, the results so far have been divisive. A number of studies reported impairment of cognitive function after exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field (MP EMF), while others observed no effect or improved performance...
September 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324771/impact-of-grouping-complications-on-mortality-in-traumatic-brain-injury-a-nationwide-population-based-study
#18
Chung-Han Ho, Fu-Wen Liang, Jhi-Joung Wang, Chung-Ching Chio, Jinn-Rung Kuo
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important health issue with high mortality. Various complications of physiological and cognitive impairment may result in disability or death after TBI. Grouping of these complications could be treated as integrated post-TBI syndromes. To improve risk estimation, grouping TBI complications should be investigated, to better predict TBI mortality. This study aimed to estimate mortality risk based on grouping of complications among TBI patients. Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database was used in this study...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324089/development-and-content-validation-of-a-questionnaire-to-assess-moral-distress-among-social-workers-in-long-term-care-facilities
#19
Sagit Lev, Liat Ayalon
OBJECTIVE: Despite the significance of ethical issues faced by social workers, research on moral distress among social workers has been extremely limited. The aim of the current study is to describe the development and content validation of a unique questionnaire to measure moral distress among social workers in long-term care facilities for older adults in Israel. METHODS: The construction of the questionnaire was based on a secondary analysis of a qualitative study that addressed the moral dilemma of social workers in nursing homes in Israel...
January 11, 2018: Social Work in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320647/long-term-effects-of-inhaled-budesonide-for-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia
#20
Dirk Bassler, Eric S Shinwell, Mikko Hallman, Pierre-Henri Jarreau, Richard Plavka, Virgilio Carnielli, Christoph Meisner, Corinna Engel, Alexander Koch, Karen Kreutzer, Johannes N van den Anker, Matthias Schwab, Henry L Halliday, Christian F Poets
BACKGROUND: The long-term effects on neurodevelopment of the use of inhaled glucocorticoids in extremely preterm infants for the prevention or treatment of bronchopulmonary dysplasia are uncertain. METHODS: We randomly assigned 863 infants (gestational age, 23 weeks 0 days to 27 weeks 6 days) to receive early (within 24 hours after birth) inhaled budesonide or placebo. The prespecified secondary long-term outcome was neurodevelopmental disability among survivors, defined as a composite of cerebral palsy, cognitive delay (a Mental Development Index score of <85 [1 SD below the mean of 100] on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Second Edition, with higher scores on the scale indicating better performance), deafness, or blindness at a corrected age of 18 to 22 months...
January 11, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
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