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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899820/a-facilitating-role-for-the-primary-motor-cortex-in-action-sentence-processing
#1
Melody Courson, Joël Macoir, Pascale Tremblay
The involvement of the motor system in action language comprehension is a hotly debated topic in cognitive neuroscience and psychology. Recent studies suggest that primary motor cortex (M1) response to action language is context-sensitive rather than automatic and necessary. Specifically, semantic polarity (i.e. affirmative/negative valence) appears to modulate the intensity of this response, which is stronger for affirmative action sentences. The aim of our study was to examine further the context sensitivity of M1 response...
September 9, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887227/probabilistic-language-models-in-cognitive-neuroscience-promises-and-pitfalls
#2
REVIEW
Kristijan Armeni, Roel M Willems, Stefan Frank
Cognitive neuroscientists of language comprehension study how neural computations relate to cognitive computations during comprehension. On the cognitive part of the equation, it is important that the computations and processing complexity are explicitly defined. Probabilistic language models can be used to give a computationally explicit account of language complexity during comprehension. Whereas such models have so far predominantly been evaluated against behavioral data, only recently have the models been used to explain neurobiological signals...
September 5, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883803/basic-emotions-in-human-neuroscience-neuroimaging-and-beyond
#3
REVIEW
Alessia Celeghin, Matteo Diano, Arianna Bagnis, Marco Viola, Marco Tamietto
The existence of so-called 'basic emotions' and their defining attributes represents a long lasting and yet unsettled issue in psychology. Recently, neuroimaging evidence, especially related to the advent of neuroimaging meta-analytic methods, has revitalized this debate in the endeavor of systems and human neuroscience. The core theme focuses on the existence of unique neural bases that are specific and characteristic for each instance of basic emotion. Here we review this evidence, outlining contradictory findings, strengths and limits of different approaches...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883784/neuroscience-of-compulsive-eating-behavior
#4
REVIEW
Catherine F Moore, Valentina Sabino, George F Koob, Pietro Cottone
A systematic characterization of compulsivity in pathological forms of eating has been proposed in the context of three functional domains: (1) habitual overeating; (2) overeating to relieve a negative emotional state; and (3) overeating despite aversive consequences. In this review, we provide evidence supporting this hypothesis and we differentiate the nascent field of neurocircuits and neurochemical mediators of compulsive eating through their underlying neuropsychobiological processes. A better understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms that lead to compulsive eating behavior can improve behavioral and pharmacological intervention for disorders of pathological eating...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855788/an-abbreviated-therapeutic-neuroscience-education-session-improves-pain-knowledge-in-first-year-physical-therapy-students-but-does-not-change-attitudes-or-beliefs
#5
Terry Cox, Adriaan Louw, Emilio J Puentedura
OBJECTIVE: To determine if a 3-hour therapeutic neuroscience education session alters physical therapy student's knowledge of pain and effects their attitudes and beliefs regarding treating chronic pain. METHODS: Seventy-seven entry-level doctoral physical therapy students participated in the study. Following consent, demographic data were obtained and then the subjects completed the Neuroscience of Pain Questionnaire, the Health Care Provider's Pain and Impairment Relationship Scale and an additional questionnaire designed by the researchers...
February 2017: Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851576/toward-an-understanding-of-the-neural-mechanisms-underlying-dual-task-performance-contribution-of-comparative-approaches-using-animal-models
#6
REVIEW
Kei Watanabe, Shintaro Funahashi
The study of dual-task performance in human subjects has received considerable interest in cognitive neuroscience because it can provide detailed insights into the neural mechanisms underlying higher-order cognitive control. Despite many decades of research, our understanding of the neurobiological basis of dual-task performance is still limited, and some critical questions are still under debate. Recently, behavioral and neurophysiological studies of dual-task performance in animals have begun to provide intriguing evidence regarding how dual-task information is processed in the brain...
August 26, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834383/visual-motion-and-rapid-auditory-processing-are-solid-endophenotypes-of-developmental-dyslexia
#7
Sara Mascheretti, Simone Gori, Vittoria Trezzi, Milena Ruffino, Andrea Facoetti, Cecilia Marino
Although a genetic component is known to have an important role in the etiology of developmental dyslexia, we are far from understanding the molecular etiopathogenetic pathways. Reduced measures of neurobiological functioning related to reading (dis)ability, i.e., endophenotypes, are promising targets for gene finding and the elucidation of the underlying mechanisms. In a sample of 100 nuclear families with developmental dyslexia (229 offspring) and 83 unrelated typical readers, we tested whether a set of well-established, cognitive phenotypes related to developmental dyslexia (i...
August 17, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831545/how-the-humble-insect-brain-became-a-powerful-experimental-model-system
#8
REVIEW
Heinrich Reichert
In the 21st century, neurobiological studies focused on the insect brain are revealing unprecedented insight into the molecular, cellular, developmental, and circuit aspects of brain organization and function, notably in the genetic model system of Drosophila melanogaster. Underlying this accelerating progress in understanding the insect brain is a century-long history of ground breaking experimental investigation, methodological advance, and conceptual insight catalyzed by the integration of two emerging research fields, neuroscience and genetics...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829986/neurobiology-of-autoimmune-encephalitis
#9
REVIEW
Masaki Fukata, Norihiko Yokoi, Yuko Fukata
Autoimmune encephalitis presenting with amnesia, seizures, and psychosis is highly topical in basic and clinical neuroscience. Recent studies have identified numerous associated autoantibodies, targeting cell-surface synaptic proteins including neurotransmitter receptors (e.g. NMDA receptors (NMDARs)) and a secreted protein, LGI1. In vitro and in vivo analyses of the influence of the autoantibodies have begun to clarify their causal roles. Of particular interest is the generation of recombinant monoclonal antibodies from patients' B cells with anti-NMDAR encephalitis...
August 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826514/opaque-models-using-drugs-and-dreams-to-explore-the-neurobiological-basis-of-mental-phenomena
#10
Nicolas Langlitz
On the basis of four historical and ethnographic case studies of modeling in neuroscience laboratories, this chapter introduces a distinction between transparent and opaque models. A transparent model is a simplified representation of a real world phenomenon. If it is not patently clear, it is at least much better comprehended than its objects of representation. An opaque model, by contrast, looks at one only partially understood phenomenon to stand in for another partially understood phenomenon. Here, the model is often just as complex as its target...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813257/social-learning-parenting-intervention-research-in-the-era-of-translational-neuroscience
#11
REVIEW
Philip A Fisher, Elizabeth A Skowron
In the decades since social learning parenting interventions emerged, many evidence-based programs have been implemented at scale in community settings, and much research is now focusing on ways to maintain fidelity and impact during the implementation process. Notably, a considerable amount of theoretical confluence has occurred in parenting interventions from social learning, attachment, and other theoretical perspectives, with parent coaching as an example of this new generation of relational interventions...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806269/affective-disorders-and-sexual-function-from-neuroscience-to-clinic
#12
Bernardo C de Abreu Barata
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sexual dysfunction is a frequent issue in patients with affective disorders, affecting its quality of life and posing challenges to the approach of these patients. RECENT FINDINGS: In recent years, human sexuality has attracted interest from the scientific community, and today we have a much deeper knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the sexual response. Paraphilias or sexual dysfunctions like low sexual desire, premature ejaculation, and erectile dysfunction, are frequent in affective disorders, and the frequency of each sexual problem varies according to the affective disorder...
August 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774750/advances-in-nonhuman-primate-models-of-autism-integrating-neuroscience-and-behavior
#13
REVIEW
M D Bauman, C S Schumann
Given the prevalence and societal impact of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), there is an urgent need to develop innovative preventative strategies and treatments to reduce the alarming number of cases and improve core symptoms for afflicted individuals. Translational efforts between clinical and preclinical research are needed to (i) identify and evaluate putative causes of ASD, (ii) determine the underlying neurobiological mechanisms, (iii) develop and test novel therapeutic approaches and (iv) ultimately translate basic research into safe and effective clinical practices...
July 31, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768322/state-dependent-cross-brain-information-flow-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#14
Edda Bilek, Gabriela Stößel, Axel Schäfer, Laura Clement, Matthias Ruf, Lydia Robnik, Corinne Neukel, Heike Tost, Peter Kirsch, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg
Importance: Although borderline personality disorder (BPD)-one of the most common, burdensome, and costly psychiatric conditions-is characterized by repeated interpersonal conflict and instable relationships, the neurobiological mechanism of social interactive deficits remains poorly understood. Objective: To apply recent advancements in the investigation of 2-person human social interaction to investigate interaction difficulties among people with BPD. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-brain information flow in BPD was examined from May 25, 2012, to December 4, 2015, in pairs of participants studied in 2 linked functional magnetic resonance imaging scanners in a university setting...
September 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734837/neural-reuse-of-action-perception-circuits-for-language-concepts-and-communication
#15
REVIEW
Friedemann Pulvermüller
Neurocognitive and neurolinguistics theories make explicit statements relating specialized cognitive and linguistic processes to specific brain loci. These linking hypotheses are in need of neurobiological explanation. Recent mathematical models of human language mechanisms constrained by fundamental neuroscience principles and established knowledge about comparative neuroanatomy offer explanations for where, when and how language is processed in the human brain. In these models, network structure and connectivity along with action- and perception-induced correlation of neuronal activity co-determine neurocognitive mechanisms...
July 19, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734836/criticality-in-the-brain-a-synthesis-of-neurobiology-models-and-cognition
#16
REVIEW
Luca Cocchi, Leonardo L Gollo, Andrew Zalesky, Michael Breakspear
Cognitive function requires the coordination of neural activity across many scales, from neurons and circuits to large-scale networks. As such, it is unlikely that an explanatory framework focused upon any single scale will yield a comprehensive theory of brain activity and cognitive function. Modelling and analysis methods for neuroscience should aim to accommodate multiscale phenomena. Emerging research now suggests that multi-scale processes in the brain arise from so-called critical phenomena that occur very broadly in the natural world...
July 19, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729065/neural-circuits-for-social-cognition-implications-for-autism
#17
REVIEW
Marta Fernández, Irene Mollinedo-Gajate, Olga Peñagarikano
Social neuroscience, the study of the neurobiological basis of social behavior, has become a major area of current research in behavioral neuroscience and psychiatry, since many psychiatric disorders are characterized by social deficits. Social behavior refers to the behavioral response with regard to socially relevant information, and requires the perception and integration of social cues through a complex cognition process (i.e. social cognition) that involves attention, memory, motivation and emotion. Neurobiological and molecular mechanisms underlying social behavior are highly conserved across species, and inter- and intra-specific variability observed in social behavior can be explained to large extent by differential activity of this conserved neural network...
July 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713866/implications-of-the-hierarchical-structure-of-psychopathology-for-psychiatric-neuroimaging
#18
David H Zald, Benjamin B Lahey
Research into the neurobiological substrates of psychopathology has been impeded by heterogeneity within diagnostic categories, comorbidity among mental disorders, and the presence of symptoms that transcend diagnostic categories. Solutions to these issues increasingly focus neurobiological research on isolated or narrow groupings of symptoms or functional constructs rather than categorical diagnoses. Here we argue for a more integrative approach that also incorporates the broad hierarchical structure of psychopathological symptoms and their etiological mechanisms...
May 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695528/never-forget-negative-emotional-valence-enhances-recapitulation
#19
Holly J Bowen, Sarah M Kark, Elizabeth A Kensinger
A hallmark feature of episodic memory is that of "mental time travel," whereby an individual feels they have returned to a prior moment in time. Cognitive and behavioral neuroscience methods have revealed a neurobiological counterpart: Successful retrieval often is associated with reactivation of a prior brain state. We review the emerging literature on memory reactivation and recapitulation, and we describe evidence for the effects of emotion on these processes. Based on this review, we propose a new model: Negative Emotional Valence Enhances Recapitulation (NEVER)...
July 10, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694679/a-clinical-perspective-on-a-pain-neuroscience-education-approach-to-manual-therapy
#20
Adriaan Louw, Jo Nijs, Emilio J Puentedura
In recent years, there has been an increased interest in pain neuroscience education (PNE) in physical therapy. There is growing evidence for the efficacy of PNE to decrease pain, disability, fear-avoidance, pain catastrophization, limited movement, and health care utilization in people struggling with pain. PNE teaches people in pain more about the biology and physiology of their pain experience including processes such as central sensitization, peripheral sensitization, allodynia, inhibition, facilitation, neuroplasticity and more...
July 2017: Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy
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