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Neuroscience neurobiology

Davide Amato, Clare L Beasley, Margaret K Hahn, Anthony C Vernon
Antipsychotic drugs, all of which block the dopamine D2 receptor to a greater or lesser extent, are the mainstay for the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia. Engaging in a deeper understanding of how antipsychotics act on the brain and body, at the cellular, molecular and physiological level is vital to comprehend both the beneficial and potentially harmful actions of these medications and stimulate development of novel therapeutics. To address this, we review recent advances in our understanding of neuroadaptations to antipsychotics, focusing on (1) treatment efficacy, (2) impact on brain volume and (3) evidence from human post-mortem studies that attempt to dissect neuropathological effects of antipsychotic drugs from organic schizophrenia neurobiology and (4) cardio-metabolic side effects...
October 15, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
R Hurlemann, N Marsh
Numerous honorary initiatives for humanitarian aid towards refugees illustrate the high prevalence of altruistic behavior in the population. In medicine, an exquisite example of a human propensity for altruism is organ donation. Current perspectives on the neurobiology of altruism suggest that it is deeply rooted in the motivational architecture of the social brain. This is reflected by the social evolution of cooperation and parochialism, both of which are modulated by the evolutionarily conserved peptide hormone oxytocin...
October 17, 2016: Der Nervenarzt
P Fourneret, H Desombre
INTRODUCTION: For a decade, the concept of irritability has known a renewed interest in infant and child psychopathology. Indeed, longitudinal follow-up studies clearly highlighted their predictive value - in the short, medium and long terms - of a broad field of behavioral disorders and emotion dysregulation. This dimensional and transnosographic approach of irritability, coupled with the latest neuroscience data, points out that irritability could be the equivalent of a psychopathological marker, covering both a neurobiological, cognitive and emotional component...
October 10, 2016: L'Encéphale
Steven J Eliades, Cory T Miller
There has been recent increasing interest in the use of marmosets, a New World primate species, as a model in biomedical research. One of the principal advantages of marmosets as a research model is their rich vocal repertoire and communicative vocal behaviors displayed both in the wild and in captivity. Studies of this species' vocal communication system have the potential to reveal the evolutionary underpinnings of human speech, and therefore are of interest to the neuroscience and biology research communities...
October 14, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
José M Causadias, Eva H Telzer, Richard M Lee
Objective: Culture and biology have evolved together, influence each other, and concurrently shape behavior, affect, cognition, and development. This special section highlights 2 major domains of the interplay between culture and biology. Method: The first domain is neurobiology of cultural experiences-how cultural, ethnic, and racial experiences influence limbic systems and neuroendocrine functioning-and the second domain is cultural neuroscience-the connections between cultural processes and brain functioning...
August 15, 2016: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
E Carlino, A Piedimonte, F Benedetti
Placebos have long been considered a nuisance in clinical research, for they have always been used as comparators for the validation of new treatments. By contrast, today they represent an active field of research, and, due to the involvement of many mechanisms, the study of the placebo effect can actually be viewed as a melting pot of concepts and ideas for neuroscience. There is not a single placebo effect, but many, with different mechanisms across different medical conditions and therapeutic interventions...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Israel Liberzon, James L Abelson
Progress in clinical and affective neuroscience is redefining psychiatric illness as symptomatic expression of cellular/molecular dysfunctions in specific brain circuits. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been an exemplar of this progress, with improved understanding of neurobiological systems subserving fear learning, salience detection, and emotion regulation explaining much of its phenomenology and neurobiology. However, many features remain unexplained and a parsimonious model that more fully accounts for symptoms and the core neurobiology remains elusive...
October 5, 2016: Neuron
Marina A Pavlova
As the most fascinating, complex, and dynamic part of our organism, the human brain is shaped by many interacting factors that not only are of neurobiological (including sex hormones) and environmental origin but are also sociocultural in their very nature (such as social roles). Gender is one of these factors. Most neurological, neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric, and psychosomatic disorders are characterized by impairments in visual social cognition (primarily body language reading and face perception) and a skewed sex ratio: females and males are affected differently in terms of clinical picture, prevalence, and severity...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Surjo R Soekadar, Jim Don Herring, David McGonigle
Transcranial electric stimulation (tES) of the brain has attracted an increased interest in recent years. Yet, despite remarkable research efforts to date, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms of tES' effects are still incompletely understood. This Special Issue aims to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the state-of-the-art in studies combining tES and neuroimaging, while introducing most recent insights and outlining future prospects related to this new and rapidly growing field. The findings reported here combine methodological advancements with insights into the underlying mechanisms of tES itself...
October 15, 2016: NeuroImage
Floyd J Thompson, Jiamei Hou, Prodip K Bose
Successful therapy for TBI disabilities awaits refinement in the understanding of TBI neurobiology, quantitative measurement of treatment-induced incremental changes in recovery trajectories, and effective translation to human TBI using quantitative methods and protocols that were effective to monitor recovery in preclinical models. Details of the specific neurobiology that underlies these injuries and effective quantitation of treatment-induced changes are beginning to emerge utilizing a variety of preclinical and clinical models (for reviews see (Morales et al...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Anthony C Ruocco, Dean Carcone
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe mental disorder with a multifactorial etiology. The development and maintenance of BPD is sustained by diverse neurobiological factors that contribute to the disorder's complex clinical phenotype. These factors may be identified using a range of techniques to probe alterations in brain systems that underlie BPD. We systematically searched the scientific literature for empirical studies on the neurobiology of BPD, identifying 146 articles in three broad research areas: neuroendocrinology and biological specimens; structural neuroimaging; and functional neuroimaging...
September 2016: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
Isabell Begemann, Milos Galic
Many core paradigms of contemporary neuroscience are based on information obtained by electron or light microscopy. Intriguingly, these two imaging techniques are often viewed as complementary, yet separate entities. Recent technological advancements in microscopy techniques, labeling tools, and fixation or preparation procedures have fueled the development of a series of hybrid approaches that allow correlating functional fluorescence microscopy data and ultrastructural information from electron micrographs from a singular biological event...
2016: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Joyce Keifer, Cliff H Summers
Current trends in neuroscience research have moved toward a reliance on rodent animal models to study most aspects of brain function. Such laboratory-reared animals are highly inbred, have been disengaged from their natural environments for generations and appear to be of limited predictive value for successful clinical outcomes. In this Perspective article, we argue that research on a rich diversity of animal model systems is fundamental to new discoveries in evolutionarily conserved core physiological and molecular mechanisms that are the foundation of human brain function...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Mariella Bodemeier Loayza Careaga, Carlos Eduardo Neves Girardi, Deborah Suchecki
Careaga MBL, Girardi CEN, Suchecki D. Understanding posttraumatic stress disorder through fear conditioning, extinction and reconsolidation. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV -Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychopathology characterized by exacerbation of fear response. A dysregulated fear response may be explained by dysfunctional learning and memory, a hypothesis that was proposed decades ago. A key component of PTSD is fear conditioning and the study of this phenomenon in laboratory has expanded the understanding of the underlying neurobiological changes in PTSD...
August 31, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Philip A Fisher
The use of theory-driven models to develop and evaluate family-based intervention programs has a long history in psychology. Some of the first evidence-based parenting programs to address child problem behavior, developed in the 1970s, were grounded in causal models derived from longitudinal developmental research. The same translational strategies can also be applied to designing programs that leverage emerging scientific knowledge about the effects of early adverse experiences on neurobiological systems to reduce risk and promote well-being...
September 2016: New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development
Pascale Tremblay, Anthony Steven Dick
With the advancement of cognitive neuroscience and neuropsychological research, the field of language neurobiology is at a cross-roads with respect to its framing theories. The central thesis of this article is that the major historical framing model, the Classic "Wernicke-Lichtheim-Geschwind" model, and associated terminology, is no longer adequate for contemporary investigations into the neurobiology of language. We argue that the Classic model (1) is based on an outdated brain anatomy; (2) does not adequately represent the distributed connectivity relevant for language, (3) offers a modular and "language centric" perspective, and (4) focuses on cortical structures, for the most part leaving out subcortical regions and relevant connections...
August 29, 2016: Brain and Language
Dalma Tényi, Csilla Gyimesi, Norbert Kovács, Tamás Tényi, József Janszky
Background The retrospective diagnosis of Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoyevsky's (1821-1881) neurological and psychiatric disease proves to be particularly interesting. Recent neurobiological data suggest a solution to the questions regarding the writer's retrospective diagnosis, claiming the insular cortex to be the origin of the rare ecstatic seizures. Regarding Dostoyevsky's pathological gambling, this hypothesis is consistent with another finding from recent neuroscience, namely that the malfunction of the insula could be an important underlying pathology in gambling disorder...
September 2016: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Christoph Teufel, Paul C Fletcher
Computational models have become an integral part of basic neuroscience and have facilitated some of the major advances in the field. More recently, such models have also been applied to the understanding of disruptions in brain function. In this review, using examples and a simple analogy, we discuss the potential for computational models to inform our understanding of brain function and dysfunction. We argue that they may provide, in unprecedented detail, an understanding of the neurobiological and mental basis of brain disorders and that such insights will be key to progress in diagnosis and treatment...
October 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Elisa Brietzke, Adriane R Rosa, Mariana Pedrini, Mariane N Noto, Flavio Kapczinski, Jan Scott
Recently, attention in the field of bipolar disorder (BD) has focused on prevention, including early detection and intervention, as these strategies have the potential to delay, lessen the severity, or even prevent full-blown episodes of BD. Although knowledge of the neurobiology of BD has advanced substantially in the last two decades, most research was conducted with chronic patients. The objective of this paper is to comprehensively review the literature regarding the early stages of BD, to explore recent discoveries on the neurobiology of these stages, and to discuss implications for research and clinical care...
August 11, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Justin C Strickland, Mark A Smith
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have demonstrated that participation in regular resistance exercise (e.g., strength training) is associated with improvements in mental health, memory, and cognition. However, less is known about the neurobiological mechanisms mediating these effects. The goal of this mini-review is to describe and evaluate the available animal models of resistance exercise that may prove useful for examining CNS activity. NEW METHOD: Various models have been developed to examine resistance exercise in laboratory animals...
August 4, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
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