keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Neuroscience neurobiology

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921311/the-neurobiology-of-parenting-a-neural-circuit-perspective
#1
Johannes Kohl, Anita E Autry, Catherine Dulac
Social interactions are essential for animals to reproduce, defend their territory, and raise their young. The conserved nature of social behaviors across animal species suggests that the neural pathways underlying the motivation for, and the execution of, specific social responses are also maintained. Modern tools of neuroscience have offered new opportunities for dissecting the molecular and neural mechanisms controlling specific social responses. We will review here recent insights into the neural circuits underlying a particularly fascinating and important form of social interaction, that of parental care...
December 6, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918065/a-statistical-proposal-for-selecting-a-data-depending-threshold-in-neurobiology
#2
P Finotelli, F Panzica, P Dulio, F Rotondi, G Varotto
In this paper we propose a new methodology for introducing thresholds in the analysis of neuro- biological databases. Often, in Neuroscience, absolute thresholds are adopted. This is done by cutting the data below (or above) predetermined values of the involved parameters, without an analysis of the distribution of the collected data concerning the phenomenon under investigation. Despite an absolute threshold could be rigorously defined in terms of physic parameters, it can be influenced by many different subjective aspects, including cognitive processes, and individual adaptation to the external stimuli...
June 1, 2016: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909400/the-demise-of-the-synapse-as-the-locus-of-memory-a-looming-paradigm-shift
#3
Patrick C Trettenbrein
Synaptic plasticity is widely considered to be the neurobiological basis of learning and memory by neuroscientists and researchers in adjacent fields, though diverging opinions are increasingly being recognized. From the perspective of what we might call "classical cognitive science" it has always been understood that the mind/brain is to be considered a computational-representational system. Proponents of the information-processing approach to cognitive science have long been critical of connectionist or network approaches to (neuro-)cognitive architecture, pointing to the shortcomings of the associative psychology that underlies Hebbian learning as well as to the fact that synapses are practically unfit to implement symbols...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903717/deciphering-decision-making-variation-in-animal-models-of-effort-and-uncertainty-based-choice-reveals-distinct-neural-circuitries-underlying-core-cognitive-processes
#4
Catharine A Winstanley, Stan B Floresco
Maladaptive decision-making is increasingly recognized to play a significant role in numerous psychiatric disorders, such that therapeutics capable of ameliorating core impairments in judgment may be beneficial in a range of patient populations. The field of "decision neuroscience" is therefore in its ascendancy, with researchers from diverse fields bringing their expertise to bear on this complex and fascinating problem. In addition to the advances in neuroimaging and computational neuroscience that contribute enormously to this area, an increase in the complexity and sophistication of behavioral paradigms designed for nonhuman laboratory animals has also had a significant impact on researchers' ability to test the causal nature of hypotheses pertaining to the neural circuitry underlying the choice process...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896309/olfactory-stimulus-control-and-the-behavioral-pharmacology-of-remembering
#5
Mark Galizio
Behavior analytic approaches and techniques have much to offer to the study of remembering. There is currently great interest in the development of animal models of human memory processes in order to enhance understanding of the neurobiology of memory and treatment of dementia and related disorders. Because rodent models are so important in contemporary neuroscience and genetics, development of procedures to study various forms of memory in rodents is a point of emphasis. The sense of smell plays an important role in rodent behavior and use of olfactory stimuli has permitted demonstrations of complex forms of stimulus control that have also served as baselines for studying drug effects on remembering...
November 2016: Behav Anal (Wash D C)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895560/neurobiology-as-information-physics
#6
REVIEW
Sterling Street
This article reviews thermodynamic relationships in the brain in an attempt to consolidate current research in systems neuroscience. The present synthesis supports proposals that thermodynamic information in the brain can be quantified to an appreciable degree of objectivity, that many qualitative properties of information in systems of the brain can be inferred by observing changes in thermodynamic quantities, and that many features of the brain's anatomy and architecture illustrate relatively simple information-energy relationships...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893219/integrating-the-context-appropriate-balanced-attention-model-and-reinforcement-sensitivity-theory-towards-a-domain-general-personality-process-model
#7
Michael D Collins, Chris J Jackson, Benjamin R Walker, Peter J O'Connor, Elliroma Gardiner
Over the last 40 years or more the personality literature has been dominated by trait models based on the Big Five (B5). Trait-based models describe personality at the between-person level but cannot explain the within-person mental mechanisms responsible for personality. Nor can they adequately account for variations in emotion and behavior experienced by individuals across different situations and over time. An alternative, yet understated, approach to personality architecture can be found in neurobiological theories of personality, most notably reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST)...
November 28, 2016: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882504/media-portrayal-of-a-landmark-neuroscience-experiment-on-free-will
#8
Eric Racine, Valentin Nguyen, Victoria Saigle, Veljko Dubljevic
The concept of free will has been heavily debated in philosophy and the social sciences. Its alleged importance lies in its association with phenomena fundamental to our understandings of self, such as autonomy, freedom, self-control, agency, and moral responsibility. Consequently, when neuroscience research is interpreted as challenging or even invalidating this concept, a number of heated social and ethical debates surface. We undertook a content analysis of media coverage of Libet's et al.'s (Brain 106(Pt 3):623-642, 1983) landmark study, which is frequently interpreted as posing a serious challenge to the existence of free will...
November 23, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870416/sex-specific-mechanisms-for-responding-to-stress
#9
REVIEW
Debra A Bangasser, Brittany Wicks
Posttraumatic stress disorder and major depression share stress as an etiological contributor and are more common in women than in men. Traditionally, preclinical studies investigating the neurobiological underpinnings of stress vulnerability have used only male rodents; however, recent studies that include females are finding sex-specific mechanisms for responding to stress. This Mini-Review examines recent literature using a framework developed by McCarthy and colleagues (2012; J Neurosci 32:2241-2247) that highlights different types of sex differences...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852766/compartmentalized-microfluidic-platforms-the-unrivaled-breakthrough-of-in-vitro-tools-for-neurobiological-research
#10
Estrela Neto, Luís Leitão, Daniela M Sousa, Cecília J Alves, Inês S Alencastre, Paulo Aguiar, Meriem Lamghari
Microfluidic technology has become a valuable tool to the scientific community, allowing researchers to study fine cellular mechanisms with higher variable control compared with conventional systems. It has evolved tremendously, and its applicability and flexibility made its usage grow exponentially and transversely to several research fields. This has been particularly noticeable in neuroscience research, where microfluidic platforms made it possible to address specific questions extending from axonal guidance, synapse formation, or axonal transport to the development of 3D models of the CNS to allow pharmacological testing and drug screening...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829096/cognitive-subtypes-of-schizophrenia-characterized-by-differential-brain-volumetric-reductions-and-cognitive-decline
#11
Danielle Weinberg, Rhoshel Lenroot, Isabella Jacomb, Katherine Allen, Jason Bruggemann, Ruth Wells, Ryan Balzan, Dennis Liu, Cherrie Galletly, Stanley V Catts, Cynthia Shannon Weickert, Thomas W Weickert
Importance: Cognitively distinct subgroups of schizophrenia have been defined based on premorbid and current IQ, but little is known about the neuroanatomical differences among these cognitive subgroups. Objectives: To confirm previous findings related to IQ-based subgroups of patients with schizophrenia in an independent sample and extend those findings to determine the extent to which brain volumetric differences correspond to the IQ-based subgroups. Design, Setting, and Participants: A total of 183 participants were assessed at the outpatient settings of Neuroscience Research Australia and Lyell McEwin Hospital from September 22, 2009, to August 1, 2012...
November 9, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820680/a-developmental-social-neuroscience-model-for-understanding-loneliness-in-adolescence
#12
Nichol M L Wong, Patcy Yeung, Tatia M C Lee
Loneliness is prevalent in adolescents. Although it can be a normative experience, children and adolescents who experience loneliness are often at risk for anxiety, depression, and suicide. Research efforts have been made to identify the neurobiological basis of such distressful feelings in our social brain. In adolescents, the social brain is still undergoing significant development, which may contribute to their increased and differential sensitivity to the social environment. Many behavioral studies have shown the significance of attachment security and social skills in adolescents' interactions with the social world...
November 7, 2016: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810007/the-global-challenge-in-neuroscience-education-and-training-the-mbl-perspective
#13
Rae Nishi, Edward Castañeda, Graeme W Davis, André A Fenton, Hans A Hofmann, Jean King, Timothy A Ryan, Keith A Trujillo
The greatest challenge in moving neuroscience research forward in the 21st century is recruiting, training, and retaining the brightest, rigorous, and most diverse scientists. The MBL research training courses Neurobiology and Neural Systems & Behavior, and the Summer Program in Neuroscience, Excellence, and Success provide a model for full immersion, discovery-based training while enhancing cultural, geographic, and racial diversity.
November 2, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791054/human-amygdala-engagement-moderated-by-early-life-stress-exposure-is-a-biobehavioral-target-for-predicting-recovery-on-antidepressants
#14
Andrea N Goldstein-Piekarski, Mayuresh S Korgaonkar, Erin Green, Trisha Suppes, Alan F Schatzberg, Trevor Hastie, Charles B Nemeroff, Leanne M Williams
Amygdala circuitry and early life stress (ELS) are both strongly and independently implicated in the neurobiology of depression. Importantly, animal models have revealed that the contribution of ELS to the development and maintenance of depression is likely a consequence of structural and physiological changes in amygdala circuitry in response to stress hormones. Despite these mechanistic foundations, amygdala engagement and ELS have not been investigated as biobehavioral targets for predicting functional remission in translational human studies of depression...
October 18, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774213/neuroscientific-and-behavioral-genetic-information-in-criminal-cases-in-the-netherlands
#15
C H de Kogel, E J M C Westgeest
In this contribution an empirical approach is used to gain more insight into the relationship between neuroscience and criminal law. The focus is on case law in the Netherlands. Neuroscientific information and techniques have found their way into the courts of the Netherlands. Furthermore, following an Italian case in which a mentally ill offender received a penalty reduction in part because of a 'genetic vulnerability for impulsive aggression', the expectation was expressed that such 'genetic defenses' would appear in the Netherlands too...
November 2015: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756689/neuroadaptations-to-antipsychotic-drugs-insights-from-pre-clinical-and-human-post-mortem-studies
#16
Davide Amato, Clare L Beasley, Margaret K Hahn, Anthony C Vernon
Antipsychotic drugs, all of which block the dopamine D2 receptor to a greater or lesser extent, are the mainstay for the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia. Engaging in a deeper understanding of how antipsychotics act on the brain and body, at the cellular, molecular and physiological level is vital to comprehend both the beneficial and potentially harmful actions of these medications and stimulate development of novel therapeutics. To address this, we review recent advances in our understanding of neuroadaptations to antipsychotics, focusing on (1) treatment efficacy, (2) impact on brain volume and (3) evidence from human post-mortem studies that attempt to dissect neuropathological effects of antipsychotic drugs from organic schizophrenia neurobiology and (4) cardio-metabolic side effects...
October 15, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752721/-new-insights-into-the-neuroscience-of-human-altruism
#17
R Hurlemann, N Marsh
Numerous honorary initiatives for humanitarian aid towards refugees illustrate the high prevalence of altruistic behavior in the population. In medicine, an exquisite example of a human propensity for altruism is organ donation. Current perspectives on the neurobiology of altruism suggest that it is deeply rooted in the motivational architecture of the social brain. This is reflected by the social evolution of cooperation and parochialism, both of which are modulated by the evolutionarily conserved peptide hormone oxytocin...
October 17, 2016: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745722/-the-severe-chronic-irritability-concept-a-clinical-dimension-to-consider-in-child-and-adolescent
#18
P Fourneret, H Desombre
INTRODUCTION: For a decade, the concept of irritability has known a renewed interest in infant and child psychopathology. Indeed, longitudinal follow-up studies clearly highlighted their predictive value - in the short, medium and long terms - of a broad field of behavioral disorders and emotion dysregulation. This dimensional and transnosographic approach of irritability, coupled with the latest neuroscience data, points out that irritability could be the equivalent of a psychopathological marker, covering both a neurobiological, cognitive and emotional component...
October 10, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739195/marmoset-vocal-communication-behavior-and-neurobiology
#19
Steven J Eliades, Cory T Miller
There has been recent increasing interest in the use of marmosets, a New World primate species, as a model in biomedical research. One of the principal advantages of marmosets as a research model is their rich vocal repertoire and communicative vocal behaviors displayed both in the wild and in captivity. Studies of this species' vocal communication system have the potential to reveal the evolutionary underpinnings of human speech, and therefore are of interest to the neuroscience and biology research communities...
October 14, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736098/culture-and-biology-interplay-an-introduction
#20
José M Causadias, Eva H Telzer, Richard M Lee
Objective: Culture and biology have evolved together, influence each other, and concurrently shape behavior, affect, cognition, and development. This special section highlights 2 major domains of the interplay between culture and biology. Method: The first domain is neurobiology of cultural experiences-how cultural, ethnic, and racial experiences influence limbic systems and neuroendocrine functioning-and the second domain is cultural neuroscience-the connections between cultural processes and brain functioning...
August 15, 2016: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
keyword
keyword
41702
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"