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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324422/assimilation-of-biophysical-neuronal-dynamics-in-neuromorphic-vlsi
#1
Jun Wang, Daniel Breen, Abraham Akinin, Frederic Broccard, Henry D I Abarbanel, Gert Cauwenberghs
Representing the biophysics of neuronal dynamics and behavior offers a principled analysis-by-synthesis approach toward understanding mechanisms of nervous system functions. We report on a set of procedures assimilating and emulating neurobiological data on a neuromorphic very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuit. The analog VLSI chip, NeuroDyn, features 384 digitally programmable parameters specifying for 4 generalized Hodgkin-Huxley neurons coupled through 12 conductance-based chemical synapses. The parameters also describe reversal potentials, maximal conductances, and spline regressed kinetic functions for ion channel gating variables...
December 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321077/social-anxiety-disorder-looking-back-and-moving-forward
#2
Matthew P Hyett, Peter M McEvoy
Fifty years have passed since social anxiety disorder (SAD) was first differentiated from other phobias. In the years since research has largely aligned with the zeitgeist of categorical classificatory frameworks, and has spanned identifying causes, maintenance factors and innovative interventions. Despite significant advances in the field, the capacity to conceptualise SAD as an independent entity is limited given the heterogeneity and dimensionality of diagnostic criteria, high rates of comorbidity, and non-specificity of aetiological mechanisms, maintaining factors and approaches to treatment...
January 11, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301440/advancing-the-understanding-of-progression-in-multiple-sclerosis-an-interview-with-shibeshih-belachew
#3
Shibeshih Belachew
Shibeshih Belachew speaks to Laura Dormer, Commissioning Editor: Dr Shibeshih Belachew, MD, PhD, is a Senior Medical Director for Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Disease Area in Global Product Development Medical Affairs at Roche (Basel, Switzerland). Prior to joining Roche in January 2016, he was Director of MS Franchise and Head of Medical Director's office for Biogen Region Europe and Canada. Previously at Biogen he also served as a Director in Global Neurology for the natalizumab program in Cambridge (MA, USA)...
January 5, 2018: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287628/sex-differences-in-the-brain-implications-for-behavioral-and-biomedical-research
#4
REVIEW
Elena Choleris, Liisa A M Galea, Farida Sohrabji, Karyn M Frick
Biological differences between males and females are found at multiple levels. However, females have too often been under-represented in behavioral neuroscience research, which has stymied the study of potential sex differences in neurobiology and behavior. This review focuses on the study of sex differences in the neurobiology of social behavior, memory, emotions, and recovery from brain injury, with particular emphasis on the role of estrogens in regulating forebrain function. This work, presented by the authors at the 2016 meeting of the International Behavioral Neuroscience Society, emphasizes varying approaches from several mammalian species in which sex differences have not only been documented, but also become the focus of efforts to understand the mechanistic basis underlying them...
February 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279216/development-of-aggression
#5
REVIEW
Jennifer E Lansford
Theories and empirical findings regarding the development of aggression have included advances in four key areas in the last two years. First, studies have increasingly adopted more nuanced operationalization of forms and functions of aggression. Second, mediators and moderators of links between risk factors and the development of aggression have been examined with more precision. Third, advances in neuroscience and studies of gene by environment interactions have led to greater understanding of genetic and neurobiological underpinnings of the development of aggression...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248932/neurobiological-bases-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-implications-for-early-intervention-a-brief-overview
#6
Kakia Petinou, Despo Minaidou
OBJECTIVES: To better understand the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and implications for intervention, the current paper reports on research related to the neurobiological underpinnings of ASD and the implication for early intervention with a focus on the importance of joint attention and eye gaze behaviors. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: An overview is provided on the available research findings from the fields of social neuroscience and experimental psychology specific to brain development, brain pathology, eye gaze, and joint attention behaviors...
2017: Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244621/on-mourning-and-recovery-integrating-stages-of-grief-and-change-toward-a-neuroscience-based-model-of-attachment-adaptation-in-addiction-treatment
#7
R Andrew Chambers, Sue C Wallingford
Interpersonal attachment and drug addiction share many attributes across their behavioral and neurobiological domains. Understanding the overlapping brain circuitry of attachment formation and addiction illuminates a deeper understanding of the pathogenesis of trauma-related mental illnesses and comorbid substance use disorders, and the extent to which ending an addiction is complicated by being a sort of mourning process. Attention to the process of addiction recovery-as a form of grieving-in which Kubler-Ross's stages of grief and Prochaska's stages of change are ultimately describing complementary viewpoints on a general process of neural network and attachment remodeling, could lead to more effective and integrative psychotherapy and medication strategies...
2017: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188502/small-scale-production-of-recombinant-adeno-associated-viral-vectors-for-gene-delivery-to-the-nervous-system
#8
Joost Verhaagen, Barbara Hobo, Erich M E Ehlert, Ruben Eggers, Joanna A Korecka, Stefan A Hoyng, Callan L Attwell, Alan R Harvey, Matthew R J Mason
Adeno-associated viral vectors have numerous applications in neuroscience, including the study of gene function in health and disease, targeting of light-sensitive proteins to anatomically distinct sets of neurons to manipulate neuronal activity (optogenetics), and the delivery of fluorescent protein to study anatomical connectivity in the brain. Moreover several phase I/II clinical trials for gene therapy of eye and brain diseases with adeno-associated viral vectors have shown that these vectors are well tolerated by human patients...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182149/multi-scale-multi-modal-analysis-uncovers-complex-relationship-at-the-brain-tissue-implant-neural-interface-new-emphasis-on-the-biological-interface
#9
Nicholas J Michelson, Alberto L Vazquez, James R Eles, Joseph William Salatino, Erin K Purcell, Jordan John Williams, Tracy Cui, Takashi D Yoshida Kozai
Implantable neural electrode devices are important tools for neuroscience research and have an increasing range of clinical applications. However, the intricacies of the biological response after implantation, and their ultimate impact on recording performance, remain challenging to elucidate. Establishing a relationship between the neurobiology and chronic recording performance is confounded by technical challenges related to traditional electrophysiological, material, and histological limitations. This can greatly impact the interpretations of results pertaining to device performance and tissue health surrounding the implant...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169634/the-emerging-neurobiology-of-bipolar-disorder
#10
REVIEW
Paul J Harrison, John R Geddes, Elizabeth M Tunbridge
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a leading cause of global disability. Its biological basis is unknown, and its treatment unsatisfactory. Here, we review two recent areas of progress. First, the discovery of risk genes and their implications, with a focus on voltage-gated calcium channels as part of the disease process and as a drug target. Second, facilitated by new technologies, it is increasingly apparent that the bipolar phenotype is more complex and nuanced than simply one of recurring manic and depressive episodes...
November 20, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167088/network-neuroscience-theory-of-human-intelligence
#11
REVIEW
Aron K Barbey
An enduring aim of research in the psychological and brain sciences is to understand the nature of individual differences in human intelligence, examining the stunning breadth and diversity of intellectual abilities and the remarkable neurobiological mechanisms from which they arise. This Opinion article surveys recent neuroscience evidence to elucidate how general intelligence, g, emerges from individual differences in the network architecture of the human brain. The reviewed findings motivate new insights about how network topology and dynamics account for individual differences in g, represented by the Network Neuroscience Theory...
November 2, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163257/free-will-and-the-brain-disease-model-of-addiction-the-not-so-seductive-allure-of-neuroscience-and-its-modest-impact-on-the-attribution-of-free-will-to-people-with-an-addiction
#12
Eric Racine, Sebastian Sattler, Alice Escande
Free will has been the object of debate in the context of addiction given that addiction could compromise an individual's ability to choose freely between alternative courses of action. Proponents of the brain-disease model of addiction have argued that a neuroscience perspective on addiction reduces the attribution of free will because it relocates the cause of the disorder to the brain rather than to the person, thereby diminishing the blame attributed to the person with an addiction. Others have worried that such displacement of free will attribution would make the person with a drug addiction less responsible...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135273/-neuroscience-of-mental-flexibility
#13
Zoltán Janka
Mental flexibility enabling shifts from the usual prepotent behaviour to new strategies and solutions is a significant factor in the successful adaptation to the changing environment. Components of mental flexibility comprise attention, salience detection, inhibition, working memory and switch processes which can be measured by neurocognitive tests. Data derived from examinations by the methods of cognitive neuroscience can be compared to the features, observed under resting state and during task performance, of brain structures and functions...
November 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125959/proximity-labeling-spatially-resolved-proteomic-mapping-for-neurobiology
#14
REVIEW
Shuo Han, Jiefu Li, Alice Y Ting
Understanding signaling pathways in neuroscience requires high-resolution maps of the underlying protein networks. Proximity-dependent biotinylation with engineered enzymes, in combination with mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics, has emerged as a powerful method to dissect molecular interactions and the localizations of endogenous proteins. Recent applications to neuroscience have provided insights into the composition of sub-synaptic structures, including the synaptic cleft and inhibitory post-synaptic density...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074231/the-engage-study-integrating-neuroimaging-virtual-reality-and-smartphone-sensing-to-understand-self-regulation-for-managing-depression-and-obesity-in-a-precision-medicine-model
#15
Leanne M Williams, Adam Pines, Andrea N Goldstein-Piekarski, Lisa G Rosas, Monica Kullar, Matthew D Sacchet, Olivier Gevaert, Jeremy Bailenson, Philip W Lavori, Paul Dagum, Brian Wandell, Carlos Correa, Walter Greenleaf, Trisha Suppes, L Michael Perry, Joshua M Smyth, Megan A Lewis, Elizabeth M Venditti, Mark Snowden, Janine M Simmons, Jun Ma
Precision medicine models for personalizing achieving sustained behavior change are largely outside of current clinical practice. Yet, changing self-regulatory behaviors is fundamental to the self-management of complex lifestyle-related chronic conditions such as depression and obesity - two top contributors to the global burden of disease and disability. To optimize treatments and address these burdens, behavior change and self-regulation must be better understood in relation to their neurobiological underpinnings...
October 7, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072182/social-challenges-of-contemporary-psychiatry
#16
N Bouras
Psychiatry and society are interrelated and the biopsychosocial model continues to dominate the clinical psychiatric practice. Some doubts have been expressed in recent years about the value and the wide acceptance of the biopsychosocial model. Ghaemi (2009)1 considers it to be anti-humanistic and advocates the use of less eclectic, less generic, and less vague alternatives. The fundamental changes that have been witnessed in our times across the spectrum of biology, psychology and sociology have made necessary that a conceptual clarity should prevail...
July 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066078/computational-neuroscience-across-the-lifespan-promises-and-pitfalls
#17
REVIEW
Wouter van den Bos, Rasmus Bruckner, Matthew R Nassar, Rui Mata, Ben Eppinger
In recent years, the application of computational modeling in studies on age-related changes in decision making and learning has gained in popularity. One advantage of computational models is that they provide access to latent variables that cannot be directly observed from behavior. In combination with experimental manipulations, these latent variables can help to test hypotheses about age-related changes in behavioral and neurobiological measures at a level of specificity that is not achievable with descriptive analysis approaches alone...
October 13, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053770/tourette-syndrome-a-disorder-of-the-social-decision-making-network
#18
Roger L Albin
Tourette syndrome is a common neurodevelopmental disorder defined by characteristic involuntary movements, tics, with both motor and phonic components. Tourette syndrome is usually conceptualized as a basal ganglia disorder, with an emphasis on striatal dysfunction. While considerable evidence is consistent with these concepts, imaging data suggest diffuse functional and structural abnormalities in Tourette syndrome brain. Tourette syndrome exhibits features that are difficult to explain solely based on basal ganglia circuit dysfunctions...
August 22, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994473/preliminary-thoughts-on-the-neurobiology-of-innate-unconscious-structures-and-the-psychodynamics-of-language-acquisition
#19
Susan Mizen
This paper builds upon Britton's recent writing on 'models in the mind', in which he gives an account of preverbal metaphoric structures based on object relations (Britton 2015). These correspond with Jung's theory of innate unconscious structures. These innate models are considered alongside current linguistic theory following Chomsky and post-Chomskyan views about language acquisition. Neuroscience evidence linking language and abstract thinking with structures involved in tool use are presented. The implications of these findings, and our understanding of the relational context within which language, metaphor and abstract thought are acquired, will be discussed along with the failures of symbolization and verbal communication common amongst those with severe narcissistic disorders...
November 2017: Journal of Analytical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981612/local-global-parcellation-of-the-human-cerebral-cortex-from-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-mri
#20
Alexander Schaefer, Ru Kong, Evan M Gordon, Timothy O Laumann, Xi-Nian Zuo, Avram J Holmes, Simon B Eickhoff, B T Thomas Yeo
A central goal in systems neuroscience is the parcellation of the cerebral cortex into discrete neurobiological "atoms". Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) offers the possibility of in vivo human cortical parcellation. Almost all previous parcellations relied on 1 of 2 approaches. The local gradient approach detects abrupt transitions in functional connectivity patterns. These transitions potentially reflect cortical areal boundaries defined by histology or visuotopic fMRI. By contrast, the global similarity approach clusters similar functional connectivity patterns regardless of spatial proximity, resulting in parcels with homogeneous (similar) rs-fMRI signals...
July 18, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
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