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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744956/imaging-resilience-and-recovery-in-alcohol-dependence
#1
REVIEW
Katrin Charlet, Annika Rosenthal, Falk W Lohoff, Andreas Heinz, Anne Beck
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Resilience and recovery are of increasing importance in the field of alcohol dependence (AD). This paper describes how imaging studies in man can be used to assess the neurobiological correlates of resilience and, if longitudinal, of disease trajectories, progression rates and markers for recovery to inform treatment and prevention options. METHODS: Original articles on recovery and resilience in alcohol addiction and its neurobiological correlates were identified from 'PubMed' and have been analyzed and condensed within a systematic literature review...
May 9, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725317/psychopathy-to-altruism-neurobiology-of-the-selfish-selfless-spectrum
#2
REVIEW
James W H Sonne, Don M Gash
The age-old philosophical, biological, and social debate over the basic nature of humans as being "universally selfish" or "universally good" continues today highlighting sharply divergent views of natural social order. Here we analyze advances in biology, genetics and neuroscience increasing our understanding of the evolution, features and neurocircuitry of the human brain underlying behavior in the selfish-selfless spectrum. First, we examine evolutionary pressures for selection of altruistic traits in species with protracted periods of dependence on parents and communities for subsistence and acquisition of learned behaviors...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696602/translational-shifts-in-preclinical-models-of-depression-implications-for-biomarkers-for-improved-treatments
#3
Chloe Slaney, Justyna K Hinchcliffe, Emma S J Robinson
Understanding the neurobiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) remains one of the major challenges in neuroscience. The disease is heterogeneous in nature, and patients present with a varied symptom profile. Studies seeking to identify biomarkers for MDD diagnosis and treatment have not yet found any one candidate which achieves sufficient sensitivity and specificity. In this article, we consider whether neuropsychological impairments, specifically affective biases, could provide a behavioural biomarker...
April 26, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690790/neuroscience-of-addiction-relevance-to-prevention-and-treatment
#4
Nora D Volkow, Maureen Boyle
Addiction, the most severe form of substance use disorder, is a chronic brain disorder molded by strong biosocial factors that has devastating consequences to individuals and to society. Our understanding of substance use disorder has advanced significantly over the last 3 decades in part due to major progress in genetics and neuroscience research and to the development of new technologies, including tools to interrogate molecular changes in specific neuronal populations in animal models of substance use disorder, as well as brain imaging devices to assess brain function and neurochemistry in humans...
April 25, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651896/cerebral-serotonin-transporter-measurements-with-11-c-dasb-a-review-on-acquisition-and-preprocessing-across-21-pet-centres
#5
Martin Nørgaard, Melanie Ganz, Claus Svarer, Ling Feng, Masanori Ichise, Rupert Lanzenberger, Mark Lubberink, Ramin V Parsey, Marios Politis, Eugenii A Rabiner, Mark Slifstein, Vesna Sossi, Tetsuya Suhara, Peter S Talbot, Federico Turkheimer, Stephen C Strother, Gitte M Knudsen
Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging has become a prominent tool to capture the spatiotemporal distribution of neurotransmitters and receptors in the brain. The outcome of a PET study can, however, potentially be obscured by suboptimal and/or inconsistent choices made in complex processing pipelines required to reach a quantitative estimate of radioligand binding. Variations in subject selection, experimental design, data acquisition, preprocessing, and statistical analysis may lead to different outcomes and neurobiological interpretations...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628441/the-original-social-network-white-matter-and-social-cognition
#6
REVIEW
Yin Wang, Ingrid R Olson
Social neuroscience has traditionally focused on the functionality of gray matter regions, ignoring the critical role played by axonal fiber pathways in supporting complex social processes. In this paper, we argue that research on white matter is essential for understanding a range of topics in social neuroscience, such as face processing, theory of mind, empathy, and imitation, as well as clinical disorders defined by aberrant social behavior, such as prosopagnosia, autism, and schizophrenia. We provide practical advice on how best to carry out these studies, which ultimately will substantially deepen our understanding of the neurobiological basis of social behavior...
April 5, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623032/cryopreservation-of-primary-mouse-neurons-the-benefit-of-neurostore-cryoprotective-medium
#7
Francesca Pischedda, Caterina Montani, Julia Obergasteiger, Giulia Frapporti, Corrado Corti, Marcelo Rosato Siri, Mattia Volta, Giovanni Piccoli
Primary neuronal culture from rodents is a well-established model to investigate cellular neurobiology in vitro . However, for this purpose cell cultures need to be generated expressly, requiring extensive animal handling. Furthermore, often the preparation of fresh culture generates an excess of cells that are ultimately wasted. Therefore the ability to successfully cryopreserve primary neural cells would represent an important resource for neuroscience research and would allow to significantly reduce the sacrifice of animals...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619648/on-the-relation-between-theory-of-mind-and-executive-functioning-a-developmental-cognitive-neuroscience-perspective
#8
Mark Wade, Heather Prime, Jennifer M Jenkins, Keith O Yeates, Tricia Williams, Kang Lee
Theory of mind (ToM) and executive functioning (EF) show marked interrelatedness across childhood, and developmental psychologists have long been interested in understanding the nature of this association. The present review addresses this issue from a cognitive neuroscience perspective by exploring three hypotheses regarding their functional overlap: (1) ToM relies on EF (EF→ToM); (2) EF relies on ToM (ToM→EF); and (3) ToM and EF are mutually related, owing to shared neural structures or networks (ToM↔EF)...
April 4, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607505/brain-heart-interaction-in-perseverative-cognition
#9
Cristina Ottaviani
The move from the concept of homeostasis to that of allostasis has led reactivity stress research to widen the object of its investigation: from the brief physiological response that occurs when one is facing a stressor to what happens when one is anticipating or recovering from a stressor. A paradigmatic example is represented by perseverative cognition, during which human beings react "as if" they were constantly facing a concrete stressor. The core idea behind this review is that the cognitive inflexibility that characterizes perseverative cognition is reflected in both our body (by increased autonomic nervous system rigidity assessed by heart rate variability; HRV) and our brain (by reduced prefrontal-amygdala functional connectivity)...
April 1, 2018: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603509/translational-neuroscience-and-psychiatry-a-conceptual-analysis
#10
Ivana S Marková
As rapidly developing research disciplines and enterprises, the translational sciences have made significant impact on research direction in medicine. Psychiatry has likewise been affected, and in this regard, the translational neurosciences have been the major drivers. This paper explores the conceptual underpinnings of this enterprise in relation to psychiatry. It shows that translation is used in a metaphorical sense in this context but that this can be misleading because of the resultant connotation that there is equivalence between neurobiological states and mental states...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601053/implications-of-information-theory-for-computational-modeling-of-schizophrenia
#11
Steven M Silverstein, Michael Wibral, William A Phillips
Information theory provides a formal framework within which information processing and its disorders can be described. However, information theory has rarely been applied to modeling aspects of the cognitive neuroscience of schizophrenia. The goal of this article is to highlight the benefits of an approach based on information theory, including its recent extensions, for understanding several disrupted neural goal functions as well as related cognitive and symptomatic phenomena in schizophrenia. We begin by demonstrating that foundational concepts from information theory-such as Shannon information, entropy, data compression, block coding, and strategies to increase the signal-to-noise ratio-can be used to provide novel understandings of cognitive impairments in schizophrenia and metrics to evaluate their integrity...
October 2017: Computational psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590280/the-emerging-clinical-neuroscience-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-review
#12
Rebecca A Muhle, Hannah E Reed, Katharine A Stratigos, Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele
Importance: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly prevalent disorder, and community psychiatrists are likely to treat many individuals with ASD during their clinical practice. This clinical case challenge describes a routine evaluation of irritability and self-injury in a preschool-aged child who meets the criteria for ASD. The case also illustrates the importance of known risk factors for ASD, such as chromosomal deletion and prematurity. This clinical neuroscience article seeks to educate the clinician of current avenues of research that can inform and may already affect clinical practice for this patient, while providing a preview of research that may yield biological treatments for ASD within the next decade...
March 28, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589782/immediate-preoperative-outcomes-of-pain-neuroscience-education-for-patients-undergoing-total-knee-arthroplasty-a-case-series
#13
Adriaan Louw, Kory Zimney, Jordan Reed, Merrill Landers, Emilio J Puentedura
BACKGROUND: Standard preoperative education for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has been shown to have no effect on postoperative outcomes. This may be because such education programs fail to educate patients about pain. Pain neuroscience education (PNE) focuses on teaching people more about pain from a neurobiological and neurophysiological perspective. DESIGN AND SETTING: Case Series. AIM: To determine the immediate effects, if any, of providing PNE before TKA surgery on patient self-report measures...
March 28, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561359/title-comparative-transcriptome-profiling-of-the-human-and-mouse-dorsal-root-ganglia-an-rna-seq-based-resource-for-pain-and-sensory-neuroscience-research
#14
Pradipta Ray, Andrew Torck, Lilyana Quigley, Andi Wangzhou, Matthew Neiman, Chandranshu Rao, Tiffany Lam, Ji-Young Kim, Tae Hoon Kim, Michael Q Zhang, Gregory Dussor, Theodore J Price
Molecular neurobiological insight into human nervous tissues is needed to generate next generation therapeutics for neurological disorders like chronic pain. We obtained human Dorsal Root Ganglia (DRG) samples from organ donors and performed RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) to study the human DRG (hDRG) transcriptional landscape, systematically comparing it with publicly available data from a variety of human and orthologous mouse tissues, including mouse DRG (mDRG). We characterized the hDRG transcriptional profile in terms of tissue-restricted gene co-expression patterns and putative transcriptional regulators, and formulated an information-theoretic framework to quantify DRG enrichment...
March 20, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554962/neurochemical-changes-in-basal-ganglia-affect-time-perception-in-parkinsonians
#15
REVIEW
Francisco Magalhães, Kaline Rocha, Victor Marinho, Jéssica Ribeiro, Thomaz Oliveira, Carla Ayres, Thalys Bento, Francisca Leite, Daya Gupta, Victor Hugo Bastos, Bruna Velasques, Pedro Ribeiro, Marco Orsini, Silmar Teixeira
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease is described as resulting from dopaminergic cells progressive degeneration, specifically in the substantia nigra pars compacta that influence the voluntary movements control, decision making and time perception. AIM: This review had a goal to update the relation between time perception and Parkinson's Disease. METHODOLOGY: We used the PRISMA methodology for this investigation built guided for subjects dopaminergic dysfunction in the time judgment, pharmacological models with levodopa and new studies on the time perception in Parkinson's Disease...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550367/contemporary-strategies-for-dissecting-the-neuronal-basis-of-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#16
Dong-Oh Seo, Laura E Motard, Michael R Bruchas
Great efforts in clinical and basic research have shown progress in understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism, schizophrenia, and attention-deficit hyperactive disorders. Literature on this field have suggested that these disorders are affected by the complex interaction of genetic, biological, psychosocial and environmental risk factors. However, this complexity of interplaying risk factors during neurodevelopment has prevented a complete understanding of the causes of those neuropsychiatric symptoms...
March 14, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541062/dat1-genotype-and-menstrual-cycle-but-not-hormonal-contraception-modulate-reinforcement-learning-preliminary-evidence
#17
Kristina Jakob, Hanna Ehrentreich, Sarah K C Holtfrerich, Luise Reimers, Esther K Diekhof
Hormone by genotype interactions have been widely ignored by cognitive neuroscience. Yet, the dependence of cognitive performance on both baseline dopamine (DA) and current 17ß-estradiol (E2) level argues for their combined effect also in the context of reinforcement learning. Here, we assessed how the interaction between the natural rise of E2 in the late follicular phase (FP) and the 40 base-pair variable number tandem repeat polymorphism of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) affects reinforcement learning capacity...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532328/the-neuroscience-of-perceptual-categorization-in-pigeons-a-mechanistic-hypothesis
#18
REVIEW
Onur Güntürkün, Charlotte Koenen, Fabrizio Iovine, Alexis Garland, Roland Pusch
We are surrounded by an endless variation of objects. The ability to categorize these objects represents a core cognitive competence of humans and possibly all vertebrates. Research on category learning in nonhuman animals started with the seminal studies of Richard Herrnstein on the category "human" in pigeons. Since then, we have learned that pigeons are able to categorize a large number of stimulus sets, ranging from Cubist paintings to English orthography. Strangely, this prolific field has largely neglected to also study the avian neurobiology of categorization...
March 12, 2018: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524131/neuroepigenetic-editing
#19
Peter J Hamilton, Carissa J Lim, Eric J Nestler, Elizabeth A Heller
Studies of the mammalian nervous system have revealed widespread epigenetic regulation underlying gene expression intrinsic to basic neurobiological function as well as neurological disease. Over the past decade, a critical role has emerged for the neural regulation of chromatin-modifying enzymes during both development and adulthood, and in response to external stimuli. These biochemical data are complemented by numerous next generation sequencing (NGS) studies that quantify the extent of chromatin and DNA modifications in neurons...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516582/individual-differences-in-decision-making-competence-revealed-by-multivariate-fmri
#20
Tanveer Talukdar, Francisco J Román, Joachim T Operskalski, Christopher E Zwilling, Aron K Barbey
While an extensive literature in decision neuroscience has elucidated the neurobiological foundations of decision making, prior research has focused primarily on group-level effects in a sample population. Due to the presence of inherent differences between individuals' cognitive abilities, it is also important to examine the neural correlates of decision making that explain interindividual variability in cognitive performance. This study therefore investigated how individual differences in decision making competence, as measured by the Adult Decision Making Competence (A-DMC) battery, are related to functional brain connectivity patterns derived from resting-state fMRI data in a sample of 304 healthy participants...
June 2018: Human Brain Mapping
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