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Neuroscience neurobiology

Kristina Jakob, Hanna Ehrentreich, Sarah K C Holtfrerich, Luise Reimers, Esther K Diekhof
Hormone by genotype interactions have been widely ignored by cognitive neuroscience. Yet, the dependence of cognitive performance on both baseline dopamine (DA) and current 17ß-estradiol (E2) level argues for their combined effect also in the context of reinforcement learning. Here, we assessed how the interaction between the natural rise of E2 in the late follicular phase (FP) and the 40 base-pair variable number tandem repeat polymorphism of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) affects reinforcement learning capacity...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Onur Güntürkün, Charlotte Koenen, Fabrizio Iovine, Alexis Garland, Roland Pusch
We are surrounded by an endless variation of objects. The ability to categorize these objects represents a core cognitive competence of humans and possibly all vertebrates. Research on category learning in nonhuman animals started with the seminal studies of Richard Herrnstein on the category "human" in pigeons. Since then, we have learned that pigeons are able to categorize a large number of stimulus sets, ranging from Cubist paintings to English orthography. Strangely, this prolific field has largely neglected to also study the avian neurobiology of categorization...
March 12, 2018: Learning & Behavior
Peter J Hamilton, Carissa J Lim, Eric J Nestler, Elizabeth A Heller
Studies of the mammalian nervous system have revealed widespread epigenetic regulation underlying gene expression intrinsic to basic neurobiological function as well as neurological disease. Over the past decade, a critical role has emerged for the neural regulation of chromatin-modifying enzymes during both development and adulthood, and in response to external stimuli. These biochemical data are complemented by numerous next generation sequencing (NGS) studies that quantify the extent of chromatin and DNA modifications in neurons...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Tanveer Talukdar, Francisco J Román, Joachim T Operskalski, Christopher E Zwilling, Aron K Barbey
While an extensive literature in decision neuroscience has elucidated the neurobiological foundations of decision making, prior research has focused primarily on group-level effects in a sample population. Due to the presence of inherent differences between individuals' cognitive abilities, it is also important to examine the neural correlates of decision making that explain interindividual variability in cognitive performance. This study therefore investigated how individual differences in decision making competence, as measured by the Adult Decision Making Competence (A-DMC) battery, are related to functional brain connectivity patterns derived from resting-state fMRI data in a sample of 304 healthy participants...
March 8, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Diogo Telles-Correia
A problem underlying the mind brain gap is the complex integration among the disciplines involved in it: neurosciences, clinical psychiatry and psychology, and philosophy of science. Research in neurosciences and clinical psychiatry requires a positioning in relation to some conceptual/philosophical aspects. These are related to the models of interrelationship of the brain and the mind, to explanatory approaches in psychiatry, and to conceptual issues such as dimensionality versus categories, symptoms versus disorders, and neurobiological correlates versus clinical determination of mental disorder...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Weidong Cai, Tianwen Chen, Luca Szegletes, Kaustubh Supekar, Vinod Menon
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is thought to stem from aberrancies in large-scale cognitive control networks. However, the exact nature of aberrant brain circuit dynamics involving these control networks is poorly understood. Using a saliency-based triple-network model of cognitive control, we tested the hypothesis that dynamic cross-network interactions among the salience, central executive, and default mode networks are dysregulated in children with ADHD, and we investigated how these dysregulations contribute to inattention...
March 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Bjørn G Hallsson, Hartwig R Siebner, Oliver J Hulme
Fairness, the notion that people deserve or have rights to certain resources or kinds of treatment, is a fundamental dimension of moral cognition. Drawing on recent evidence from economics, psychology, and neuroscience, we ask whether self-interest is always intuitive, requiring self-control to override with reasoning-based fairness concerns, or whether fairness itself can be intuitive. While we find strong support for rejecting the notion that self-interest is always intuitive, the literature has reached conflicting conclusions about the neurocognitive systems underpinning fairness...
February 24, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Vernon Garcia-Rivas, Véronique Deroche-Gamonet
Tobacco use leads to 6 million deaths every year due to severe long-lasting diseases. The main component of tobacco, nicotine, is recognized as one of the most addictive drugs, making smoking cessation difficult, even when 70 percent of smokers wish to do so. Clinical and preclinical studies have demonstrated consistently that nicotine seeking is a complex behavior involving various psychopharmacological mechanisms. Evidence supports that the population of smokers is heterogeneous, particularly as regards the breadth of motives that determine the urge to smoke...
February 26, 2018: Addiction Biology
Barbara Stanley, M Mercedes Perez-Rodriguez, Christa Labouliere, Steven Roose
Traditionally, the study of personality disorders had been based on psychoanalytic or behavioral models. Over the past two decades, there has been an emerging neuroscience model of borderline personality disorder (BPD) grounded in the concept of BPD as a condition in which dysfunctional neural circuits underlie its pathological dimensions, some of which include emotion dysregulation (broadly encompassing affective instability, negative affectivity, and hyperarousal), abnormal interpersonal functioning, and impulsive aggression...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Monica D Rosenberg, B J Casey, Avram J Holmes
A central aim of human neuroscience is understanding the neurobiology of cognition and behavior. Although we have made significant progress towards this goal, reliance on group-level studies of the developed adult brain has limited our ability to explain population variability and developmental changes in neural circuitry and behavior. In this review, we suggest that predictive modeling, a method for predicting individual differences in behavior from brain features, can complement descriptive approaches and provide new ways to account for this variability...
February 21, 2018: Nature Communications
Mirre Stallen, Filippo Rossi, Amber Heijne, Ale Smidts, Carsten K W De Dreu, Alan G Sanfey
People are particularly sensitive to injustice. Accordingly, deeper knowledge regarding the processes that underlie the perception of injustice, and the subsequent decisions to either punish transgressors or compensate victims, is of important social value. By combining a novel decision-making paradigm with functional neuroimaging, we identified specific brain networks that are involved with both the perception of, and response to, social injustice, with reward-related regions preferentially involved in punishment compared to compensation...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Eva H Telzer, Jorien van Hoorn, Christina R Rogers, Kathy T Do
Susceptibility to social influence is associated with a host of negative outcomes during adolescence. However, emerging evidence implicates the role of peers and parents in adolescents' positive and adaptive adjustment. Hence, in this chapter we highlight social influence as an opportunity for promoting social adjustment, which can redirect negative trajectories and help adolescents thrive. We discuss influential models about the processes underlying social influence, with a particular emphasis on internalizing social norms, embedded in social learning and social identity theory...
2018: Advances in Child Development and Behavior
Cezary Żechowski
The article discusses the development of psychoanalytic theory in the direction of broadening the reflection on their own based on data derived from empirical studies other than clinical case study. Particularly noteworthy is the convergence that followed between neuroscience and psychoanalysis and the rise of the so-called neuropsychoanalysis. Consequently, this led to eject empirical hypotheses and begin research on defense mechanisms, self, memory, dreams, empathy, dynamic unconscious and emotional-motivational processes (theory of drives)...
December 30, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
Sarah Ly, Allan I Pack, Nirinjini Naidoo
Sleep is a biological enigma that has raised numerous questions about the inner workings of the brain. The fundamental question of why our nervous systems have evolved to require sleep remains a topic of ongoing scientific deliberation. This question is largely being addressed by research using animal models of sleep. Drosophila melanogaster, also known as the common fruit fly, exhibits a sleep state that shares common features with many other species. Drosophila sleep studies have unearthed an immense wealth of knowledge about the neuroscience of sleep...
January 29, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
J P Kesby, D W Eyles, J J McGrath, J G Scott
The stagnation in drug development for schizophrenia highlights the need for better translation between basic and clinical research. Understanding the neurobiology of schizophrenia presents substantial challenges but a key feature continues to be the involvement of subcortical dopaminergic dysfunction in those with psychotic symptoms. Our contemporary knowledge regarding dopamine dysfunction has clarified where and when dopaminergic alterations may present in schizophrenia. For example, clinical studies have shown patients with schizophrenia show increased presynaptic dopamine function in the associative striatum, rather than the limbic striatum as previously presumed...
January 31, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Matheus Marcon, Ricieri Mocelin, Radharani Benvenutti, Tales Costa, Ana P Herrmann, Diogo L de Oliveira, Gessi Koakoski, Leonardo J G Barcellos, Angelo Piato
Several studies have shown that manipulations to the housing environment modulate the susceptibility to stress in laboratory animals, mainly in rodents. Environmental enrichment (EE) is one such manipulation that promotes neuroprotection and neurogenesis, besides affecting behaviors such as drug self-administration. Zebrafish are a popular and useful animal model for behavioral neuroscience studies; however, studies evaluating the impact of housing conditions in this species are scarce. In this study, we verified the effects of EE on behavioral (novel tank test) and biochemical (cortisol and reactive oxygen species (ROS)) parameters in zebrafish submitted to unpredictable chronic stress (UCS)...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Juan J Ortiz, Wendy Portillo, Raul G Paredes, Larry J Young, Sarael Alcauter
Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) has shown the hierarchical organization of the human brain into large-scale complex networks, referred as resting state networks. This technique has turned into a promising translational research tool after the finding of similar resting state networks in non-human primates, rodents and other animal models of great value for neuroscience. Here, we demonstrate and characterize the presence of resting states networks in Microtus ochrogaster, the prairie vole, an extraordinary animal model to study complex human-like social behavior, with potential implications for the research of normal social development, addiction and neuropsychiatric disorders...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Steven E Hyman
An epochal opportunity to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms of psychiatric disorders has emerged from advances in genomic technology, new computational tools and the growth of international consortia committed to data sharing. The resulting large-scale, unbiased genetic studies have begun to yield new biological insights and with them the hope that a half century of stasis in psychiatric therapeutics will come to an end. Yet a sobering picture is coming into view; it reveals daunting genetic and phenotypic complexity portending enormous challenges for neurobiology...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Jun Wang, Daniel Breen, Abraham Akinin, Frederic Broccard, Henry D I Abarbanel, Gert Cauwenberghs
Representing the biophysics of neuronal dynamics and behavior offers a principled analysis-by-synthesis approach toward understanding mechanisms of nervous system functions. We report on a set of procedures assimilating and emulating neurobiological data on a neuromorphic very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuit. The analog VLSI chip, NeuroDyn, features 384 digitally programmable parameters specifying for 4 generalized Hodgkin-Huxley neurons coupled through 12 conductance-based chemical synapses. The parameters also describe reversal potentials, maximal conductances, and spline regressed kinetic functions for ion channel gating variables...
December 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Matthew P Hyett, Peter M McEvoy
Fifty years have passed since social anxiety disorder (SAD) was first differentiated from other phobias. In the years since research has largely aligned with the zeitgeist of categorical classificatory frameworks, and has spanned identifying causes, maintenance factors and innovative interventions. Despite significant advances in the field, the capacity to conceptualise SAD as an independent entity is limited given the heterogeneity and dimensionality of diagnostic criteria, high rates of comorbidity, and non-specificity of aetiological mechanisms, maintaining factors and approaches to treatment...
January 11, 2018: Psychological Medicine
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