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dementia review

Bram Tilburgs, Myrra Vernooij-Dassen, Raymond Koopmans, Hans van Gennip, Yvonne Engels, Marieke Perry
BACKGROUND: Due to the disease's progressive nature, advance care planning (ACP) is recommended for people with early stage dementia. General practitioners (GPs) should initiate ACP because of their longstanding relationships with their patients and their early involvement with the disease, however ACP is seldom applied. AIM: To determine the barriers and facilitators faced by GPs related to ACP with people with dementia. DATA SOURCES: We systematically searched the relevant databases for papers published between January 1995 and December 2016, using the terms: primary healthcare, GP, dementia, and ACP...
2018: PloS One
Jacqueline S Birks, Richard J Harvey
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia in older people. One approach to symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease is to enhance cholinergic neurotransmission in the brain by blocking the action of the enzyme responsible for the breakdown of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. This can be done by a group of drugs known as cholinesterase inhibitors. Donepezil is a cholinesterase inhibitor.This review is an updated version of a review first published in 1998...
June 18, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Joyce Y C Chan, Joey S W Kwong, Adrian Wong, Timothy C Y Kwok, Kelvin K F Tsoi
OBJECTIVES: To compare the diagnostic performance of computerized and paper-and-pencil memory tests in detection of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. DESIGN: Diagnostic studies comparing computerized or paper-and-pencil memory tests with the standard diagnostic criterion for MCI or dementia were identified from OVID databases. The primary outcome was the diagnostic performance of memory tests for detection of MCI, and detection of dementia was the secondary outcome...
June 16, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Nancye May Peel, Linson John Alapatt, Lee Vanessa Jones, Ruth Eleanor Hubbard
Background: Gait speed and cognitive performance tend to decline with age. A better understanding of the dynamics of the association between gait speed and cognitive status may identify preclinical markers and improve diagnostic assessments. The objective was to quantify the association between gait speed and cognitive status in later life. Methods: A systematic search was undertaken of relevant databases for original articles published prior to June 2017, measuring the association between gait speed and cognition cross-sectionally or longitudinally among the community-dwelling population...
June 18, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Megan Catt, Renganathan Giridharan
OBJECTIVE: The study explored design for well-being within dementia care by investigating the adoption of well-being-focused design in real-world practice, through observing National Health Service (NHS) wards. BACKGROUND: Design for well-being is an approach that considers the psychological and physiological effects of architecture to improve health and well-being. The high psychological care requirement for dementia patients makes them a significant group to study in the evaluation of current hospital facilities...
January 1, 2018: HERD
Erik M Lehmkuhl, Daniela C Zarnescu
Cells utilize a complex network of proteins to regulate translation, involving post-transcriptional processing of RNA and assembly of the ribosomal unit. Although the complexity provides robust regulation of proteostasis, it also offers several opportunities for translational dysregulation, as has been observed in many neurodegenerative disorders. Defective mRNA localization, mRNA sequatration, inhibited ribogenesis, mutant tRNA synthetases, and translation of hexanucleotide expansions have all been associated with neurodegenerative disease...
2018: Advances in Neurobiology
Mandy Roheger, Elke Kalbe, Inga Liepelt-Scarfone
BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunction is one of the most prevalent non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), often experienced as more debilitating for patients and caregivers than motor problems. Therefore, a deeper understanding of the course of cognitive decline and the identification of valid progression markers for Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) is essential. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review summarizes the current state of knowledge on cognitive decline over time by reporting effect sizes of cognitive changes in neuropsychological tests...
2018: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Susanna C Larsson, Hugh S Markus
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence has associated Alzheimer's disease (AD) with vascular risk factors (VRFs), but whether treatment of VRFs reduces the incidence of dementia and AD is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize available data on the impact of treatment of VRFs on dementia and AD incidence. METHODS: Pertinent studies published until 1 January 2018 were identified from PubMed. Both randomized controlled trials (RCT) and prospective studies that investigated the impact of treatment of VRFs on dementia or AD incidence were included...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Fritze Kristensen, Jette Thuesen, Sasja Jul Håkonsen
The objective of this scoping review is to examine and map assessment tools and procedures that are used by health and social care professionals in dementia care for the systematic assessment of the need for rehabilitation in primary and/or secondary healthcare settings for home-dwelling people diagnosed with early stage dementia based on recognized diagnostic criteria.
June 15, 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
Ismael Conejero, Sophie Navucet, Jacques Keller, Emilie Olié, Philippe Courtet, Audrey Gabelle
Background: Suicide rates are high among older adults and many conditions have been related to suicide in this population: chronic illnesses, physical disabilities, cancer, social isolation, mental disorders and neurocognitive disorders. Objectives: Among neurocognitive disorders, analysis of the relationships between dementia and suicidal behaviors led to conflicting results and some questions are still without answer. Particularly, it is not known whether (i) Alzheimer's disease (AD) increases the risk of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts (SA) or the frequency of death by suicide; (ii) the presence of suicidal ideation or SA in people older than 65 years of age is an early dementia sign; and (iii) amyloid load in frontal areas facilitates SA by modifying the decision-making pathway...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Yinglu Liu, Zhao Dong, Shengyuan Yu
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a prevalent inherited metabolic disorder caused by a phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) or tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) deficiency, which leads to the accumulation of phenylalanine (PHE). High blood levels of PHE have a toxic effect on the brain and are associated with several neurological signs. Most cases of PKU are identified during infancy, and diagnosis of PKU in adult is rare. Here, we describe a 29-year-old patient with progressive dementia and muscular weakness mimicking X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy...
June 11, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Rebecca A Nebel, Neelum T Aggarwal, Lisa L Barnes, Aimee Gallagher, Jill M Goldstein, Kejal Kantarci, Monica P Mallampalli, Elizabeth C Mormino, Laura Scott, Wai Haung Yu, Pauline M Maki, Michelle M Mielke
INTRODUCTION: Precision medicine methodologies and approaches have advanced our understanding of the clinical presentation, development, progression, and management of Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia. However, sex and gender have not yet been adequately integrated into many of these approaches. METHODS: The Society for Women's Health Research Interdisciplinary Network on AD, comprised of an expert panel of scientists and clinicians, reviewed ongoing and published research related to sex and gender differences in AD...
May 31, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Aisling A Jennings, Tony Foley, Kieran A Walsh, Alice Coffey, John P Browne, Colin P Bradley
OBJECTIVES: To synthesise the existing published literature on general practitioners (GP)'s knowledge, attitudes, and experiences of managing behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) with a view to informing future interventions. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and synthesis of quantitative and qualitative studies that explored GPs' experiences of managing BPSD (PROSPERO protocol registration CRD42017054916). Seven electronic databases were searched from inception to October 2017...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
R C Hamdy, A Kinser, T Kendall-Wilson, A Depelteau, K Whalen, J Culp
Driving is a symbol of autonomy and independence, eagerly awaited during adolescence, cherished during adulthood and reluctantly rescinded during old age. It is nevertheless an individual's privilege, not right, especially as driving may affect other drivers and pedestrians on the road. It is therefore not only the individual patient who is at stake but essentially the entire community. In this case scenario, we describe the situation that arose when a patient with multi-infarct dementia wanted to go for a drive and his son and grandson tried to convince him that he could no longer drive...
January 2018: Gerontology & Geriatric Medicine
T Zúñiga Santamaría, P Yescas Gómez, I Fricke Galindo, M González González, A Ortega Vázquez, M López López
INTRODUCTION: Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and is considered one of the main causes of disability and dependence affecting quality of life in elderly people and their families. Current pharmacological treatment includes acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine) and memantine; however, only one-third of patients respond to treatment. Genetic factors have been shown to play a role in this inter-individual variability in drug response...
June 10, 2018: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
Yue Liu, Nady Braidy, Anne Poljak, Daniel Ky Chan, Perminder Sachdev
BACKGROUND: Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) comprises a variety of disorders affecting small arteries and microvessels of the brain, manifesting as white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), and deep brain infarcts. In addition to its contribution to vascular dementia (VaD), it has also been suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHOD: A systematic review of the literature available on Medline, Embase and Pubmed was undertaken, whereby CSVD was divided into WMHs, CMBs and deep brain infarcts...
June 10, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Pei-Hsuan Weng, Jen-Hau Chen, Jeng-Min Chiou, Yu-Kang Tu, Ta-Fu Chen, Ming-Jang Chiu, Sung-Chun Tang, Shin-Joe Yeh, Yen-Ching Chen
This study aimed to identify lifestyle factors associated with cognitive change and to explore whether the effect of lifestyle varies by socioeconomic status (SES). Participants aged 65 years and older were recruited from elderly health checkup programs from 2011 to 2013 in Taiwan. Neuropsychological tests, including tests of global cognition, logical memory, executive function, verbal fluency and attention, were administered at baseline (N = 603) and 2 years later (N = 509). After literature review, 9 lifestyle factors and 3 SES indicators were chosen and their effects on cognitive change were evaluated using linear regression adjusting for age, sex, education, APOE ε4 status, and baseline cognitive score...
2018: PloS One
Rachel Braley, Rochelle Fritz, Catherine R Van Son, Maureen Schmitter-Edgecombe
Background and Objectives: Smart home auto-prompting has the potential to increase the functional independence of persons with dementia (PWDs) and decrease caregiver burden as instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) are completed at home. To improve prompting technologies, we sought to inductively understand how PWDs responded to auto-prompting while performing IADL tasks. Research Design and Methods: Fifteen PWDs completed eight IADLs in a smart home testbed and received a hierarchy of verbal auto-prompts (indirect, direct, multimodal) as needed for task completion...
June 12, 2018: Gerontologist
Bushra Shal, Wei Ding, Hussain Ali, Yeong S Kim, Salman Khan
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with dementia and cognitive impairment most common in elderly population. Various pathophysiological mechanisms have been proposed by numerous researcher, although, exact mechanism is not yet elucidated. Several studies have been indicated that neuroinflammation associated with deposition of amyloid- beta (Aβ) in brain is a major hallmark toward the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases. So, there is a need to unravel the link of inflammatory process in neurodegeneration...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Qing Lv, Ailian Du, Wenshi Wei, Yuanyuan Li, Gailing Liu, Xiao Ping Wang
Damage to memory circuits may lead to dementia symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD). Recently, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been shown to be a novel means of memory neuromodulation when critical nodes in the memory circuit are targeted, such as the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) and fornix. Potential memory improvements have been observed after DBS in patients with AD and PDD. DBS for the treatment of AD and PDD may be feasible and safe, but it is still preliminary...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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