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dementia review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449471/one-year-and-long-term-mortality-in-patients-hospitalized-for-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#1
María-Teresa García-Sanz, Juan-Carlos Cánive-Gómez, Laura Senín-Rial, Jorge Aboal-Viñas, Alejandra Barreiro-García, Eva López-Val, Francisco-Javier González-Barcala
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Identifying potentially-modifiable predictors of mortality could help optimize COPD patient management. The aim of this study is to determine long-term mortality following hospitalization due to acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD), as well as AECOPD mortality predictors. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study by reviewing the medical records of all patients admitted with AECOPD in the University Hospital Complex of Santiago de Compostela in 2007 and 2008...
March 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446525/effectiveness-of-befriending-interventions-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Joyce Siette, Megan Cassidy, Stefan Priebe
OBJECTIVE: Befriending is an emotional supportive relationship in which one-to-one companionship is provided on a regular basis by a volunteer. It is commonly and increasingly offered by the voluntary sector for individuals with distressing physical and mental conditions. However, the effectiveness of this intervention on health outcomes is largely unknown. We aim to conduct a systematic review of the benefits of befriending. DESIGN: Systematic review. METHODS: A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted to identify randomised controlled trials and quasi-experimental trials of befriending for a range of physical and mental health indications including depression, anxiety, mental illness, cancer, physical illness and dementia...
April 26, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446258/touchscreen-interventions-and-the-well-being-of-people-with-dementia-and-caregivers-a-systematic-review
#3
Charlie Tyack, Paul M Camic
BACKGROUND: Dementia can have significant detrimental impacts on the well-being of those with the disease and their carers. A range of computer-based interventions, including touchscreen-based interventions have been researched for use with this population in the hope that they might improve psychological well-being. This article reviews touchscreen-based interventions designed to be used by people with dementia (PWD), with a specific focus in assessing their impact on well-being. METHOD: The data bases, PsycInfo, ASSIA, Medline, CINAHL, and Cochrane Reviews were searched for touchscreen-based interventions designed to be used by PWD with reported psychological well-being outcomes...
April 27, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446118/motor-neurone-disease-progress-and-challenges
#4
Thanuja Dharmadasa, Robert D Henderson, Paul S Talman, Richard Al Macdonell, Susan Mathers, David W Schultz, Merrillee Needham, Margaret Zoing, Steve Vucic, Matthew C Kiernan
Major progress has been made over the past decade in the understanding of motor neurone disease (MND), changing the landscape of this complex disease. Through identifying positive prognostic factors, new evidence-based standards of care have been established that improve patient survival, reduce burden of disease for patients and their carers, and enhance quality of life. These factors include early management of respiratory dysfunction with non-invasive ventilation, maintenance of weight and nutritional status, as well as instigation of a multidisciplinary team including neurologists, general practitioners and allied health professionals...
May 1, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446067/the-chemical-disruption-of-human-metabolism
#5
Stephen J Genuis, Edmond Kyrillos
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence highlights the reality of unprecedented human exposure to toxic chemical agents found throughout our environment - in our food and water supply, in the air we breathe, in the products we apply to our skin, in the medical and dental materials placed into our bodies, and even within the confines of the womb. With biomonitoring confirming the widespread bioaccumulation of myriad toxicants among population groups, expanding research continues to explore the pathobiological impact of these agents on human metabolism...
April 26, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444124/predicting-discharge-to-institutional-long-term-care-following-acute-hospitalisation-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Jennifer Kirsty Harrison, Katherine E Walesby, Lorna Hamilton, Carolyn Armstrong, John M Starr, Emma L Reynish, Alasdair M J MacLullich, Terry J Quinn, Susan D Shenkin
Background: moving into long-term institutional care is a significant life event for any individual. Predictors of institutional care admission from community-dwellers and people with dementia have been described, but those from the acute hospital setting have not been systematically reviewed. Our aim was to establish predictive factors for discharge to institutional care following acute hospitalisation. Methods: we registered and conducted a systematic review (PROSPERO: CRD42015023497)...
April 21, 2017: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442996/structural-characteristics-of-simple-rna-repeats-associated-with-disease-and-their-deleterious-protein-interactions
#7
REVIEW
Adam Ciesiolka, Magdalena Jazurek, Karolina Drazkowska, Wlodzimierz J Krzyzosiak
Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) are frequent entities in many transcripts, however, in some cases, pathological events occur when a critical repeat length is reached. This phenomenon is observed in various neurological disorders, such as myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome, C9orf72-related amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia (C9ALS/FTD), and polyglutamine diseases, such as Huntington's disease (HD) and spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA). The pathological effects of these repeats are triggered by mutant RNA transcripts and/or encoded mutant proteins, which depend on the localization of the expanded repeats in non-coding or coding regions...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438063/measuring-the-needs-of-family-caregivers-of-people-with-dementia-an-assessment-of-current-methodological-strategies-and-key-recommendations
#8
Lauren R Bangerter, Joan M Griffin, Steven H Zarit, Rachel Havyer
While dementia caregivers are regarded as a population with high unmet needs, there is little consensus as to how caregivers' needs should be conceptualized and measured. This article describes how dementia caregivers' needs are currently assessed in the scientific literature with the goal of suggesting guidelines for the enhancement of future measurement of caregiver needs. A review of 26 articles identified overarching themes within measurement approaches including variation in methodological rigor, proxy indicators of need, dual needs assessment of caregiver and person with dementia (PWD), and third-party needs assessment...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Gerontology: the Official Journal of the Southern Gerontological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436193/association-between-using-medications-with-anticholinergic-properties-and-short-term-cognitive-decline-among-older-men-a-retrospective-cohort-study-in-taiwan
#9
Yi-Hui Wu, Chih-Jen Wang, Cheng-Hao Hung, Liang-Yu Chen, Ming-Hsien Lin, Pei-Ning Wang, Liang-Kung Chen
AIM: The use of anticholinergic drugs had been strongly linked to adverse health outcomes among older adults, especially in cognitive impairment or dementia. The present study aimed to evaluate the cognitive decline related to the use of anticholinergic drugs among older men living in the veterans' homes in Taiwan. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was a substudy of The Longitudinal Older Veterans study. A total of 274 residents living in four Taiwan veterans' homes and receiving two consecutive Mini-Mental State Examinations within the interval of 6 months from January 2012 to December 2014 were enrolled in the present study...
April 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435906/low-back-pain-in-older-adults-risk-factors-management-options-and-future-directions
#10
REVIEW
Arnold Yl Wong, Jaro Karppinen, Dino Samartzis
Low back pain (LBP) is one of the major disabling health conditions among older adults aged 60 years or older. While most causes of LBP among older adults are non-specific and self-limiting, seniors are prone to develop certain LBP pathologies and/or chronic LBP given their age-related physical and psychosocial changes. Unfortunately, no review has previously summarized/discussed various factors that may affect the effective LBP management among older adults. Accordingly, the objectives of the current narrative review were to comprehensively summarize common causes and risk factors (modifiable and non-modifiable) of developing severe/chronic LBP in older adults, to highlight specific issues in assessing and treating seniors with LBP, and to discuss future research directions...
2017: Scoliosis and Spinal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435163/progranulin-lysosomal-regulation-and-neurodegenerative-disease
#11
REVIEW
Aimee W Kao, Andrew McKay, Param Priya Singh, Anne Brunet, Eric J Huang
The discovery that heterozygous and homozygous mutations in the gene encoding progranulin are causally linked to frontotemporal dementia and lysosomal storage disease, respectively, reveals previously unrecognized roles of the progranulin protein in regulating lysosome biogenesis and function. Given the importance of lysosomes in cellular homeostasis, it is not surprising that progranulin deficiency has pleiotropic effects on neural circuit development and maintenance, stress response, innate immunity and ageing...
April 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434642/-late-life-depression-or-prodromal-alzheimer-s-disease-which-tools-for-the-differential-diagnosis
#12
A-I Gasser, V Salamin, S Zumbach
INTRODUCTION: Depression and Alzheimer's disease are both very frequent in elderly people. Cognitive deficits are the hallmark of Alzheimer's disease, but they are also common in depressed elderly people who often present cognitive deficits such as memory, attention and executive function problems. On the other hand, people with early Alzheimer's disease demonstrate emotional and behavioral disorders generally encountered in depression such as loss of energy, apathy, mood disorder, and irritability...
April 20, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433855/the-electrophysiology-of-neurohiv-a-systematic-review-of-eeg-and-meg-studies-in-people-with-hiv-infection-since-the-advent-of-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy
#13
Ana Lucia Fernández-Cruz, Lesley K Fellows
OBJECTIVE: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has an impact on the brain, even when the infection is well-controlled with modern highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). While dementia is rare in those on HAART, milder cognitive impairment is common. The causes, patterns, and evolution of brain dysfunction in people living with HIV remain uncertain. We evaluate whether electrophysiological methods provide informative measures of brain dysfunction in this population. METHODS: A systematic literature search identified studies that used EEG or MEG to evaluate persons living with HIV published between 1996 (when HAART became available) and 2016...
March 31, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433667/cognitive-impairment-and-heart-failure-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Jane A Cannon, Peter Moffitt, Ana Cristina Perez-Moreno, Matthew R Walters, Niall M Broomfield, John J V McMurray, Terence J Quinn
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment and dementia are associated with a range of cardiovascular conditions including hypertension, coronary artery disease and atrial fibrillation. We aimed to describe the association with heart failure, summarising published data to give estimates around prevalence, incidence and relative risk of cognitive impairment/dementia in heart failure. METHODS: We searched multidisciplinary databases including MEDLINE (OVID), EMBASE (OVID), CINAHL (EBSCO), PsychINFO (EBSCO), Web of Science (Thomson Reuters) and CENTRAL (Cochrane Library) from inception until 31(st) May 2015...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Cardiac Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431909/antipsychotics-and-the-risk-of-cerebrovascular-accident-a%C3%A2-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#15
Wan-Ting Hsu, Amin Esmaily-Fard, Chih-Cheng Lai, Darshan Zala, Sie-Huei Lee, Shy-Shin Chang, Chien-Chang Lee
BACKGROUND: Studies investigating the association between antipsychotic use and the risk of cerebrovascular accident (CVA) showed inconsistent results. AIM: Conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate whether use of antipsychotics is associated with increased risk of CVA. METHODS: Major electronic databases were searched from 1970 to October 2016 for observational studies investigating the risk of CVA among users of antipsychotics...
April 18, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431620/role-of-inflammatory-molecules-in-the-alzheimer-s-disease-progression-and-diagnosis
#16
REVIEW
Eva Bagyinszky, Vo Van Giau, Kyuhwan Shim, Kyoungho Suk, Seong Soo A An, SangYun Kim
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex disorder and the most common form of neurodegenerative dementia. Several genetic, environmental, and physiological factors, including inflammations and metabolic influences, are involved in the progression of AD. Inflammations are composed of complicated networks of many chemokines and cytokines with diverse cells. Inflammatory molecules are needed for the protection against pathogens, and maintaining their balances is important for normal physiological function. Recent studies demonstrated that inflammation may be involved in neurodegenerative dementia...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430672/lamotrigine-uses-in-psychiatric-practice-beyond-bipolar-prophylaxis-a-hope-or-hype
#17
Ahmed Naguy, Najah Al-Enezi
BACKGROUND: Lamotrigine (LAM), an antiepileptic, with panoply of indications and uses in neurology, is FDA approved, in psychiatry, for bipolar prophylaxis. Apart from this indication, trend of its use in psychiatry is on the rise addressing a multitude of disorders. STUDY QUESTION: LAM remains one of only few psychotropic drugs with antiglutamate activity. This might render LAM a potential therapeutic option in treatment-resistant major psychiatric disorders. We reviewed LAM pharmacology and its diverse indications while examining the extant evidence...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428907/palliative-care-in-huntington-disease-personal-reflections-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#18
REVIEW
Christopher G Tarolli, Amy M Chesire, Kevin M Biglan
BACKGROUND: Huntington disease is a fatal, autosomal dominant, neurodegenerative disorder manifest by the triad of a movement disorder, behavioral disturbances, and dementia. At present, no curative or disease modifying therapies exist for the condition and current treatments are symptomatic. Palliative care is an approach to care that focuses on symptom relief, patient and caregiver support, and end of life care. There is increasing evidence of the benefit of palliative care throughout the course of neurodegenerative conditions including Parkinson disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis...
2017: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428473/technical-considerations-on-scanning-and-image-analysis-for-amyloid-pet-in-dementia
#19
Go Akamatsu, Akihito Ohnishi, Kazuki Aita, Yasuhiko Ikari, Yasuji Yamamoto, Michio Senda
Brain imaging techniques, such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and positron emission tomography (PET), can provide essential and objective information for the early and differential diagnosis of dementia. Amyloid PET is especially useful to evaluate the amyloid-β pathological process as a biomarker of Alzheimer's disease. This article reviews critical points about technical considerations on the scanning and image analysis methods for amyloid PET...
2017: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427333/the-experiences-of-physiotherapists-treating-people-with-dementia-who-fracture-their-hip
#20
A J Hall, R Watkins, I A Lang, R Endacott, V A Goodwin
BACKGROUND: It is estimated that people with dementia are approximately three times more likely to fracture their hip than sex and age matched controls. A report by the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy found that this population have poor access to rehabilitation as inpatients and in the community. A recent scoping review found a paucity of research in this area, indeed there has been no qualitative research undertaken with physiotherapists. In order to address this evidence gap, the aim of this current study was to explore the experiences of physiotherapists treating this population...
April 20, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
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