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Simon R Knowles, Lesley A Graff, Helen Wilding, Catherine Hewitt, Laurie Keefer, Antonina Mikocka-Walus
Background: Quality of life (QoL) is commonly assessed in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); the relationship of QoL within IBD states and relative to others has not been comprehensively evaluated. This systematic review, published across 2 papers, evaluates 5 key QoL comparisons. Part I, presented here, examines between-disease comparisons: (1) IBD/healthy(general) population and (2) IBD/other medically ill groups. Part II examines within-disease comparisons: (3) active/inactive disease, (4) ulcerative colitis/Crohn's disease, and (5) change over time...
March 19, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Eugene Vortia, Victor E Uko, Belinda Yen-Lieberman, Jill Frawley, Sarah E Worley, Lara Danziger-Isakov, Barbara Kaplan, Lori Mahajan
Background: Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors are linked with increased risk of reactivation of active tuberculosis. The QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test is approved for screening latent tuberculosis infection in children and adults. There are limited data on the test performance in children on long-term treatment with TNF-α inhibitors. The objective of this study was to assess the proportion of indeterminate results for the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube in children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) on long-term infliximab treatment and to evaluate the range of interferon-γ responses to mitogen...
March 19, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Claire M Keene, Arjen Dondorp, Jane Crawley, Eric O Ohuma, Mavuto Mukaka
Background: Malaria burdens global health systems, and management with limited resources requires robust treatment guidelines and comprehensive planning. Expected length of stay (LOS) is useful in health-system planning, and factors influencing it can be targeted to reduce admission time and optimise service delivery. Methods: A secondary survival analysis of 1217 adult severe malaria patients from the South-East Asia Quinine Artesunate Malaria Trial, using a competing-risk approach...
March 19, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Patrick J Short, Jeremy F McRae, Giuseppe Gallone, Alejandro Sifrim, Hyejung Won, Daniel H Geschwind, Caroline F Wright, Helen V Firth, David R FitzPatrick, Jeffrey C Barrett, Matthew E Hurles
We previously estimated that 42% of patients with severe developmental disorders carry pathogenic de novo mutations in coding sequences. The role of de novo mutations in regulatory elements affecting genes associated with developmental disorders, or other genes, has been essentially unexplored. We identified de novo mutations in three classes of putative regulatory elements in almost 8,000 patients with developmental disorders. Here we show that de novo mutations in highly evolutionarily conserved fetal brain-active elements are significantly and specifically enriched in neurodevelopmental disorders...
March 21, 2018: Nature
Biljana K Tubić, Sandra S Vladimirov, Bojan D Marković, Tibor J Sabo
O,O'-diethyl-(S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N'-di-2-(3-cyclohexyl)propanoate (DE-EDCP) is novel substance with cytotoxic activity in human leukemic cells. The aim of this study has been to predict in vivo bioavailability of the DE-EDCP and its potential metabolite (S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N'-di-2-(3-cyclohexyl)propanoic acid (EDCP) by in vitro characterization which includes determination of lipophilicity and passive membrane permeability. There has also been evaluated inter-laboratory reproducibility of the bio-analytical method which was previously developed and validated for non-clinical study of the DE-EDCP and EDCP...
March 2018: Acta Chimica Slovenica
Kate S Collison, Angela Inglis, Sherin Shibin, Soad Saleh, Bernard Andres, Rosario Ubungen, Jennifer Thiam, Princess Mata, Futwan A Al-Mohanna
RATIONALE: Aspartame (L-aspartyl phenylalanine methyl ester) is a non-nutritive sweetener (NNS) approved for use in more than 6000 dietary products and pharmaceuticals consumed by the general public including adults and children, pregnant and nursing mothers. However a recent prospective study reported a doubling of the risk of being overweight amongst 1-year old children whose mothers consumed NNS-sweetened beverages daily during pregnancy. We have previously shown that chronic aspartame (ASP) exposure commencing in utero may detrimentally affect adulthood adiposity status, glucose metabolism and aspects of behavior and spatial cognition, and that this can be modulated by developmental N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) blockade with the competitive antagonist CGP 39551 (CGP)...
2018: PloS One
Quanmao Wei, Zhiguo Jiang, Haopeng Zhang
Automatic component detection of spacecraft can assist in on-orbit operation and space situational awareness. Spacecraft are generally composed of solar panels and cuboidal or cylindrical modules. These components can be simply represented by geometric primitives like plane, cuboid and cylinder. Based on this prior, we propose a robust automatic detection scheme to automatically detect such basic components of spacecraft in three-dimensional (3D) point clouds. In the proposed scheme, cylinders are first detected in the iteration of the energy-based geometric model fitting and cylinder parameter estimation...
March 21, 2018: Sensors
Dayna A Johnson, Roland J Thorpe, John A McGrath, W Braxton Jackson, Chandra L Jackson
Housing environments can directly and indirectly affect sleep, and blacks are more likely than whites to live in suboptimal housing conditions, which may independently contribute to sleep disparities. However, few large-scale epidemiological studies consider the potential influence of housing type on sleep health. Using data from the 2004-2015 National Health Interview Survey, we investigated overall and Black-White differences in the association between housing type (house/apartment versus mobile home/trailer) and sleep duration as well as sleep difficulties among 226,208 adults in the U...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Carolina Saskia Fellinghauer, Birgit Prodinger, Alan Tennant
Imputation becomes common practice through availability of easy-to-use algorithms and software. This study aims to determine if different imputation strategies are robust to the extent and type of missingness, local item dependencies (LID), differential item functioning (DIF), and misfit when doing a Rasch analysis. Four samples were simulated and represented a sample with good metric properties, a sample with LID, a sample with DIF, and a sample with LID and DIF. Missing values were generated with increasing proportion and were either missing at random or completely at random...
2018: Journal of Applied Measurement
Jovi C Y Wong, Nicola J Smyllie, Gareth T Banks, Carina A Pothecary, Alun R Barnard, Elizabeth S Maywood, Aarti Jagannath, Steven Hughes, Gijsbertus T J van der Horst, Robert E MacLaren, Mark W Hankins, Michael H Hastings, Patrick M Nolan, Russell G Foster, Stuart N Peirson
Cryptochromes 1 and 2 (CRY1/2) are key components of the negative limb of the mammalian circadian clock. Like many peripheral tissues, Cry1 and -2 are expressed in the retina, where they are thought to play a role in regulating rhythmic physiology. However, studies differ in consensus as to their localization and function, and CRY1 immunostaining has not been convincingly demonstrated in the retina. Here we describe the expression and function of CRY1 and -2 in the mouse retina in both sexes. Unexpectedly, we show that CRY1 is expressed throughout all retinal layers, whereas CRY2 is restricted to the photoreceptor layer...
March 21, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Biwu Liu, Peng Wu, Zhicheng Huang, Lingzi Ma, Juewen Liu
Functionalization of a gold surface with DNA is often complicated by kinetic traps from unintended DNA base adsorption. Herein, we communicate that Br- serves as a robust backfilling agent displacing selected DNA bases on gold. Traditional thiol backfillers are too strong, while even 300 mM Br- is well tolerated. Conjugates prepared with Br- hybridize 10-fold faster and resist DNA release with better colloidal stability yielding highly sensitive probes. From colorimetric and Raman assays, adsorption affinity ranks as F- < T ≈ Cl- < C < G ≈ Br- < A < I- , allowing Br- to displace nonpoly-A sequences from gold...
March 22, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Robert M Stoekenbroek, John J P Kastelein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes the pivotal role of genetic insights and technologies in the discovery of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and the rapid development of PCSK9 inhibitors - a revolutionary new class of lipid-lowering agents. RECENT FINDINGS: PCSK9 was discovered as a the third gene implicated in familial hypercholesterolemia. Population genetics studies, enabled by technological advances, were instrumental in validating PCSK9 as a therapeutic target...
March 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Seng Bum Michael Yoo, Brianna J Sleezer, Benjamin Y Hayden
Knowing whether core reward regions carry information about the positions of relevant objects is crucial for adjudicating between choice models. One limitation of previous studies, including our own, is that spatial positions can be consistently differentially associated with rewards, and thus, position can be confounded with attention, motor plans, or target identity. We circumvented these problems by using a task in which value-and thus choices-was determined solely by a frequently changing rule, which was randomized relative to spatial position on each trial...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Athena E Theyers, Benjamin I Goldstein, Arron Ws Metcalfe, Andrew D Robertson, Bradley J MacIntosh
Arterial stiffness is linked to cerebral small vessel damage and neurodegeneration, but barriers to accessing deep cerebrovascular anatomy limit our ability to assess the brain. This study describes an adaptation of a cardiac-related scrubbing method as a means of generating blood oxygenation level-dependent pulsatility maps based on the cardiac cycle. We examine BOLD pulsatility at rest, based on the non-parametric deviation from null metric, as well as changes following acute physiological stress from 20 min of moderate-intensity cycling in 45 healthy adolescents...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Yimy Amarillo, Angela Isabel Tissone, German Mato, Marcela S Nadal
Slow repetitive burst firing by hyperpolarized thalamocortical (TC) neurons correlates with global slow rhythms (< 4 Hz), which are the physiological oscillations during N-REM sleep, or pathological ones during idiopathic epilepsy. The pacemaker activity of TC neurons depends on the expression of several subthreshold conductances, which are modulated in a behaviorally dependent manner. Here we show that up-regulation of the small and neglected inward rectifier potassium current IKir induces repetitive burst firing at slow and delta frequency bands...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Forough Ghasemi, M Reza Hormozi-Nezhad, Morteza Mahmoudi
Monitoring the ratio of 40- and 42-residue amyloid β peptides (i.e., Aβ40 and Aβ42) in human plasma is considered one of the hallmarks of detection of the early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, development of a specific, yet non-antibody-based method for simultaneous detection of Aβ40 and Aβ42 may have considerable clinical applications. Here, we developed a 'nanoparticle-based colorimetric sensor array' utilizing label-free gold and silver nanoparticles for visual detection of Aβ42 and Aβ40...
March 21, 2018: Nanoscale
Jing Sun, Wenhui Zhou, Haibo Yang, Xue Zhen, Longfei Ma, Dirk Williams, Xudong Sun, Ming-Fei Lang
The development of flexible and transparent devices requires completely transparent and flexible circuits (TFCs). To overcome the disadvantages of the previously reported TFCs that are partially transparent, lacking pattern control, or labor consuming, we achieve true TFCs via a facile process with precise pattern control, exhibiting concurrent high transparency, conductivity, flexibility, stretchability, and robustness. A highly transparent and flexible conductive film is first made through spin coating silver nanowires (AgNWs) onto polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and demonstrates simultaneous high transparency (90...
March 21, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Min Liu, Xu-Feng Yang, Hai-Bin Zhu, Bao-Sheng Di, Yue Zhao
A Keggin-type polyoxometalate (POM)-templated metal-organic framework, [Cd(TTPB-4)(DMF)3]4[PMo12O40]2[HPMo12O40]·6DMF·4H2O (1), based on a newly designed linker of TTPB-4 [TTPB-4 = 1,3,5-tris(4-(4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)phenyl)benzene], has been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized using IR, XRD, TGA, UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectra. Single-crystal X-ray crystallography reveals that 1 represents a unique POM-templated four-fold interpenetrated 3-D coordination network. The POM-templated MOF of 1 exhibits strong chemical stability that can withstand aqueous solutions of various pH-values (2-10)...
March 21, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Yongqiang Cheng, Lijuan Dong, Jiangyan Zhang, Yaqing Zhao, Zhengping Li
The development of simple, robust, and reliable microRNA (miRNA) detection methods is of great significance in the studies of the biological function of miRNAs, molecular diagnostics, treatment of diseases, and targeted drugs. In recent years, with the increasing development of miRNA research, lots of novel approaches were developed for the detection of miRNA in terms of sensitivity, specificity, multiplicity, in situ imaging, etc. In particular, nucleic acid amplification-based methods and many detection techniques such as droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), electrochemiluminescence (ECL), surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), and mass spectrometry (MS) have been employed widely for the highly sensitive detection of miRNA...
March 21, 2018: Analyst
Matt Luther, Fergus Gardiner, Shane Lenson, David Caldicott, Ryan Harris, Ryan Sabet, Mark Malloy, Jo Perkins
Specific Event Identifiers a. Event type: Outdoor music festival. b. Event onset date: December 3, 2016. c. Location of event: Regatta Point, Commonwealth Park. d. Geographical coordinates: Canberra, Australian Capital Territory (ACT), Australia (-35.289002, 149.131957, 600m). e. Dates and times of observation in latitude, longitude, and elevation: December 3, 2016, 11:00-23:00. f. Response type: Event medical support. Abstract Introduction Young adult patrons are vulnerable to risk-taking behavior, including drug taking, at outdoor music festivals...
March 21, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
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