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Aya Isumi, Takeo Fujiwara, Nobutoshi Nawa, Manami Ochi, Tsuguhiko Kato
Child poverty is well known as a major risk factor for child maltreatment. However, it is not known whether parental psychological distress and individual-level social capital mediate the association. We examined the mediation effect of these two factors on the association between child poverty and maltreatment. In the Adachi Child Health Impact of Living Difficulty (A-CHILD) Study, a questionnaire was administered to all caregivers of first-grade children in every public elementary school in Adachi City between July and November 2015, and valid responses were used for analysis (N = 3944)...
July 16, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Dong-Xing Guan, Ya-Qing Li, Nan-Yang Yu, Guang-Hui Yu, Si Wei, Hao Zhang, William Davison, Xin-Yi Cui, Lena Q Ma, Jun Luo
To better understand the environmental impact of ubiquitous perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in waters, reliable and robust measurement techniques are needed. As one of the most widely used passive sampling approaches, diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) is not only easy to handle but also provides time-weighted analyte concentrations. Based on DGT with XAD18 as a binding agent, we developed a new methodology to measure two frequently detected PFASs in surface waters and wastewaters, i.e. perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)...
July 16, 2018: Water Research
Song Xue, Xiaolei Gu, Jian Zhang, Huanli Sun, Chao Deng, Zhiyuan Zhong
Polypeptide micelles though having been proved to be an appealing nanoplatform for cancer chemotherapy are met with issues like inefficient drug encapsulation, gradual drug release, and/or low tumor cell selectivity and uptake. Here, we report on cRGD-decorated, small-sized, robust and reduction-responsive polytyrosine micelles (cRGD-rPTM) based on poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(L-tyrosine)-lipoic acid (PEG-b-PTyr-LA) conjugate for high loading and targeted delivery of doxorubicin (Dox). Notably, cRGD-rPTM exhibited efficient loading of Dox, giving cRGD-rPTM-Dox with a drug loading content (DLC) of 18...
July 19, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Sally Chu, Peter L Nesper, Brian T Soetikno, Sophie J Bakri, Amani A Fawzi
Purpose: To identify the microvascular changes associated with paracentral acute middle maculopathy (PAMM) and acute macular neuroretinopathy (AMN) and to improve our understanding of the relevant involvement of the three retinal capillary plexuses using projection-resolved optical coherence tomography angiography (PR-OCTA). Methods: This was a retrospective study of 18 eyes with AMN or PAMM imaged with OCTA. We used cross-sectional PR-OCTA to localize reduced flow signal to the superficial (SCP), middle (MCP), or deep capillary plexus (DCP) or choriocapillaris that corresponded to inner retinal PAMM or outer retinal AMN lesions on OCT...
June 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Chad A Galloway, Sonal Dalvi, Audra M A Shadforth, Shuko Suzuki, Molly Wilson, David Kuai, Ali Hashim, Leslie A MacDonald, David M Gamm, Damien G Harkin, Ruchira Singh
Purpose: RPE cell transplantation as a potential treatment for AMD has been extensively investigated; however, in AMD, ultrastructural damage affects both the RPE and its underlying matrix support, the Bruch's membrane (BrM). An RPE monolayer supported by a surrogate scaffold could thus provide a more effective approach to cell-based therapy for AMD. Toward this goal, we aimed to establish a functional human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived (hiPSC)-RPE monolayer on a Bombyx mori silk fibroin (BMSF) scaffold...
June 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Farzin Malekani, M Cathryn Ryan, Bernie J Zebarth, Shawn E Loo, Martin Suchy, Edwin E Cey
The quantification of groundwater NO loading associated with a specific field or set of management practices so that groundwater quality improvements can be objectively assessed is a major challenge. The magnitude and timing of NO export from a single agricultural field under raspberry ( L.) production were investigated by combining high-resolution groundwater NO concentration profiles (sampled using passive diffusion samplers) with Darcy's flux estimation at the field's down-gradient edge (based on field-measured hydraulic gradients and laboratory-estimated hydraulic conductivity)...
July 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Moses Nyine, Brigitte Uwimana, Nicolas Blavet, Eva Hřibová, Helena Vanrespaille, Michael Batte, Violet Akech, Allan Brown, Jim Lorenzen, Rony Swennen, Jaroslav Doležel
Improving the efficiency of selection in conventional crossbreeding is a major priority in banana ( spp.) breeding. Routine application of classical marker assisted selection (MAS) is lagging in banana due to limitations in MAS tools. Genomic selection (GS) based on genomic prediction models can address some limitations of classical MAS, but the use of GS in banana has not been reported to date. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive ability of six genomic prediction models for 15 traits in a multi-ploidy training population...
July 2018: Plant Genome
Hans van Dijk, Bertolt Meyer, Marloes van Engen
Information elaboration-the act of exchanging, discussing, and integrating information and perspectives through verbal communication-tends to be considered as the silver bullet that drives the performance of diverse teams. We challenge this notion by proposing that the effect of information elaboration on team performance depends on the accuracy of within-group competence attributions, i.e. the extent to which attributions of task competence among team members correspond with members' actual task competence...
2018: PloS One
Richard L Mah, John F Connolly
Generally, prognostication of coma outcome currently combines behavioral, reflex, and possibly neuroimaging tests that are interpreted by an attending physician. Electroencephalography, particularly, event-related brain potentials (ERP) have received attention due to evidence demonstrating the positive predictive value of certain ERP including the mismatch negativity (MMN) and the P3a, for coma emergence. We describe a set of ERP paradigms designed to require and reflect increasing levels of cognitive processing with the added objective of determining the influence of each paradigm's context strength on its ability to elicit ERPs...
2018: PloS One
Julie Pulerwitz, Sanyukta Mathur, Daniel Woznica
BACKGROUND: Gendered power dynamics within couple relationships can constrain women from achieving positive sexual and reproductive health outcomes. But little is known about relationship power among adolescents, and tools to measure it are rarely validated among adolescents. We tested the Sexual Relationship Power Scale (SRPS) among adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) and examined associations with select health outcomes. METHODS: A 16-item adaptation of the SRPS was administered to AGYW aged 15-24 in Kenya (n = 1,101)...
2018: PloS One
Noam Roth, Nicole C Rust
Finding a sought visual target object requires combining visual information about a scene with a remembered representation of the target to create a "target match" signal that indicates when a target is in view. Target match signals have been reported to exist within high-level visual brain areas including inferotemporal cortex (IT), where they are mixed with representations of image and object identity. However, these signals are not well understood, particularly in the context of the real-world challenge that the objects we search for typically appear at different positions, sizes, and within different background contexts...
2018: PloS One
Arantxa Rosado, Teresa Cordero, Guillermo Rodrigo
Synthetic biology aims at (re-)programming living cells like computers to perform new functions for a variety of applications. Initial work rested on transcription factors, but regulatory RNAs have recently gained much attention due to their high programmability. However, functional circuits mainly implemented with regulatory RNAs are quite limited. Here, we report the engineering of a fundamental arithmetic logic unit based on de novo riboregulation to sum two bits of information encoded in molecular concentrations...
July 19, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Abhik Ghosh, Nirian Martin, Ayanendranath Basu, Leandro Pardo
Parametric hypothesis testing associated with two independent samples arises frequently in several applications in biology, medical sciences, epidemiology, reliability and many more. In this paper, we propose robust Wald-type tests for testing such two sample problems using the minimum density power divergence estimators of the underlying parameters. In particular, we consider the simple two-sample hypothesis concerning the full parametric homogeneity as well as the general two-sample (composite) hypotheses involving some nuisance parameters...
July 19, 2018: International Journal of Biostatistics
Donna Spiegelman, Xin Zhou
We provide an overview of classical and newer methods for the control of confounding of time-invariant interventions to permit causal inference in public health evaluations. We estimated the causal effect of gender on all-cause mortality in a large HIV care and treatment program supported by the President's Emergency Program for AIDS Relief in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, between 2004 and 2012. We compared results from multivariable modeling, three propensity score methods, inverse-probability weighting, doubly robust methods, and targeted maximum likelihood estimation...
July 19, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Brady P Horn, Xiaoxue Li, Saleh Mamun, Barbara McCrady, Michael T French
BACKGROUND: The US has the highest incarceration rate in the world and spends $40-$80 billion to house inmates per year. It is well-known that a significant correlation is present between substance use and crime, especially over recent years as opioid use disorder (OUD) has grown exponentially. To mitigate OUD, methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has demonstrated effectiveness in numerous randomized and quasi-experimental studies. A potentially fruitful environment for MMT is correctional facilities, particularly short-term facilities, such as city and county jails...
July 19, 2018: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Rebecca L M Gieseking, Mark A Ratner, George C Schatz
Computational methods to predict and tune electrochemical redox potentials are important for the development of energy technologies. Here, we benchmark several semiempirical models to compute reduction potentials of organic molecules, comparing approaches based on (1) energy differences between the S0 and one-electron-reduced D0 states of the isolated molecules and (2) an orbital energy shift approach based on tuning the charge-transfer triplet energy of the Ag20-molecule complex; the second model enables explicit modeling of electrode-molecule interactions...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Nika Kruljec, Peter Molek, Vesna Hodnik, Gregor Anderluh, Tomaž Bratkovič
Affinity chromatography based on bacterial immunoglobulin(Ig)-binding proteins represents the cornerstone of therapeutic antibody downstream processing. However, there is a pressing need for more robust affinity ligands that would withstand the harsh column sanitization conditions, while still displaying high selectivity for antibodies. Here, we report the development of linear peptide IgG ligands, identified from combinatorial phage-display library screens. The lead peptide was shown to compete with staphylococcal protein A for IgG Fc region...
July 19, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Lian Duan, Levent Yobas
We introduce an integrated array of glass nanopores on a silicon microchip fabricated in a batch process through low-resolution photolithography and standard semiconductor processing tools. By functionalizing each nanopore against a distinct target, we further demonstrate ultrasensitive, label-free, multiplexed electrical detection of cancer-marker proteins in real time through charge-dependent ionic current rectification. As nanofluidic diode biosensors, the nanopores return rapid results with a limit of detection reaching concentrations as low as attomolars in assay buffer and femtomolars in undiluted untreated human serum, a rare achievement for this class of nanosensors...
July 19, 2018: ACS Nano
S J Vermeersch, Y Vandenplas, A Tanghe, M Elseviers, L Annemans
Interest in administration of probiotics to prevent antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) in hospitalized patients is increasing. We determined the cost of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in hospital settings for non-complicated and Clostridium difficile (C.diff) complicated AAD, and performed a health-economic analysis of AAD prevention with S. boulardii CNCM I-745 (S. boulardii) from data collected in 1 university and 3 regional hospitals in Flanders. Using a decision tree analytic model, costs and effects of S...
April 2018: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
Yasunori Minami, Tamejiro Hiyama
Organo(trialkyl)silanes have advantages in view of stability, low toxicity, solubility, handling, and ready availability compared with heteroatom-substituted silanes. On the other hand, cross-coupling with organo(trialkyl)silanes has been limited probably because of the exceeding robustness. Thus, a practical cross-coupling method with organo(trialkyl)silanes has been a long-standing challenging research target. This article discusses the designing how to use aryl(trialkyl)silanes for the cross-coupling. A pioneering example is Cu(II)-catalytic conditions using electron-accepting aryl- or heteroaryl(triethyl)silanes and aryl iodides...
July 19, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
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