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Wei Zhang, David H Wang
The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma has been increasing in Western countries over the past several decades. Though Barrett's esophagus, in which the normal esophageal squamous epithelium is replaced with metaplastic intestinalized columnar cells due to chronic damage from gastroesophageal reflux, is accepted as the requisite precursor lesion for esophageal adenocarcinoma, the Barrett's esophagus cell of origin and the molecular mechanism underlying esophageal epithelial metaplasia remain controversial...
April 19, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Koichiro Saito, Tetsu Tatsuma
The chirality of materials results in a wide variety of advanced technologies including image display, data storage, light management including negative refraction, and enantioselective catalysis and sensing. Here, we introduce chirality to plasmonic nanostructures by using circularly polarized light as the sole chiral source for the first time. Gold nanocuboids as precursors on a semiconductor were irradiated with circularly polarized light to localize electric fields at specific corners of the cuboids depending on the handedness of light and deposited dielectric moieties as electron oscillation boosters by the localized electric field...
April 17, 2018: Nano Letters
Sara Mangosing, Ekaterina Perminov, Olga Gonzalez, Erica K Barkei, Emily M Corbin, Shyamesh Kumar, Edward J Dick
Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors (UTROSCTs) are rare uterine neoplasms that exhibit prominent sex cord-like differentiation. The authors describe 4 cases of UTROSCTs that were identified as incidental lesions in female baboons. All baboons were in good body condition. One animal had a 2-mm-diameter yellow-tan mass in the uterine body along the attachment of the left broad ligament; the other 3 did not have any gross lesions in the uterus. Histologically, the myometrium contained multifocal well-demarcated neoplasms composed of cuboidal to columnar cells arranged in variable arrangements of sheets, nests, cords, trabecular, and retiform patterns that occasionally formed Call-Exner-like bodies...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Jiangtao Lu, Elias A J F Peters, Johannes A M Kuipers
In this paper, an efficient ghost-cell based immersed boundary method is applied to perform direct numerical simulation (DNS) of mass transfer problems in particle clusters. To be specific, a nine-sphere cuboid cluster and a random-generated spherical cluster consisting of 100 spheres are studied. In both cases, the cluster is composed of active catalysts and inert particles, and the mutual influence of particles on their mass transfer performance is studied. To simulate active catalysts the Dirichlet boundary condition is imposed at the external surface of spheres, while the zero-flux Neumann boundary condition is applied for inert particles...
April 4, 2018: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research
Xiaoyu Sun, Wen Su, Xiaomin Ma, Huaiying Zhang, Zhe Sun, Xudong Li
Collagen (COL), collagen/hydroxyapatite (COL/HA), HA and biphasic calcium phosphate were prepared as representative bone grafting materials with composition analogous to bone, and their structural characteristics were analyzed. The rat bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were further seeded onto four groups of materials, and BMSCs grown in basic medium and standard osteogenic medium were set as controls of a reference model to show the basic and osteogenic behavior of cells without the intervention of materials...
March 2018: Regenerative Biomaterials
Siqi Ying, Lifeng Ma, Tan Sui, Chrysanthi Papadaki, Enrico Salvati, Leon Romano Brandt, Hongjia Zhang, Alexander M Korsunsky
Nickel superalloys play a pivotal role in enabling power-generation devices on land, sea, and in the air. They derive their strength from coherent cuboidal precipitates of the ordered γ' phase that is different from the γ matrix in composition, structure and properties. In order to reveal the correlation between elemental distribution, dislocation glide and the plastic deformation of micro- and nano-sized volumes of a nickel superalloy, a combined in situ nanoindentation compression study was carried out with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) on micro- and nano-pillars fabricated by focused ion beam (FIB) milling of Ni-base superalloy CMSX4...
April 5, 2018: Materials
Keiko Tsuruta, Jörg T Wennmann, Yasuhisa Kunimi, Maki N Inoue, Madoka Nakai
A granulovirus (GV) that produces occlusion bodies (OBs) having an unusual morphology was found in an Adoxophyes sp. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larva in a tea field in Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan. This isolate is considered to be a mutant of Adoxophyes orana granulovirus, designated AdorGV-M, because the nucleotide sequence of its genome is 99.7% identical to that of an English isolate of AdorGV, AdorGV-E. AdorGV-E produces typical ovocylindrical OBs that contain one occlusion-derived virus (ODV) per OB. On the other hand, AdorGV-M produces large cuboidal OBs, but the number of ODVs per OB was unknown...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Kosuke Okeyoshi, Maiko K Okajima, Tatsuo Kaneko
 The geometric structures of soft materials can be controlled on the macro-scale using interfacial or mechanical instability, e.g., fingering patterns of viscous liquid and buckling patterns of gels during swelling/deswelling. These patterns can be used as smart materials for capturing/releasing and mass-transportation applications. Here we introduce the emergence of a uniaxially oriented membrane by drying an aqueous liquid-crystalline solution, composed of megamolecular supra-polysaccharides "sacran", from a limited space...
2018: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Ying Pan, Yunshu Zhang, Shucun Sun
Habitat orientation has recently been demonstrated to affect the foraging behavior, growth, and production of plankton grazers. Because the orientation effect may vary with species, we hypothesize that habitat orientation may alter interspecific interactions between animal species. We experimentally investigated how habitat orientation (placing cuboid chambers in three orientations with long, medium, and small side as the chamber height) affected the interaction between two common cladoceran species, Daphnia magna and Moina micrura , which competitively exploited green algae of Chlorella pyrenoidosa at two volume scales (64 and 512 ml)...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Huanhuan Li, Quansheng Chen, Md Mehedi Hassan, Qin Ouyang, Tianhui Jiao, Yi Xu, Min Chen
Mercury ion (Hg2+ ) is a highly hazardous and widespread pollutant with bio-accumulative properties. Although the existing Hg2+ detection methods have high sensitivity and reliability, whereas there have few reports concerning bimodal detection for Hg2+ with one sensor. Toward this goal, a novel sensor based on rhodamine derivatives (RhD) grafted AuNS@Ag core-shell nanocubes (CSN) has been synthesized and shown the bimodal detection capabilities with metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF) and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for Hg2+ ...
August 14, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Daniel Marsland, Joanna M Stephen, Toby Calder, Andrew A Amis, James D F Calder
BACKGROUND: Tibialis posterior (TP) tendon transfer is an effective treatment for foot drop. Currently, standard practice is to immobilize the ankle in a cast for 6 weeks nonweightbearing, risking postoperative stiffness. To assess whether early active dorsiflexion and protected weightbearing could be safe, the current study assessed tendon displacement under cyclic loading and load to failure, comparing the Pulvertaft weave (PW) to interference screw fixation (ISF) in a cadaveric foot model...
March 1, 2018: Foot & Ankle International
Shoji Konda, Wataru Sahara, Kazuomi Sugamoto
Scapular kinematics during sports performances can be recorded using skin-mounted trackers attached to the skin overlying the acromion for continuous data collection without restricting natural motions of the subject relative to medical imaging analyses limiting its use for wide-range or high-speed motions. This study aimed to describe the existence of a directional bias in the translational and rotational errors of skin-mounted trackers using a 3D magnetic resonance imaging (3D-MRI) protocol. 3D-MRI scans of the healthy right shoulders of 19 males were acquired in 12 arm positions...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Gao Liu, Zhao Wang, Zihui Chen, Shulin Yang, Xingxing Fu, Rui Huang, Xiaokang Li, Juan Xiong, Yongming Hu, Haoshuang Gu
In this work, SnO₂ nanoflowers synthesized by a hydrothermal method were employed as hydrogen sensing materials. The as-synthesized SnO₂ nanoflowers consisted of cuboid-like SnO₂ nanorods with tetragonal structures. A great increase in the relative content of surface-adsorbed oxygen was observed after the vacuum annealing treatment, and this increase could have been due to the increase in surface oxygen vacancies serving as preferential adsorption sites for oxygen species. Annealing treatment resulted in an 8% increase in the specific surface area of the samples...
March 23, 2018: Sensors
Quanmao Wei, Zhiguo Jiang, Haopeng Zhang
Automatic component detection of spacecraft can assist in on-orbit operation and space situational awareness. Spacecraft are generally composed of solar panels and cuboidal or cylindrical modules. These components can be simply represented by geometric primitives like plane, cuboid and cylinder. Based on this prior, we propose a robust automatic detection scheme to automatically detect such basic components of spacecraft in three-dimensional (3D) point clouds. In the proposed scheme, cylinders are first detected in the iteration of the energy-based geometric model fitting and cylinder parameter estimation...
March 21, 2018: Sensors
Guoqiang Chen, Alisha Gerrior, Raja Ghosh
In recent papers we have discussed the optimization of design and operating conditions for cuboid packed-bed device for chromatographic separations. The efficiency metrics used in these studies included the number of theoretical plates per unit bed height as well as attributes of flow-through and eluted peaks. These studies were carried out using equivalent columns as benchmarks. The cuboid packed-bed devices consistently outperformed the columns in terms of the above metrics. The current study examines how well, or indeed if at all these superior efficiency metrics translate to superiority in multi-component protein separation...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Joshua H Marks, Timothy B Ward, Michael A Duncan
Manganese oxide cluster cations are produced by laser vaporization in a pulsed nozzle source, and detected with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The mass spectrum contains intense peaks for stoichiometries corresponding to (MnO)n+. Multiphoton photodissociation of these clusters yields smaller ions with the same stoichiometric ratio, either by sequential elimination of MnO units or by various fission processes with roughly equal efficiencies. Fragmentation of clusters containing excess oxygen also yields (MnO)n+ fragments...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Shuichiro Sugawara, Ichiro Hirai, Toshihiro Watanabe, Koji Tezuka, Wataru Kimura
The patient was a 70-year-old woman in whom examination revealed a high level of carbohydrate antigen 19-9. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) revealed a multilocular cystic lesion compressing the gallbladder. CT indicated the presence of a multilocular cystic tumor (67 × 68 × 72 mm) in contact with the right hepatic lobe. Intraoperative findings indicated that the cyst diameter was 8.5 × 6.0 cm, and the cyst was continuous with the gallbladder. The gallbladder was resected along with the cyst...
March 13, 2018: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
Xue-Ting Zhang, Man Yang, Xiao-Fang Liu, Xu-Yong Lin
RATIONALE: Mucous gland adenoma is an extremely rare benign tumor predominately presented in central bronchus. Thus far, only six cases located in the periphery have been reported in English literature. PATIENT CONCERNS: Herein, we report a case located in periphery of the lung with parenchymal involvement in a 59-year-old female. Histologically, the tumor appeared as peripheral lobulated and solid mass with the pushing border. The tumor was composed of abundant irregular glands, mucus-filled acini and tubules lined by bland cuboidal to columnar mucus-secreting epithelial cells lacking cellular atypia and mitotic activities...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ian Paynter, Daniel Genest, Francesco Peri, Crystal Schaaf
Volumetric models with known biases are shown to provide bounds for the uncertainty in estimations of volume for ecologically interesting objects, observed with a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) instrument. Bounding cuboids, three-dimensional convex hull polygons, voxels, the Outer Hull Model and Square Based Columns (SBCs) are considered for their ability to estimate the volume of temperate and tropical trees, as well as geomorphological features such as bluffs and saltmarsh creeks. For temperate trees, supplementary geometric models are evaluated for their ability to bound the uncertainty in cylinder-based reconstructions, finding that coarser volumetric methods do not currently constrain volume meaningfully, but may be helpful with further refinement, or in hybridized models...
April 6, 2018: Interface Focus
G Ortiz, M Garay, D Mendoza, P Cardinal-Fernández
INTRODUCTION: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an inflammatory lung disorder, and its pathological hallmark is diffuse alveolar damage (DAD). Given that open lung biopsy (OLB) can sometimes result in severe side effects, it is rarely performed in patients with ARDS. AIM: The aims of this study were to describe: (a) the rate of treatment change associated with the histological result; and (b) the incidence of side effects induced by OLB. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: A retrospective, single-center, descriptive observational study was carried out in Hospital Santa Clara (Bogotá, Colombia) from February 2007 to January 2014...
February 28, 2018: Medicina Intensiva
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