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Organs chips

Bryan A Hassell, Girija Goyal, Esak Lee, Alexandra Sontheimer-Phelps, Oren Levy, Christopher S Chen, Donald E Ingber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 19, 2018: Cell Reports
Zhongwen Zhou, Ning Cui, Shuai Su, Shuhong Sun, Zhizhong Cui
Integration of retro-viral long terminal repeat (LTR) into the Marek's disease virus (MDV) genome can occur both in co-cultivation cell cultures and naturally in dual infected chickens. It is clear that the LTR insert is associated with the pathogenicity of MDV. The objective of this study was to compare the host responses to MDV with a different retro-viral LTR insert. Gene-chip containing chicken genome was employed to investigate the gene transcription profile of chicken embryo fibroblasts cells, and 795 genes were differentially expressed in chicken embryo fibroblasts infected with GX0101 with a reticuloendotheliosis virus LTR insert as compared to GX0101-ALV-LTR significantly...
June 16, 2018: Poultry Science
Marcia de Almeida Monteiro Melo Ferraz, Heiko H W Henning, Pedro Ferreira da Costa, Jos Malda, Séverine Le Gac, Fabrice Bray, Majorie B M van Duursen, Jos F Brouwers, Chris H A van de Lest, Ingeborg Bertijn, Lisa Kraneburg, Peter L A M Vos, Tom A E Stout, Barend M Gadella
Polymer engineering, such as in three-dimensional (3D) printing, is rapidly gaining popularity, not only in the scientific and medical fields but also in the community in general. However, little is known about the toxicity of engineered materials. Therefore, we assessed the toxicity of 3D-printed and molded parts from five different polymers commonly used for prototyping, fabrication of organ-on-a-chip platforms, and medical devices. Toxic effects of PIC100, E-Shell200, E-Shell300, polydimethylsiloxane, and polystyrene (PS) on early bovine embryo development, on the transactivation of estrogen receptors were assessed, and possible polymer-leached components were identified by mass spectrometry...
February 13, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology Letters
R Perrier, A Pirog, M Jaffredo, J Gaitan, B Catargi, S Renaud, M Raoux, J Lang
On-line and real-time analysis of micro-organ activity permits to use the endogenous analytical power of cellular signal transduction algorithms as biosensors. We have developed here such a sensor using only a few pancreatic endocrine islets and the avoidance of transgenes or chemical probes reduces bias and procures general usage. Nutrient and hormone-induced changes in islet ion fluxes through channels provide the first integrative read-out of micro-organ activity. Using extracellular electrodes we captured this read-out non-invasively as slow potentials which reflect glucose concentration-dependent (3-15 mM) micro-organ activation and coupling...
June 8, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Francisco Maciá Pérez, Leandro Zambrano Méndez, José Vicente Berná Martínez, Roberto Sepúlveda Lima
This article presents the design of a field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based prototype of a system on chip (SoC) capable of behaving as one of the nerve centres comprising the neuroregulatory system in humans: the cortical-diencephalic nerve centre. The neuroregulatory system is a complex nerve system consisting of a heterogeneous group of nerve centres. These centres are distributed throughout the length of the spinal cord, are autonomous, communicate via interneurons, and govern and regulate the behaviour of multiple organs and systems in the human body...
June 13, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Soneela Ankam, Benjamin K K Teo, Grace Pohan, Shawn W L Ho, Choon K Lim, Evelyn K F Yim
Stem cell differentiation can be regulated by biophysical cues such as nanotopography. It involves sensing and integration of these biophysical cues into their transcriptome with a mechanism that is yet to be discovered. In addition to the cytoskeletal and focal adhesion remodeling, nanotopography has also been shown to modulate nucleus morphology. Here, we studied the effect of nanotopography on the temporal changes in nuclei of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Using a high throughput Multi-architecture (MARC) chip analysis, the circularity of the stem cell nuclei changed significantly on different patterns...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Yuru Vernon Shih, Shyni Varghese
Recent advances in materials development and tissue engineering has resulted in a substantial number of bioinspired materials that recapitulate cardinal features of bone extracellular matrix (ECM) such as dynamic inorganic and organic environment(s), hierarchical organization, and topographical features. Bone mimicking materials, as defined by its self-explanatory term, are developed based on the current understandings of the natural bone ECM during development, remodeling, and fracture repair. Compared to conventional plastic cultures, biomaterials that resemble some aspects of the native environment could elicit a more natural molecular and cellular response relevant to the bone tissue...
June 6, 2018: Biomaterials
Jonathan Visentin, Lionel Couzi, Claire Dromer, Martine Neau-Cransac, Gwendaline Guidicelli, Vincent Veniard, Karine Nubret-le Coniat, Pierre Merville, Carmelo Di Primo, Jean-Luc Taupin
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) donor-specific antibodies are key serum biomarkers for assessing the outcome of transplanted patients. Measuring their active concentration, i.e. the fraction that really interacts with donor HLA, and their affinity could help deciphering their pathogenicity. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is recognized as the gold-standard for measuring binding kinetics but also active concentrations, without calibration curves. SPR-based biosensors often suffer from non-specific binding (NSB) occurring with the sensor chip surface and the immobilized targets, especially for complex media such as human serum...
June 7, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Debalina Saha, S Chris Marble, Brian J Pearson
Use of organic mulch materials such as pinebark, pinestraw, or various hardwood chips for weed control is a common practice in residential and commercial landscapes. Mulch can inhibit weed seed germination and growth through light exclusion, acting as physical barrier, reducing available moisture to weed seeds within the mulch layer, and through release of allelochemicals that may inhibit germination or growth of some weed species. Previous and current research on allelopathic chemicals present in mulch have focused on cover crops and their residues with an emphasis on agronomic crops...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Peiguo Yuan, Liqun Du, B W Poovaiah
During plant-pathogen interactions, plants have to relocate their resources including energy to defend invading organisms; as a result, plant growth and development are usually reduced. Arabidopsis signal responsive1 (AtSR1) has been documented as a negative regulator of plant immune responses and could serve as a positive regulator of plant growth and development. However, the mechanism by which AtSR1 balances plant growth and immunity is poorly understood. Here, we performed a global gene expression profiling using Affymetrix microarrays to study how AtSR1 regulates defense- and growth-related genes in plants with and without bacterial pathogen infection...
June 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Min Lu, Xiangwei He
Distinct chromatin organization features, such as centromeres and heterochromatin domains, are inherited epigenetically. However, the mechanisms that modulate the accuracy of epigenetic inheritance, especially at the individual nucleosome level, are not well understood. Here, using ChIP and next-generation sequencing (ChIP-Seq), we characterized Ccp1, a homolog of the histone chaperone Vps75 in budding yeast that functions in centromere chromatin duplication and heterochromatin maintenance in fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Eugene Rich, Anna Collins
OBJECTIVE: The Affordable Care Act and Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act are changing access to, and delivery of, health care in the United States, with potential implications for the field of health services research (HSR). We therefore investigated employers' perceptions of demand for individuals to conduct HSR, the competencies required for success, and implications for HSR training programs. DATA SOURCE: Interviews conducted in August 2016 with 21 key informants at a range of U...
June 12, 2018: Health Services Research
A Moya, M Ortega-Ribera, X Guimerà, E Sowade, M Zea, X Illa, E Ramon, R Villa, J Gracia-Sancho, G Gabriel
The demand for real-time monitoring of cell functions and cell conditions has dramatically increased with the emergence of organ-on-a-chip (OOC) systems. However, the incorporation of co-cultures and microfluidic channels in OOC systems increases their biological complexity and therefore makes the analysis and monitoring of analytical parameters inside the device more difficult. In this work, we present an approach to integrate multiple sensors in an extremely thin, porous and delicate membrane inside a liver-on-a-chip device...
June 12, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Janna Tenenbaum-Katan, Arbel Artzy-Schnirman, Rami Fishler, Netanel Korin, Josué Sznitman
The entire luminal surface of the lungs is populated with a complex yet confluent, uninterrupted airway epithelium in conjunction with an extracellular liquid lining layer that creates the air-liquid interface (ALI), a critical feature of healthy lungs. Motivated by lung disease modelling, cytotoxicity studies, and drug delivery assessments amongst other, in vitro setups have been traditionally conducted using macroscopic cultures of isolated airway cells under submerged conditions or instead using transwell inserts with permeable membranes to model the ALI architecture...
July 2018: Biomicrofluidics
Alexa Wnorowski, Huaxiao Yang, Joseph C Wu
In recent years, drug development costs have soared, primarily due to the failure of preclinical animal and cell culture models, which do not directly translate to human physiology. Organ-on-a-chip (OOC) is a burgeoning technology with the potential to revolutionize disease modeling, drug discovery, and toxicology research by strengthening the relevance of culture-based models while reducing costly animal studies. Although OOC models can incorporate a variety of tissue sources, the most robust and relevant OOC models going forward will include stem cells...
June 6, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Mónica Valenzuela-Delgado, Wendy Flores-Fuentes, Moisés Rivas-López, Oleg Sergiyenko, Lars Lindner, Daniel Hernández-Balbuena, Julio C Rodríguez-Quiñonez
Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is becoming more popular every day among developers of applications based on microfluidics, such as “lab on a chip” (LOC) and/or “micro-total analysis systems” (micro-TAS). Its physical properties enable fluid manipulation for tasks such as pumping, networking, propelling, stirring, mixing, and even cooling without the need for mechanical components, and its non-intrusive nature provides a solution to mechanical systems issues. However, these are not easy tasks...
May 24, 2018: Sensors
Huanhuan Joyce Chen, Paula Miller, Michael L Shuler
We describe an expanded modular gastrointestinal (GI) tract-liver system by co-culture of primary human intestinal epithelial cells (hIECs) and 3D liver mimic. The two organ body-on-chip design consisted of GI and liver tissue compartments that were connected by fluidic medium flow driven via gravity. The hIECs and HepG2 C3A liver cells in the co-culture system maintained high viability for at least 14 days in which hIECs differentiated into major cell types found in native human intestinal epithelium and the HepG2 C3A cells cultured on 3D polymer scaffold formed a liver micro-lobe like structure...
June 8, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Katharina Schimek, Hao-Hsiang Hsu, Moritz Boehme, Jacob Jan Kornet, Uwe Marx, Roland Lauster, Ralf Pörtner, Gerd Lindner
The human skin is involved in protecting the inner body from constant exposure to outer environmental stimuli. There is an evident need to screen for toxicity and the efficacy of drugs and cosmetics applied to the skin. To date, animal studies are still the standard method for substance testing, although they are currently controversially discussed Therefore, the multi-organ chip is an attractive alternative to replace animal testing. The two-organ chip is designed to hold 96-well cell culture inserts (CCIs)...
June 7, 2018: Bioengineering
Ji Huang, Juefei Zheng, Hui Yuan, Karen McGinnis
BACKGROUND: Transcription factors (TFs) are proteins that can bind to DNA sequences and regulate gene expression. Many TFs are master regulators in cells that contribute to tissue-specific and cell-type-specific gene expression patterns in eukaryotes. Maize has been a model organism for over one hundred years, but little is known about its tissue-specific gene regulation through TFs. In this study, we used a network approach to elucidate gene regulatory networks (GRNs) in four tissues (leaf, root, SAM and seed) in maize...
June 7, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Salem Elkahoui, Glenn E Bartley, Wallace H Yokoyama, Mendel Friedman
The present study investigated the potential of potato peel powders, high in bioactive phenolic compounds and glycoalkaloids, to reduce weight gain in mice consuming a high-fat diet. Potato peel powders were prepared from the following fresh commercial potato varieties by hand-peeling and then freeze-drying and grinding the peels into powder: non-organic (conventionally grown) gold, red, and Russet and organically grown Russet. Mice diets (25% fat by weight) were supplemented with either 10 or 20% potato peel powders for 3 weeks...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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