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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448036/using-microfluidic-devices-to-measure-lifespan-and-cellular-phenotypes-in-single-budding-yeast-cells
#1
Ke Zou, Diana S Ren, Qi Ou-Yang, Hao Li, Jiashun Zheng
Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important model organism in aging research. Genetic studies have revealed many genes with conserved effects on the lifespan across species. However, the molecular causes of aging and death remain elusive. To gain a systematic understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying yeast aging, we need high-throughput methods to measure lifespan and to quantify various cellular and molecular phenotypes in single cells. Previously, we developed microfluidic devices to track budding yeast mother cells throughout their lifespan while flushing away newborn daughter cells...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442371/dynamites-a-dynamic-cell-culture-platform-for-in-vitro-drug-testing-part-1-engineering-of-microfluidic-system-and-technical-simulations
#2
Kai Mattern, Nicole Beißner, Stephan Reichl, Andreas Dietzel
Conventional safety and efficacy test models, such as animal experiments or static in vitro cell culture models, can often not reliably predict the most promising drug candidates. Therefore, a novel microfluidic cell culture platform, called Dynamic Micro Tissue Engineering System (DynaMiTES), was designed to allow online analysis of drugs permeating through barrier forming tissues under dynamic conditions combined with monitoring of the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) by electrodes optimized for homogeneous current distribution...
April 22, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441271/alternative-payment-models-and-urology
#3
Deborah R Kaye, David C Miller, Chad Ellimoottil
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act (MACRA) is a historic bill that was recently passed that establishes how quality measurement and practice patterns will affect physician reimbursement. Alternative payment models (APMs) are an essential component of MACRA and Medicare's vision of paying for high-value care. This review describes APMs in the context of MACRA and their impact on urology. RECENT FINDINGS: The majority of urologists will be affected by MACRA...
April 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439901/biomimetic-strategies-to-recapitulate-organ-specific-microenvironments-for-studying-breast-cancer-metastasis
#4
REVIEW
Akshay A Narkhede, Lalita A Shevde, Shreyas S Rao
The progression of breast cancer from the primary tumor setting to the metastatic setting is the critical event defining stage IV disease, no longer considered curable. The microenvironment at specific organ sites is known to play a key role in influencing the ultimate fate of metastatic cells; yet microenvironmental mediated-molecular mechanisms underlying organ specific metastasis in breast cancer are not well understood. This review discusses biomimetic strategies employed to recapitulate metastatic organ microenvironments, particularly, bone, liver, lung and brain to elucidate the mechanisms dictating metastatic breast cancer cell homing and colonization...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435095/application-of-advanced-preclinical-models-and-methods-in-anesthetic-neurotoxicity-research
#5
REVIEW
Cheng Wang, Xuan Zhang, Fang Liu
Recently, there has been increasing concern regarding the potential of anesthetics to disturb the long-term function of the central nervous system (CNS). The field of anesthesia-related toxicology, therefore, has engaged multiple scientific disciplines and utilized a variety of pre-clinical research models in an attempt to identify the basic characteristics of the anesthetic agents that may produce acute and/or chronic adverse effects on the CNS. This review discusses how the application of advanced research approaches and models, such as the nonhuman primate, neural stem cell-derived organotypic slice cultures and/or organs-on-chips systems, can serve as translational models of infantile anesthetic exposure...
April 20, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429185/high-content-assessment-of-cardiac-function-using-heart-on-a-chip-devices-as-drug-screening-model
#6
Genevieve Conant, Benjamin Fook Lun Lai, Rick Xing Ze Lu, Anastasia Korolj, Erika Yan Wang, Milica Radisic
Drug discovery and development continues to be a challenge to the pharmaceutical industry despite great advances in cell and molecular biology that allow for the design of better targeted therapeutics. Many potential drug compounds fail during the clinical trial due to inefficacy and toxicity that were not predicted during preclinical stages. The fundamental problem lies with the use of traditional drug screening models that still largely rely on the use of cell lines or animal cell monolayers, which leads to lack of predictive power of human tissue and organ response to the drug candidates...
April 20, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424053/stress-induced-nuclear-granules-form-in-response-to-accumulation-of-misfolded-proteins-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#7
Katherine M Sampuda, Mason Riley, Lynn Boyd
BACKGROUND: Environmental stress can affect the viability or fecundity of an organism. Environmental stressors may affect the genome or the proteome and can cause cellular distress by contributing to protein damage or misfolding. This study examines the cellular response to environmental stress in the germline of the nematode, C. elegans. RESULTS: Salt stress, oxidative stress, and starvation, but not heat shock, induce the relocalization of ubiquitin, proteasome, and the TIAR-2 protein into distinct subnuclear regions referred to as stress induced nuclear granules (SINGs)...
April 19, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418430/wat-on-a-chip-a-physiologically-relevant-microfluidic-system-incorporating-white-adipose-tissue
#8
Peter Loskill, Thiagarajan Sezhian, Kevin M Tharp, Felipe T Lee-Montiel, Shaheen Jeeawoody, Willie Mae Reese, Peter-James H Zushin, Andreas Stahl, Kevin E Healy
Organ-on-a-chip systems possess a promising future as drug screening assays and as testbeds for disease modeling in the context of both single-organ systems and multi-organ-chips. Although it comprises approximately one fourth of the body weight of a healthy human, an organ frequently overlooked in this context is white adipose tissue (WAT). WAT-on-a-chip systems are required to create safety profiles of a large number of drugs due to their interactions with adipose tissue and other organs via paracrine signals, fatty acid release, and drug levels through sequestration...
April 18, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418422/a-disease-model-of-diabetic-nephropathy-in-a-glomerulus-on-a-chip-microdevice
#9
Li Wang, Tingting Tao, Wentao Su, Hao Yu, Yue Yu, Jianhua Qin
Diabetic nephropathy is a major chronic renal complication of diabetes mellitus, and is the leading cause of end-stage kidney diseases. Establishing a disease model of diabetic nephropathy in vitro can accelerate the understanding of its mechanisms and pharmaceutical development. We provide the proof-of-principle for using a glomerulus-on-a-chip microdevice that reconstitutes organ-level kidney functions to create a human disease model of early stage diabetic nephropathy on chip. The microfluidic device, which recapitulates the glomerular microenvironment, consists of parallel channels lined by isolated primary glomerular microtissues that experience fluid flow to mimic the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB), including glomerular endothelial cells, 3D basement membrane and podocytes...
April 18, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416222/dentin-on-the-nanoscale-hierarchical-organization-mechanical-behavior-and-bioinspired-engineering
#10
REVIEW
Luiz E Bertassoni
OBJECTIVE: Knowledge of the structural organization and mechanical properties of dentin has expanded considerably during the past two decades, especially on a nanometer scale. In this paper, we review the recent literature on the nanostructural and nanomechanical properties of dentin, with special emphasis in its hierarchical organization. METHODS: We give particular attention to the recent literature concerning the structural and mechanical influence of collagen intrafibrillar and extrafibrillar mineral in healthy and remineralized tissues...
April 14, 2017: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414715/transcriptional-regulatory-logic-of-the-diurnal-cycle-in-the-mouse-liver
#11
Jonathan Aryeh Sobel, Irina Krier, Teemu Andersin, Sunil Raghav, Donatella Canella, Federica Gilardi, Alexandra Styliani Kalantzi, Guillaume Rey, Benjamin Weger, Frédéric Gachon, Matteo Dal Peraro, Nouria Hernandez, Ueli Schibler, Bart Deplancke, Felix Naef
Many organisms exhibit temporal rhythms in gene expression that propel diurnal cycles in physiology. In the liver of mammals, these rhythms are controlled by transcription-translation feedback loops of the core circadian clock and by feeding-fasting cycles. To better understand the regulatory interplay between the circadian clock and feeding rhythms, we mapped DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs) in the mouse liver during a diurnal cycle. The intensity of DNase I cleavages cycled at a substantial fraction of all DHSs, suggesting that DHSs harbor regulatory elements that control rhythmic transcription...
April 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406749/nucleosome-repositioning-during-differentiation-of-a-human-myeloid-leukemia-cell-line
#12
Vladimir B Teif, Jan-Philipp Mallm, Tanvi Sharma, David B Mark Welch, Karsten Rippe, Roland Eils, Jörg Langowski, Ada L Olins, Donald E Olins
Cell differentiation is associated with changes in chromatin organization and gene expression. In this study, we examine chromatin structure following differentiation of the human myeloid leukemia cell line (HL-60/S4) into granulocytes with retinoic acid (RA) or into macrophage with phorbol ester (TPA). We performed ChIP-seq of histone H3 and its modifications, analyzing changes in nucleosome occupancy, nucleosome repeat length, eu-/heterochromatin redistribution and properties of epichromatin (surface chromatin adjacent to the nuclear envelope)...
March 4, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402916/potential-of-chopped-heath-biomass-and-spent-growth-media-to-replace-wood-chips-as-bulking-agent-for-composting-high-n-containing-residues
#13
J Viaene, B Reubens, K Willekens, C Van Waes, S De Neve, B Vandecasteele
We investigated the potential of C-rich byproducts to replace wood chips as bulking agent (BA) during composting. The impact of these alternatives on the composting process and on compost stability and characteristics was assessed. Three BA (chopped heath biomass and spent growth media used in strawberry and tomato cultivation) were used for processing leek residues in windrow composting. All BA resulted in stable composts with an organic matter (OM) content suitable for use as soil amendment. Using chopped heath biomass led to high pile temperatures and OM degradation and a nutrient-poor compost with high C/P ratio appropriate for increasing soil organic carbon content in P-rich soils...
April 9, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390929/cancer-on-a-chip-systems-at-the-frontier-of-nanomedicine
#14
REVIEW
Yu Shrike Zhang, Yi-Nan Zhang, Weijia Zhang
Nanomedicine provides a unique opportunity for promoting drug efficacy through enhanced delivery mechanisms. However, its translation into the clinics has been relatively slow compared with the large amount of research occurring in laboratory settings. Given the limitations of conventional cell culture models and preclinical animal models, we discuss the potential utility of recently developed cancer-on-a-chip platforms, which maximally replicate the pathophysiology of the human tumor microenvironments, as alternatives for effective evaluation of nanomedicine...
April 5, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387237/decoding-network-structure-in-on-chip-integrated-flow-cells-with-synchronization-of-electrochemical-oscillators
#15
Yanxin Jia, István Z Kiss
The analysis of network interactions among dynamical units and the impact of the coupling on self-organized structures is a challenging task with implications in many biological and engineered systems. We explore the coupling topology that arises through the potential drops in a flow channel in a lab-on-chip device that accommodates chemical reactions on electrode arrays. The networks are revealed by analysis of the synchronization patterns with the use of an oscillatory chemical reaction (nickel electrodissolution) and are further confirmed by direct decoding using phase model analysis...
April 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386555/analysis-of-differentially-expressed-genes-in-gastrocnemius-muscle-between-dgat1-transgenic-mice-and-wild-type-mice
#16
Fei Ying, Hao Gu, Yuanzhu Xiong, Bo Zuo
Adipose tissue was the major energy deposition site of the mammals and provided the energy for the body and released the external pressure to the internal organs. In animal production, fat deposition in muscle can affect the meat quality, especially the intramuscular fat (IMF) content. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 (DGAT1) was the key enzyme to control the synthesis of the triacylglycerol in adipose tissue. In order to better understand the regulation mechanism of the DGAT1 in the intramuscular fat deposition, the global gene expression profiling was performed in gastrocnemius muscle between DGAT1 transgenic mice and wild-type mice by microarray...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378326/on-chip-chemical-self-assembly-of-semiconducting-single-walled-carbon-nanotubes-swnts-toward-robust-and-scale-invariant-swnts-transistors
#17
Vladimir Derenskyi, Widianta Gomulya, Wytse Talsma, Jorge Mario Salazar-Rios, Martin Fritsch, Peter Nirmalraj, Heike Riel, Sybille Allard, Ullrich Scherf, Maria A Loi
In this paper, the fabrication of carbon nanotubes field effect transistors by chemical self-assembly of semiconducting single walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWNTs) on prepatterned substrates is demonstrated. Polyfluorenes derivatives have been demonstrated to be effective in selecting s-SWNTs from raw mixtures. In this work the authors functionalized the polymer with side chains containing thiols, to obtain chemical self-assembly of the selected s-SWNTs on substrates with prepatterned gold electrodes. The authors show that the full side functionalization of the conjugated polymer with thiol groups partially disrupts the s-SWNTs selection, with the presence of metallic tubes in the dispersion...
April 5, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377598/highly-sensitive-capture-of-circulating-tumor-cells-using-micro-ellipse-filters
#18
Hongmei Chen, Baoshan Cao, Bo Sun, Yapeng Cao, Ke Yang, Yu-Sheng Lin, Hongda Chen
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) detection, enumeration and characterization with microfluidic chips has critical significance in cancer prognosis offering a non-invasive "liquid biopsy". Based on physical differences of size and deformability, we explore micro-ellipse filters consisting of microfuidic slits in series gradually narrowed. Slender tunnels sensitively capture tumor cells with slim chance to escape. Tumor cells could reside at capture sites organized by arrays of micro-ellipse microposts enduring less stress...
April 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366709/architecture-in-3d-cell-culture-an-essential-feature-for-in-vitro-toxicology
#19
Sophie A Lelièvre, Tim Kwok, Shirisha Chittiboyina
Three-dimensional cell culture has the potential to revolutionize toxicology studies by allowing human-based reproduction of essential elements of organs. Beyond the study of toxicants on the most susceptible organs such as liver, kidney, skin, lung, gastrointestinal tract, testis, heart and brain, carcinogenesis research will also greatly benefit from 3D cell culture models representing any normal tissue. No tissue function can be suitably reproduced without the appropriate tissue architecture whether mimicking acini, ducts or tubes, sheets of cells or more complex cellular organizations like hepatic cords...
March 30, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363633/high-resolution-methylation-analysis-of-the-hoxa5-regulatory-region-in-different-somatic-tissues-of-laboratory-mouse-during-development
#20
Puja Sinha, Kiran Singh, Manisha Sachan
Homeobox genes encode a group of DNA binding regulatory proteins whose key function occurs in the spatial-temporal organization of genome during embryonic development and differentiation. The role of these Hox genes during ontogenesis makes it an important model for research. HoxA5 is a member of Hox gene family playing a central role during axial body patterning and morphogenesis. DNA modification studies have shown that the function of Hox genes is partly governed by the methylation-mediated gene expression regulation...
January 2017: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
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