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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923030/patient-derived-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-in-cancer-research-and-precision-oncology
#1
Eirini P Papapetrou
Together with recent advances in the processing and culture of human tissue, bioengineering, xenotransplantation and genome editing, Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) present a range of new opportunities for the study of human cancer. Here we discuss the main advantages and limitations of iPSC modeling, and how the method intersects with other patient-derived models of cancer, such as organoids, organs-on-chips and patient-derived xenografts (PDXs). We highlight the opportunities that iPSC models can provide beyond those offered by existing systems and animal models and present current challenges and crucial areas for future improvements toward wider adoption of this technology...
December 6, 2016: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917250/in-plane-microvortices-micromixer-based-ac-electrothermal-for-testing-drug-induced-death-of-tumor-cells
#2
Qi Lang, Yukun Ren, Divia Hobson, Ye Tao, Likai Hou, Yankai Jia, Qingming Hu, Jiangwei Liu, Xin Zhao, Hongyuan Jiang
Herein, we first describe a perfusion chip integrated with an AC electrothermal (ACET) micromixer to supply a uniform drug concentration to tumor cells. The in-plane fluid microvortices for mixing were generated by six pairs of reconstructed novel ACET asymmetric electrodes. To enhance the mixing efficiency, the novel ACET electrodes with rotating angles of 0°, 30°, and 60° were investigated. The asymmetric electrodes with a rotating angle of 60° exhibited the highest mixing efficiency by both simulated and experimental results...
November 2016: Biomicrofluidics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916739/bioengineered-tumoral-microtissues-recapitulate-desmoplastic-reaction-of-pancreatic-cancer
#3
Virginia Brancato, Valentina Comunanza, Giorgia Imparato, Davide Corà, Francesco Urciuolo, Alessio Noghero, Federico Bussolino, Paolo A Netti
: Many of the existing three-dimensional (3D) cancer models in vitro fail to represent the entire complex tumor microenvironment composed of cells and extra cellular matrix (ECM) and do not allow a reliable study of the tumoral features and progression. In this paper we reported a strategy to produce 3D in vitro microtissues of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) for studying the desmoplastic reaction activated by the stroma-cancer crosstalk. Human PDAC microtissues were obtained by co-culturing pancreatic cancer cells (PT45) and normal or cancer-associated fibroblasts within biodegradable microcarriers in a spinner flask bioreactor...
December 1, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913272/the-northeast-regional-sps-meeting-update-safety-pharmacology-innovations-and-applications
#4
REVIEW
Malar Pannirselvam, Tiffini Brabham, Alfred W Botchway, Donald B Hodges, Martin Traebert, Michael K Pugsley
The Safety Pharmacology Society (SPS) held a Northeast (NE) regional meeting in Boston, MA on May 13, 2016 at the Vertex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated site. There were 103 attendees from the pharmaceutical industry, contract research organizations (CROs), academia, and global regulatory agencies. An assortment of scientific topics were presented by 7 speakers that included broad topics in the cardiovascular (organ on chip, statistical power and translation of rat cardiovascular telemetry data and dual inhibition of IKr and IKs on QT interval prolongation) and central nervous system (in vitro platform for neurotoxicity, an integrated risk assessment of suicidal ideation and behavior, and EEG advances in safety pharmacology) and a novel topic discussing preclinical challenges faced in the development of a novel gene therapy...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909154/towards-a-novel-modular-architecture-for-cern-radiation-monitoring
#5
Hamza Boukabache, Michel Pangallo, Gael Ducos, Nicola Cardines, Antonio Bellotta, Ciarán Toner, Daniel Perrin, Doris Forkel-Wirth
The European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) has the legal obligation to protect the public and the people working on its premises from any unjustified exposure to ionising radiation. In this context, radiation monitoring is one of the main concerns of the Radiation Protection Group. After 30 y of reliable service, the ARea CONtroller (ARCON) system is approaching the end of its lifecycle, which raises the need for new, more efficient radiation monitors with a high level of modularity to ensure better maintainability...
November 30, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906214/one-dimensional-photonic-crystal-slot-waveguide-for-silicon-organic-hybrid-electro-optic-modulators
#6
Hai Yan, Xiaochuan Xu, Chi-Jui Chung, Harish Subbaraman, Zeyu Pan, Swapnajit Chakravarty, Ray T Chen
In an on-chip silicon-organic hybrid electro-optic (EO) modulator, the mode overlap with EO materials, in-device effective r<sub>33</sub>, and propagation loss are among the most critical factors that determine the performance of the modulator. Various waveguide structures have been proposed to optimize these factors, yet there is a lack of comprehensive consideration on all of them. In this Letter, a one-dimensional (1D) photonic crystal (PC) slot waveguide structure is proposed that takes all these factors into consideration...
December 1, 2016: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905673/single-versus-multiple-visits-for-endodontic-treatment-of-permanent-teeth
#7
REVIEW
Maddalena Manfredi, Lara Figini, Massimo Gagliani, Giovanni Lodi
BACKGROUND: Root canal treatment (RoCT), or endodontic treatment, is a common procedure in dentistry. The main indications for RoCT are irreversible pulpitis and necrosis of the dental pulp caused by carious processes, tooth cracks or chips, or dental trauma. Successful RoCT is characterised by an absence of symptoms (i.e. pain) and clinical signs (i.e. swelling and sinus tract) in teeth without radiographic evidence of periodontal involvement (i.e. normal periodontal ligament). The success of RoCT depends on a number of variables related to the preoperative condition of the tooth, as well as the endodontic procedures...
December 1, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905321/tailoring-the-morphology-and-luminescence-of-gan-ingan-core-shell-nanowires-using-bottom-up-selective-area-epitaxy
#8
Mohsen Nami, Rhett F Eller, Serdal Okur, Ashwin K Rishinaramangalam, Sheng Liu, Igal Brener, Daniel F Feezell
Controlled bottom-up selective-area epitaxy (SAE) is used to tailor the morphology and photoluminescence properties of GaN/InGaN core-shell nanowire arrays. The nanowires are grown on c-plane sapphire substrates using pulsed-mode metal organic chemical vapor deposition. By varying the dielectric mask configuration and growth conditions, we achieve GaN nanowire cores with diameters ranging from 80 to 700 nm that exhibit various degrees of polar, semipolar, and nonpolar faceting. A single InGaN quantum well (QW) and GaN barrier shell is also grown on the GaN nanowire cores and micro-photoluminescence is obtained and analyzed for a variety of nanowire dimensions, array pitch spacings, and aperture diameters...
December 1, 2016: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904714/facilitating-the-commercialization-and-use-of-organ-platforms-generated-by-the-microphysiological-systems-tissue-chip-program-through-public-private-partnerships
#9
REVIEW
Christine A Livingston, Kristin M Fabre, Danilo A Tagle
Microphysiological systems (organs-on-chips, tissue chips) are devices designed to recapitulate human physiology that could be used to better understand drug responses not easily addressed using other in vivo systems or in vitro animal models. Although still in development, initial results seem promising as tissue chips exhibit in vivo systems-like functional responses. The National Center for Advancing Translation Science (NCATS) identifies this technology as a potential tool that could improve the process of getting safer, more effective treatments to patients, and has led to the Tissue Chip Program, which aims to develop, integrate and validate major organ systems for testing...
2016: Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902860/genetic-and-biochemical-interactions-between-the-bacterial-replication-initiator-dnaa-and-the-nucleoid-associated-protein-rok-in-bacillus-subtilis
#10
Charlotte A Seid, Janet L Smith, Alan D Grossman
We identified interactions between the conserved bacterial replication initiator and transcription factor DnaA and the nucleoid-associated protein Rok of Bacillus subtilis. DnaA binds directly to clusters of DnaA boxes at the origin of replication and elsewhere, including the promoters of several DnaA-regulated genes. Rok, an analog of H-NS from gamma-proteobacteria that affects chromosome architecture and Lsr2 from Mycobacteria, binds A+T-rich sequences throughout the genome and represses expression of many genes...
November 30, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902562/enhancing-themes-and-strengths-assessment-leveraging-academic-led-qualitative-inquiry-in-community-health-assessment-to-uncover-roots-of-community-health-inequities
#11
Jennifer Hebert-Beirne, Jennifer K Felner, Yvette Castañeda, Sheri Cohen
CONTEXT: Rigorous qualitative research can enhance local health departments' efforts to gain a deeper insight into residents' perceived community health inequities necessary for productive community health assessments (CHAs) and community health improvement plans (CHIPs). OBJECTIVE: The Chicago Department of Public Health and the Partnership for Healthy Chicago used the National Association of County & City Health Officials' Mobilizing for Action through Planning and Partnerships (MAPP) model to conduct its CHA/CHIP, Healthy Chicago 2...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900374/spatially-resolved-microfluidic-stimulation-of-lymphoid-tissue-ex-vivo
#12
Ashley E Ross, Maura C Belanger, Jacob F Woodroof, Rebecca R Pompano
The lymph node is a structurally complex organ of the immune system, whose dynamic cellular arrangements are thought to control much of human health. Currently, no methods exist to precisely stimulate substructures within the lymph node or analyze local stimulus-response behaviors, making it difficult to rationally design therapies for inflammatory disease. Here we describe a novel integration of live lymph node slices with a microfluidic system for local stimulation. Slices maintained the cellular organization of the lymph node while making its core experimentally accessible...
November 30, 2016: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899657/the-eukaryotic-promoter-database-in-its-30th-year-focus-on-non-vertebrate-organisms
#13
René Dreos, Giovanna Ambrosini, Romain Groux, Rouaïda Cavin Périer, Philipp Bucher
We present an update of the Eukaryotic Promoter Database EPD (http://epd.vital-it.ch), more specifically on the EPDnew division, which contains comprehensive organisms-specific transcription start site (TSS) collections automatically derived from next generation sequencing (NGS) data. Thanks to the abundant release of new high-throughput transcript mapping data (CAGE, TSS-seq, GRO-cap) the database could be extended to plant and fungal species. We further report on the expansion of the mass genome annotation (MGA) repository containing promoter-relevant chromatin profiling data and on improvements for the EPD entry viewers...
November 28, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896351/on-chip-integration-of-organic-synthesis-and-hplc-ms-analysis-for-monitoring-stereoselective-transformations-at-the-micro-scale
#14
Josef J Heiland, Rico Warias, Carsten Lotter, Laura Mauritz, Patrick J W Fuchs, Stefan Ohla, Kirsten Zeitler, Detlev Belder
We present a microfluidic system, seamlessly integrating microflow and microbatch synthesis with a HPLC/nano-ESI-MS functionality on a single glass chip. The microfluidic approach allows to efficiently steer and dispense sample streams down to the nanoliter-range for studying reactions in quasi real-time. In a proof-of-concept study, the system was applied to explore amino-catalyzed reactions, including asymmetric iminium-catalyzed Friedel-Crafts alkylations in microflow and micro confined reaction vessels.
November 29, 2016: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895806/genome-wide-epigenomic-profiling-for-biomarker-discovery
#15
REVIEW
René A M Dirks, Hendrik G Stunnenberg, Hendrik Marks
A myriad of diseases is caused or characterized by alteration of epigenetic patterns, including changes in DNA methylation, post-translational histone modifications, or chromatin structure. These changes of the epigenome represent a highly interesting layer of information for disease stratification and for personalized medicine. Traditionally, epigenomic profiling required large amounts of cells, which are rarely available with clinical samples. Also, the cellular heterogeneity complicates analysis when profiling clinical samples for unbiased genome-wide biomarker discovery...
2016: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894999/matched-comparative-modeling-of-normal-and-diseased-human-airway-responses-using-a-microengineered-breathing-lung-chip
#16
Kambez H Benam, Richard Novak, Janna Nawroth, Mariko Hirano-Kobayashi, Thomas C Ferrante, Youngjae Choe, Rachelle Prantil-Baun, James C Weaver, Anthony Bahinski, Kevin K Parker, Donald E Ingber
Smoking represents a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but it is difficult to characterize smoke-induced injury responses under physiological breathing conditions in humans due to patient-to-patient variability. Here, we show that a small airway-on-a-chip device lined by living human bronchiolar epithelium from normal or COPD patients can be connected to an instrument that "breathes" whole cigarette smoke in and out of the chips to study smoke-induced pathophysiology in vitro...
November 23, 2016: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894936/identification-and-expression-analyses-of-vitellogenin-in-bactericera-cockerelli-%C3%A5-ulc
#17
Freddy Ibanez, Julien Levy, Cecilia Tamborindeguy
The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a phloem-feeding insect with preference for Solanaceae. This insect species is vector of the pathogenic bacteria 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' the causative agent of zebra chip, an important disease of commercial potatoes in several countries worldwide. The recent classification of psyllids among the most dangerous vectors has promoted their study, but still many biological processes such as reproduction and vitellogenesis need to be investigated...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883888/personalized-disease-models-on-a-chip
#18
Nalin Tejavibulya, Samuel K Sia
Organs-on-chips are beginning to serve as a useful platform for individualized disease models in a way that minimizes patient-to-patient variability.
November 23, 2016: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876286/clinical-trials-in-a-dish
#19
David G Strauss, Ksenia Blinova
Clinical trials 'in a dish' involve testing medical therapies for safety or effectiveness in the laboratory with human tissue. This has become possible owing to recent biotechnology advances including induced pluripotent stem cells, organs-on-a-chip, and whole-genome sequencing. We provide here an overview of the landscape and highlight steps the FDA is taking to advance the science of clinical trials in a dish and to support the development and validation of new regulatory paradigms to assess drug safety using these new technologies...
November 19, 2016: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866008/organs-on-chips-research-and-commercial-perspectives
#20
REVIEW
Aarathi Balijepalli, Vaibhav Sivaramakrishan
Traditional preclinical drug testing methods utilize animal models to predict pharmacology and toxicology profiles. However, the data obtained from such methods cannot be directly extrapolated to humans and often do not provide a safe starting dose for first-in-human studies. To overcome these limitations, researchers have developed organs-on-chips - microfluidic devices that can mimic the cellular architecture and physiology more accurately than conventional methods. Because accurate organ-level interactions can be achieved with these devices, they have the potential to provide a realistic determination of a drug's pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and toxicity profile...
November 16, 2016: Drug Discovery Today
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