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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211993/recent-lab-on-chip-developments-for-novel-drug-discovery
#1
REVIEW
Nauman Khalid, Isao Kobayashi, Mitsutoshi Nakajima
Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and micro total analysis systems (μTAS) revolutionized the biochemical and electronic industries, and this miniaturization process became a key driver for many markets. Now, it is a driving force for innovations in life sciences, diagnostics, analytical sciences, and chemistry, which are called 'lab-on-a-chip, (LOC)' devices. The use of these devices allows the development of fast, portable, and easy-to-use systems with a high level of functional integration for applications such as point-of-care diagnostics, forensics, the analysis of biomolecules, environmental or food analysis, and drug development...
February 17, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211642/biomechanical-strain-exacerbates-inflammation-on-a-progeria-on-a-chip-model
#2
João Ribas, Yu Shrike Zhang, Patrícia R Pitrez, Jeroen Leijten, Mario Miscuglio, Jeroen Rouwkema, Mehmet Remzi Dokmeci, Xavier Nissan, Lino Ferreira, Ali Khademhosseini
Organ-on-a-chip platforms seek to recapitulate the complex microenvironment of human organs using miniaturized microfluidic devices. Besides modeling healthy organs, these devices have been used to model diseases, yielding new insights into pathophysiology. Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a premature aging disease showing accelerated vascular aging, leading to the death of patients due to cardiovascular diseases. HGPS targets primarily vascular cells, which reside in mechanically active tissues...
February 17, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196304/cell-guidance-on-nanostructured-metal-based-surfaces
#3
REVIEW
Yulia Zhukova, Ekaterina V Skorb
Metal surface nanostructuring to guide cell behavior is an attractive strategy to improve parts of medical implants, lab-on-a-chip, soft robotics, self-assembled microdevices, and bionic devices. Here, we discus important parameters, relevant trends, and specific examples of metal surface nanostructuring to guide cell behavior on metal-based hybrid surfaces. Surface nanostructuring allows precise control of cell morphology, adhesion, internal organization, and function. Pre-organized metal nanostructuring and dynamic stimuli-responsive surfaces are used to study various cell behaviors...
February 14, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195514/blood-brain-barrier-on-a-chip-microphysiological-systems-that-capture-the-complexity-of-the-blood-central-nervous-system-interface
#4
Duc Tt Phan, R Hugh F Bender, Jillian W Andrejecsk, Agua Sobrino, Stephanie J Hachey, Steven C George, Christopher Cw Hughes
The blood-brain barrier is a dynamic and highly organized structure that strictly regulates the molecules allowed to cross the brain vasculature into the central nervous system. The blood-brain barrier pathology has been associated with a number of central nervous system diseases, including vascular malformations, stroke/vascular dementia, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, and various neurological tumors including glioblastoma multiforme. There is a compelling need for representative models of this critical interface...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195317/human-papillomavirus-self-sampling-for-screening-non-attenders-opt-in-pilot-implementation-with-electronic-communication-platforms
#5
Janni Uyen Hoa Lam, Matejka Rebolj, Ditte Møller Ejegod, Helle Pedersen, Carsten Rygaard, Elsebeth Lynge, Louise Thirstrup Thomsen, Susanne Krüger Kjaer, Jesper Bonde
In organized cervical screening programs, typically 25% of the invited women do not attend. The Copenhagen Self-sampling Initiative (CSi) aimed to gain experiences on participation among screening non-attenders in the Capital Region of Denmark. Here, we report on the effectiveness of different communication platforms used in the pilot with suggestions for strategies prior to a full-implementation. Moreover, an innovative approach using self-sampling brushes with unique radio frequency identification chips allowed for unprecedented levels patient identification safety...
February 13, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186153/superresolution-imaging-of-nanoscale-chromosome-contacts
#6
Yejun Wang, Prasuna Ratna, G V Shivashankar
Co-expression of a specific group of genes requires physical associations among these genes, which form functional chromosomal contacts. While DNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) pinpoints the localization of genes within the 3D nuclear architecture, direct evidence of physical chromosomal contacts is still lacking. Here, we report a method for the direct visualization of transcription-dependent chromosomal contacts formed in two distinct mechanical states of cells. We prepared open chromatin spreads from isolated nuclei, ensuring 2D rendering of chromosome organization...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182472/integrating-health-care-for-high-need-medicaid-beneficiaries-with-serious-mental-illness-and-chronic-physical-health-conditions-at-managed-care-provider-and-consumer-levels
#7
Jung Y Kim, Tricia Collins Higgins, Dominick Esposito, Allison Hamblin
OBJECTIVE: Policies supporting value-based care and alternative payment models, notably in the Affordable Care Act and the Medicare Access & CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015, offer hope to advance care integration for individuals with behavioral and chronic physical health conditions. The potential for integration to improve quality while managing costs for individuals with high needs, coupled with the remaining financial, operational, and policy challenges, underscores a need for continued discussion of integration programs' preliminary outcomes and lessons...
February 9, 2017: Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177608/thermally-stable-white-emitting-eu-3-complex-nanozeolite-luminescent-glass-composite-with-high-cri-for-organic-resin-free-warm-white-leds
#8
Jinhui Zhang, Shuming Gong, Jinbo Yu, Peng Li, Xuejie Zhang, Yuwei He, Jianbang Zhou, Rui Shi, Huanrong Li, Aiyun Peng, Jing Wang
Nowadays, it is still a great challenge for lanthanide complexes to be applied in solid state lighting, especially for high-power LEDs because they will suffer severe thermal-induced luminescence quenching and transmittance loss when LEDs are operated at high current. In this paper, we have not only obtained high efficient and thermally chemical stable red emitting hybrid material by introducing europium complex into nanozeolite (NZ) functionalized with the imidazolium-based stopper but also abated its thermal-induced transmittance loss and luminescence quenching behavior via coating it onto a heat-resistant luminescent glass (LG) with high thermal conductivity (1...
February 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177401/response-of-soil-mesofauna-to-long-term-application-of-feedlot-manure-on-irrigated-cropland
#9
Jim J Miller, Jeff P Battigelli, Bruce W Beasley, Craig F Drury
Long-term application of feedlot manure to cropland may influence soil mesofauna. These organisms affect the health, structure, and fertility of soils, organic matter decomposition, and crop growth. The objective was to study the long-term (16-17 yr) influence of feedlot manure type and bedding on soil mesofauna over 2 yr (2014-2015). Stockpiled or composted feedlot manure with straw (ST) or wood-chip (WD) bedding (plus unamended control) was annually applied (13 Mg ha dry wt.) to an irrigated clay loam soil with continuous barley ()...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177400/can-organic-materials-reduce-excess-nutrient-leaching-from-manure-rich-paddock-soils
#10
Mohammed Masud Parvage, Barbro Ulén, Holger Kirchmann
Horse paddocks have been identified as a significant contributor of animal waste nutrients to natural waters; thus, modified paddock management is needed. Because chemical amendments pose a health risk to horses, an alternative for reducing nutrient translocation from manure is to add available organic residues to the soil. To examine the feasibility of outdoor use of organic materials to reduce nutrient losses from paddock soils, three commonly available organic materials (peat, wheat straw, and wood chips) were tested for their nutrient retention capacities in batch experiments followed by leaching experiments in an in-house lysimeter station using artificial rainfall...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158295/genomic-sequence-of-candidatus-liberibacter-solanacearum-haplotype-c-and-its-comparison-with-haplotype-a-and-b-genomes
#11
Jinhui Wang, Minna Haapalainen, Thomas Schott, Sarah M Thompson, Grant R Smith, Anne I Nissinen, Minna Pirhonen
Haplotypes A and B of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' (CLso) are associated with diseases of solanaceous plants, especially Zebra chip disease of potato, and haplotypes C, D and E are associated with symptoms on apiaceous plants. To date, one complete genome of haplotype B and two high quality draft genomes of haplotype A have been obtained for these unculturable bacteria using metagenomics from the psyllid vector Bactericera cockerelli. Here, we present the first genomic sequences obtained for the carrot-associated CLso...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155845/design-and-fabrication-of-a-scalable-liver-lobule-on-a-chip-microphysiological-platform
#12
Amin A Banaeiyan, Jannick Theobald, Jurgita Paukštyte, Stefan Wölfl, Caroline B Adiels, Mattias Goksör
The design and fabrication of a very large-scale liver-lobule (VLSLL)-on-a-chip device, providing a microphysiological niche for hepatocytes, is described. The device consists of an integrated network of liver-lobule-like hexagonal tissue-culture chambers constructed in a hybrid layout with a separate seed-feed network. As a key feature, each chamber contains a central outlet mimicking the central vein of a liver lobule. Separating chamber walls located between the culture area and feed network protects cells from the shear force of the convective flow...
February 3, 2017: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155594/pbpk-modeling-a-predictive-eco-friendly-bio-waiver-tool-for-drug-research
#13
Baishakhi De, Koushik Bhandari, Ranjan Mukherjee, Prakash Katakam, Shanta K Adiki, Rohit Gundamaraju, Analava Mitra
BACKGROUND: The world has witnessed growing complexities in disease scenario influenced by the drastic changes in host-pathogen- environment triadic relation. Pharmaceutical R&Ds are in constant search of novel therapeutic entities to hasten transition of drug molecules from lab bench to patient bedside. Extensive animal studies and human pharmacokinetics are still the "gold standard" in investigational new drug research and bio-equivalency studies. Apart from cost, time and ethical issues on animal experimentation, burning questions arise relating to ecological disturbances, environmental hazards and biodiversity issues...
February 1, 2017: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146428/hypoxia-reduces-testosterone-synthesis-in-mouse-leydig-cells-by-inhibiting-nrf1-activated-star-expression
#14
Xueting Wang, Longlu Pan, Zhiran Zou, Dan Wang, Yapeng Lu, Zhangji Dong, Li Zhu
Male fertility disorders play a key role in half of all infertility cases. Reduction in testosterone induced by hypoxia might cause diseases in reproductive system and other organs. Hypoxic exposure caused a significant decrease of NRF1. Software analysis reported that the promoter region of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) contained NRF1 binding sites, indicating NRF1 promoted testicular steroidogenesis. The purpose of this study is to determine NRF1 is involved in testosterone synthesis; and under hypoxia, the decrease of testosterone synthesis is caused by lower expression of NRF1...
January 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141801/distinct-antibody-responses-of-patients-with-mild-and-severe-leptospirosis-determined-by-whole-proteome-microarray-analysis
#15
Carolina Lessa-Aquino, Janet C Lindow, Arlo Randall, Elsio Wunder, Jozelyn Pablo, Rie Nakajima, Algis Jasinskas, Jaqueline S Cruz, Alcineia O Damião, Nívison Nery, Guilherme S Ribeiro, Federico Costa, José E Hagan, Mitermayer Galvão Reis, Albert I Ko, Marco Alberto Medeiros, Philip L Felgner
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease worldwide. Humans usually present a mild non-specific febrile illness, but a proportion of them develop more severe outcomes, such as multi-organ failure, lung hemorrhage and death. Such complications are thought to depend on several factors, including the host immunity. Protective immunity is associated with humoral immune response, but little is known about the immune response mounted during naturally-acquired Leptospira infection...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139463/microfluidic-chip-based-micro-rna-detection-through-the-combination-of-fluorescence-and-surface-enhanced-raman-scattering-techniques
#16
Zhile Wang, Shenfei Zong, Zhuyuan Wang, Lei Wu, Peng Chen, Binfeng Yun, Yiping Cui
We present a novel microfluidic chip based method for the detection of micro RNA (miRNA) via the combination of fluorescence and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopies. First, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are immobilized onto a glass slide, forming a SERS enhancing substrate. Then a specificially designed molecular beacon (MB) is attached to the SERS substrate. The 3' end of the MB is decorated with a thiol group to facilitate the attachment of the MB, while the 5' end of the MB is labeled with an organic dye 6-FAM, which is used both as the fluorophore and SERS reporter...
March 10, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126814/photosensitized-energy-transfer-mediated-organometallic-catalysis-through-electronically-excited-nickel-ii
#17
Eric R Welin, Chip Le, Daniela M Arias-Rotondo, James K McCusker, David W C MacMillan
Transition metal catalysis has traditionally relied on organometallic complexes that can cycle through a series of ground-state oxidation levels to achieve a series of discrete yet fundamental fragment-coupling steps. The viability of excited-state organometallic catalysis via direct photoexcitation has been demonstrated. Although the utility of triplet sensitization by energy transfer has long been known as a powerful activation mode in organic photochemistry, it is surprising to recognize that photosensitization mechanisms to access excited-state organometallic catalysts have lagged far behind...
January 27, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125908/the-family-home-environment-food-insecurity-and-body-mass-index-in-rural-children
#18
Jennifer A Jackson, Ellen Smit, Adam Branscum, Katherine Gunter, Marie Harvey, Melinda M Manore, Deborah John
BACKGROUND: Family homes are a key setting for developing lifelong eating and physical activity habits, yet little is known about how family home nutrition and physical activity (FNPA) environments influence food insecurity (FI) and childhood obesity, particularly in rural settings. AIMS: This study examined associations among FNPA, FI, and body mass index (BMI) in rural children. METHOD: Parents of 186 elementary school-age children completed FNPA and FI surveys...
January 1, 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120405/non-animal-models-of-wound-healing-in-cutaneous-repair-in-silico-in-vitro-ex-vivo-and-in-vivo-models-of-wounds-and-scars-in-human-skin
#19
Sara Ud-Din, Ardeshir Bayat
Tissue repair models are essential in order to explore the pathogenesis of wound healing and scar formation, identify new drug targets/biomarkers and to test new therapeutics. However, no animal model is an exact replicate of the clinical situation in man as in addition to differences in the healing of animal skin; the response to novel therapeutics can be variable when compared to human skin. The aim of this review is to evaluate currently available non-animal wound repair models in human skin, including: in silico, in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo...
January 24, 2017: Wound Repair and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117805/image-guided-laser-based-fabrication-of-vascular-derived-microfluidic-networks
#20
Keely A Heintz, David Mayerich, John H Slater
This detailed protocol outlines the implementation of image-guided, laser-based hydrogel degradation for the fabrication of vascular-derived microfluidic networks embedded in PEGDA hydrogels. Here, we describe the creation of virtual masks that allow for image-guided laser control; the photopolymerization of a micromolded PEGDA hydrogel, suitable for microfluidic network fabrication and pressure head-driven flow; the setup and use of a commercially available laser scanning confocal microscope paired with a femtosecond pulsed Ti:S laser to induce hydrogel degradation; and the imaging of fabricated microfluidic networks using fluorescent species and confocal microscopy...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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