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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644560/identification-and-characterization-of-ars-like-sequences-as-putative-origin-s-of-replication-in-human-malaria-parasite-plasmodium-falciparum
#1
Meetu Agarwal, Krishanu Bhowmick, Kushal Shah, Annangarachari Krishnamachari, Suman Kumar Dhar
DNA replication is a fundamental process in genome maintenance, and initiates from several genomic sites (origins) in eukaryotes. In S. cerevisiae, conserved sequences known as Autonomously Replicating Sequences (ARSs) provide a landing pad for the Origin Recognition Complex (ORC), leading to replication initiation. Although origins from higher eukaryotes share some common sequence features, the definitive genomic organization of these sites remains elusive. The human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum undergoes multiple rounds of DNA replication; therefore, control of initiation events is crucial to ensure proper replication...
June 23, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644395/optical-tracking-and-digital-quantification-of-beating-behavior-in-bioengineered-human-cardiac-organoids
#2
Mahesh Devarasetty, Steven Forsythe, Thomas D Shupe, Shay Soker, Colin E Bishop, Anthony Atala, Aleksander Skardal
Organoid and organ-on-a-chip technologies are rapidly advancing towards deployment for drug and toxicology screening applications. Liver and cardiac toxicities account for the majority of drug candidate failures in human trials. Liver toxicity generally produces liver cell death, while cardiac toxicity causes adverse changes in heart beat kinetics. In traditional 2D cultures, beating kinetics can be measured by electrode arrays, but in some 3D constructs, quantifying beating kinetics can be more challenging...
June 23, 2017: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642491/a-cross-species-approach-to-identify-transcriptional-regulators-exemplified-for-dnajc22-and-hnf4a
#3
A C Aschenbrenner, K Bassler, M Brondolin, L Bonaguro, P Carrera, K Klee, T Ulas, J L Schultze, M Hoch
There is an enormous need to make better use of the ever increasing wealth of publicly available genomic information and to utilize the tremendous progress in computational approaches in the life sciences. Transcriptional regulation of protein-coding genes is a major mechanism of controlling cellular functions. However, the myriad of transcription factors potentially controlling transcription of any given gene makes it often difficult to quickly identify the biological relevant transcription factors. Here, we report on the identification of Hnf4a as a major transcription factor of the so far unstudied DnaJ heat shock protein family (Hsp40) member C22 (Dnajc22)...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640195/pharmacogenomic-variants-may-influence-the-urinary-excretion-of-novel-kidney-injury-biomarkers-in-patients-receiving-cisplatin
#4
Cara Chang, Yichun Hu, Susan L Hogan, Nickie Mercke, Madeleine Gomez, Cindy O'Bryant, Daniel W Bowles, Blessy George, Xia Wen, Lauren M Aleksunes, Melanie S Joy
Nephrotoxicity is a dose limiting side effect associated with the use of cisplatin in the treatment of solid tumors. The degree of nephrotoxicity is dictated by the selective accumulation of cisplatin in renal tubule cells due to: (1) uptake by organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) and copper transporter 1 (CTR1); (2) metabolism by glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and γ-glutamyltransferase 1 (GGT1); and (3) efflux by multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) and multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 (MATE1)...
June 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636596/selective-sp-3-c-h-alkylation-via-polarity-match-based-cross-coupling
#5
Chip Le, Yufan Liang, Ryan W Evans, Ximing Li, David W C MacMillan
The functionalization of carbon-hydrogen (C-H) bonds is one of the most attractive strategies for molecular construction in organic chemistry. The hydrogen atom is considered to be an ideal coupling handle, owing to its relative abundance in organic molecules and its availability for functionalization at almost any stage in a synthetic sequence. Although many C-H functionalization reactions involve C(sp(3))-C(sp(2)) coupling, there is a growing demand for C-H alkylation reactions, wherein sp(3) C-H bonds are replaced with sp(3) C-alkyl groups...
June 21, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623578/characterization-of-cell-type-specific-dna-binding-sites-of-plant-transcription-factors-using-chromatin-immunoprecipitation
#6
On Sun Lau
The generation of diverse cell types in multicellular organisms often requires the activity of cell-type-specific transcription factors. Understanding where these transcription factors bind in controlling specific cellular programs is critical. However, probing these cell-type-specific factors in vivo with standard chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays remains a challenge. We have developed an optimized ChIP assay termed Maximized Objects for Better Enrichment (MOBE)-ChIP, which improves ChIP sensitivity and allows the detection of cell-type-specific signals at a genome-wide scale...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622076/human-ips-derived-endothelial-cells-for-3d-microphysiological-systems
#7
Yosuke K Kurokawa, Rose T Yin, Michael R Shang, Venktesh S Shirure, Monica L Moya, Steven C George
Microphysiological systems, or "organ-on-a-chip", platforms, aim to recapitulate in vivo physiology using small-scale in vitro tissue models of human physiology. While significant efforts have been made to create vascularized tissues, most reports utilize primary endothelial cells which hinder reproducibility. Here we report the use of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived endothelial cells (iPS-EC) in developing 3D microvascular networks. We established a CDH5-mCherry reporter iPS cell line, which expresses the vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin fused to mCherry...
June 16, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621834/from-intricate-to-integrated-biofabrication-of-articulating-joints
#8
Wilhelmina Margaretha Groen, Paweena Diloksumpan, Paul René van Weeren, Riccardo Levato, Jos Malda
Articulating joints owe their function to the specialized architecture and the complex interplay between multiple tissues including cartilage, bone and synovium. Especially the cartilage component has limited self-healing capacity and damage often leads to the onset of osteoarthritis, eventually resulting in failure of the joint as an organ. Although in its infancy, biofabrication has emerged as a promising technology to reproduce the intricate organization of the joint, thus enabling the introduction of novel surgical treatments, regenerative therapies, and new sets of tools to enhance our understanding of joint physiology and pathology...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620766/phenotype-transformation-of-aortic-valve-interstitial-cells-due-to-applied-shear-stresses-within-a-microfluidic-chip
#9
Xinmei Wang, Joohyung Lee, Mir Ali, Jungkyu Kim, Carla M R Lacerda
Despite valvular heart diseases constituting a significant medical problem, the acquisition of information describing their pathophysiology remains difficult. Due to valvular size, role and location within the body, there is a need for in vitro systems that can recapitulate disease onset and progression. This study combines the development of an in vitro model and its application in the mechanical stimulation of valvular cell transformation. Specifically, porcine aortic valvular interstitial cells (PAVIC) were cultured on polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic devices with or without exposure to shear stresses...
June 15, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618226/nanotexturing-of-conjugated-polymers-via-one-step-maskless-oxygen-plasma-etching-for-enhanced-tunable-wettability
#10
Youhua Jiang, Jian Xu, Junghoon Lee, Ke Du, Eui-Hyeok Yang, Myoung-Woon Moon, Chang-Hwan Choi
A one-step maskless oxygen plasma etching process is investigated to nanopattern conjugated polymer, dodecylbenzenesulfonate-doped polypyrrole (PPy(DBS)), and to examine the effects of nanostructures on the inherent tunable wettability of the surface and the droplet mobility. Etching characteristics such as the geometry and dimension of the nanostructures are systematically examined for the etching power and duration. The mechanism of self-formation of vertically-aligned dense-array pillared nanostructures in the one-step maskless oxygen plasma etching process is also investigated...
June 15, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617495/thiol-ene-micropillar-array-electrospray-ionization-platform-for-zeptomole-level-bioanalysis
#11
K Lipponen, S Tähkä, T Sikanen, V Jokinen, A Tatikonda, S Franssila, R Kostiainen, T Kotiaho
A micropillar array electrospray ionization (μPESI) platform fabricated from thiol-enes with 56 individual polyethylene glycol coated μPESI chips for bioanalytical mass spectrometry is introduced. Bioanalysis capability is shown by measurement of a protein, a protein digest and a cell lysate sample. The thiol-ene polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated μPESI chip allows the use of a wide range of aqueous-organic solvent compositions and provides a detection limit at 60 zeptomole level (6 × 10(-20) mol) for a peptide standard...
June 15, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617487/organ-on-a-chip-devices-advance-to-market
#12
Boyang Zhang, Milica Radisic
To curb the high cost of drug development, there is an urgent need to develop more predictive tissue models using human cells to determine drug efficacy and safety in advance of clinical testing. Recent insights gained through fundamental biological studies have validated the importance of dynamic cell environments and cellular communication to the expression of high fidelity organ function. Building on this knowledge, emerging organ-on-a-chip technology is poised to fill the gaps in drug screening by offering predictive human tissue models with methods of sophisticated tissue assembly...
June 15, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613308/on-chip-cryo-anesthesia-of-drosophila-larvae-for-high-resolution-in-vivo-imaging-applications
#13
Amrita Ray Chaudhury, Ryan Insolera, Ran-Der Hwang, Yih-Woei Fridell, Catherine Collins, Nikos Chronis
We present a microfluidic chip for immobilizing Drosophila melanogaster larvae for high resolution in vivo imaging. The chip creates a low-temperature micro-environment that anaesthetizes and immobilizes the larva in under 3 minutes. We characterized the temperature distribution within the chip and analyzed the resulting larval body movement using high resolution fluorescence imaging. Our results indicate that the proposed method minimizes submicron movements of internal organs and tissue without affecting the larva physiology...
June 14, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611266/retinoid-x-receptor-%C3%AE-dependent-hbv-minichromosome-remodeling-and-viral-replication
#14
Yan Zhang, Song He, Jin-Jun Guo, Hong Peng, Jia-Hao Fan, Qing-Ling Li
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) is organized into a minichromosome in the nuclei of infected hepatocytes through interactions with histone and nonhistone proteins. Retinoid X receptor α (RXRα), a liver-enriched nuclear receptor, participates in regulation of HBV replication and transcription through modulation of HBV enhancer 1 and core promoter activity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study investigated RXRα involvement in HBV cccDNA epigenetic modifications...
August 1, 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608907/organs-on-chips-with-combined-multi-electrode-array-and-transepithelial-electrical-resistance-measurement-capabilities
#15
Ben M Maoz, Anna Herland, Olivier Y F Henry, William D Leineweber, Moran Yadid, John Doyle, Robert Mannix, Ville J Kujala, Edward A FitzGerald, Kevin Kit Parker, Donald E Ingber
Here we demonstrate that microfluidic cell culture devices, known as Organs-on-a-Chips can be fabricated with multifunctional, real-time, sensing capabilities by integrating both multi-electrode arrays (MEAs) and electrodes for transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurements into the chips during their fabrication. To prove proof-of-concept, simultaneous measurements of cellular electrical activity and tissue barrier function were carried out in a dual channel, endothelialized, heart-on-a-chip device containing human cardiomyocytes and a channel-separating porous membrane covered with a primary human endothelial cell monolayer...
June 13, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604785/genome-wide-association-analysis-and-functional-annotation-of-positional-candidate-genes-for-feed-conversion-efficiency-and-growth-rate-in-pigs
#16
Justyna Horodyska, Ruth M Hamill, Patrick F Varley, Henry Reyer, Klaus Wimmers
Feed conversion efficiency is a measure of how well an animal converts feed into live weight and it is typically expressed as feed conversion ratio (FCR). FCR and related traits like growth rate (e.g. days to 110 kg-D110) are of high interest for animal breeders, farmers and society due to implications on animal performance, feeding costs and environmental sustainability. The objective of this study was to identify genomic regions associated with FCR and D110 in pigs. A total of 952 terminal line boars, showing an individual variation in FCR, were genotyped using 60K SNP-Chips...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603005/neighbourhood-socioeconomic-inequality-and-gender-differences-in-body-mass-index-the-role-of-unhealthy-behaviours
#17
Xiaoqi Feng, Andrew Wilson
Reported differences in the severity of the social gradient in body mass index (BMI) by gender may be attributable to differences in behaviour. Self-reported height, weight, socioeconomic and behavioural data were obtained for a sample of 10,281 Australians aged ≥15years in 2009. Multilevel regressions were fitted with BMI as the outcome variable. Two-way interactions between gender and neighbourhood disadvantage were fitted, adjusted for confounders. Models were then adjusted for four behavioural factors ("chips, snacks and confectionary", "smoking, little fruit or veg", "time poor and less physically active" and "alcohol consumption")...
June 8, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598479/organs-on-chips-with-integrated-electrodes-for-trans-epithelial-electrical-resistance-teer-measurements-of-human-epithelial-barrier-function
#18
Olivier Y F Henry, Remi Villenave, Michael J Cronce, William D Leineweber, Maximilian A Benz, Donald E Ingber
Trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) is broadly used as an experimental readout and a quality control assay for measuring the integrity of epithelial monolayers cultured under static conditions in vitro, however, there is no standard methodology for its application to microfluidic organ-on-a-chip (organ chip) cultures. Here, we describe a new microfluidic organ chip design that contains embedded electrodes, and we demonstrate its utility for assessing formation and disruption of barrier function both within a human lung airway chip lined by a fully differentiated mucociliary human airway epithelium and in a human gut chip lined by intestinal epithelial cells...
June 9, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597974/a-simple-cell-transport-device-keeps-culture-alive-and-functional-during-shipping
#19
Paula G Miller, Ying I Wang, Glen Swan, Michael L Shuler
Transporting living complex cellular constructs through the mail while retaining their full viability and functionality is challenging. During this process, cells often suffer from exposure to suboptimal life-sustaining conditions (e.g. temperature, pH), as well as damage due to shear stress. We have developed a transport device for shipping intact cell/tissue constructs from one facility to another that overcomes these obstacles. Our transport device maintained three different cell lines (Caco2, A549, and HepG2 C3A) individually on transwell membranes with high viability (above 97%) for 48 h under simulated shipping conditions without an incubator...
June 9, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596545/rapid-on-site-monitoring-of-legionella-pneumophila-in-cooling-tower-water-using-a-portable-microfluidic-system
#20
Nobuyasu Yamaguchi, Yusuke Tokunaga, Satoko Goto, Yudai Fujii, Fumiya Banno, Akiko Edagawa
Legionnaires' disease, predominantly caused by the bacterium Legionella pneumophila, has increased in prevalence worldwide. The most common mode of transmission of Legionella is inhalation of contaminated aerosols, such as those generated by cooling towers. Simple, rapid and accurate methods to enumerate L. pneumophila are required to prevent the spread of this organism. Here, we applied a microfluidic device for on-chip fluorescent staining and semi-automated counting of L. pneumophila in cooling tower water...
June 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
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