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Organs chips

Brian F Niemeyer, Peng Zhao, Rubin M Tuder, Kambez H Benam
Lung diseases impose a significant socioeconomic burden and are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Moreover, respiratory medicine, unlike several other therapeutic areas, faces a disappointingly low number of new approved therapies. This is partly due to lack of reliable in vitro or in vivo models that can reproduce organ-level complexity and pathophysiological responses of human lung. Here, we examine new opportunities in application of recently emerged organ-on-chip technology to model human lung alveolus and small airway in preclinical drug development and biomarker discovery...
February 1, 2018: SLAS Discovery
Vinesh Vinayachandran, Rohit Reja, Matthew J Rossi, Bongsoo Park, Lila Rieber, Chitvan Mittal, Shaun Mahony, B Franklin Pugh
Gene expression is controlled by a variety of proteins that interact with the genome. Their precise organization and mechanism of action at every promoter remains to be worked out. To better understand the physical interplay among genome-interacting proteins, we examined the temporal binding of a functionally diverse subset of these proteins: nucleosomes (H3), H2AZ (Htz1), SWR (Swr1), RSC (Rsc1, Rsc3, Rsc58, Rsc6, Rsc9, Sth1), SAGA (Spt3, Spt7, Ubp8, Sgf11), Hsf1, TFIID (Spt15/TBP and Taf1), TFIIB (Sua7), TFIIH (Ssl2), FACT (Spt16), Pol II (Rpb3), and Pol II carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) phosphorylation at serines 2, 5, and 7...
February 14, 2018: Genome Research
Prajakta Khalkar, Hani Abdulkadir Ali, Paula Codó, Nuria Díaz Argelich, Anni Martikainen, Mohsen Karimi Arzenani, Sören Lehmann, Julian Walfridsson, Johanna Ungerstedt, Aristi P Fernandes
Selenium compounds have emerged as promising chemotherapeutic agents with proposed epigenetic effects, however the mechanisms and downstream effects are yet to be studied. Here we assessed the effects of the inorganic selenium compound selenite and the organic form methylseleninic acid (MSA) in a leukemic cell line K562, on active (histone H3 lysine 9 acetylation, H3K9ac and histone H3 lysine 4 tri-methylation, H3K4me3) and repressive (histone H3 lysine 9 tri-methylation, H3K9me3) histone marks by Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by DNA sequencing (ChIP-Seq)...
February 10, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Yaqing Wang, Li Wang, Yujuan Zhu, Jianhua Qin
Nicotine has been recognized to trigger various neuronal disabilities in the fetal brain and long-lasting behavioral deficits in offspring. However, further understanding of fetal brain development under nicotine exposure is challenging due to the limitations of existing animal models. Here, we create a new brain organoid-on-a-chip system derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) that allows us to model neurodevelopmental disorders under prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) at early stages. The brain organoid-on-a-chip system facilitates 3D culture, in situ neural differentiation, and self-organization of brain organoids under continuous perfused cultures in a controlled manner...
February 13, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Aviad Katiyi, Alina Karabchevsky
The ability to probe the molecular fundamental or overtones (high harmonics) vibrations is fundamental to modern healthcare monitoring techniques and sensing technologies since it provides an information about the molecular structure. However, since the absorption cross-section of molecular vibrations overtones is much smaller compared to the absorption cross-section of fundamental vibrations, their detection is challenging. Here, a silicon nanostrip rib waveguide structure is proposed for label-free on-chip overtone spectroscopy in near-infrared (NIR)...
February 13, 2018: ACS Sensors
Daniel W Hagey, Susanne Klum, Idha Kurtsdotter, Cecile Zaouter, Danijal Topcic, Olov Andersson, Maria Bergsland, Jonas Muhr
Stem cells are defined by their capacities to self-renew and generate progeny of multiple lineages. The transcription factor SOX2 has key roles in the regulation of stem cell characteristics, but whether SOX2 achieves these functions through similar mechanisms in distinct stem cell populations is not known. To address this question, we performed RNA-seq and SOX2 ChIP-seq on embryonic mouse cortex, spinal cord, stomach and lung/esophagus. We demonstrate that, although SOX2 binds a similar motif in the different cell types, its target regions are primarily cell-type-specific and enriched for the distinct binding motifs of appropriately expressed interacting co-factors...
February 12, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Jennifer W Israel, Grace A Chappell, Jeremy M Simon, Sebastian Pott, Alexias Safi, Lauren Lewis, Paul Cotney, Hala S Boulos, Wanda Bodnar, Jason D Lieb, Gregory E Crawford, Terrence S Furey, Ivan Rusyn
Epigenetic effects of environmental chemicals are under intense investigation to fill existing knowledge gaps between environmental/occupational exposures and adverse health outcomes. Chromatin accessibility is one prominent mechanism of epigenetic control of transcription, and understanding of the chemical effects on both could inform the causal role of epigenetic alterations in disease mechanisms. In this study, we hypothesized that baseline variability in chromatin organization and transcription profiles among various tissues and mouse strains influence the outcome of exposure to the DNA damaging chemical 1,3-butadiene...
February 10, 2018: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
Shu-Wei Chang, Wei-Cheng Liao, Yu-Ming Liao, Hung-I Lin, Hsia-Yu Lin, Wei-Ju Lin, Shih-Yao Lin, Packiyaraj Perumal, Golam Haider, Chia-Tse Tai, Kun-Ching Shen, Cheng-Han Chang, Yuan-Fu Huang, Tai-Yuan Lin, Yang-Fang Chen
Random laser with intrinsically uncomplicated fabrication processes, high spectral radiance, angle-free emission, and conformal onto freeform surfaces is in principle ideal for a variety of applications, ranging from lighting to identification systems. In this work, a white random laser (White-RL) with high-purity and high-stability is designed, fabricated, and demonstrated via the cost-effective materials (e.g., organic laser dyes) and simple methods (e.g., all-solution process and self-assembled structures)...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Saihua Wang, Hongyun Niu, Yaqi Cai, Dong Cao
High-throughput and rapid detection of hazardous compounds in complicated samples is essential for the solution of environmental problems. We have prepared a "pH-paper-like" chip which can rapidly "indicate" the occurrence of organic contaminants just through dipping the chip in water samples for short time followed by fast analysis with surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SALDI-TOF MS). The chips are composed of polyvinylidene fluoride membrane (PVDFM), polydopamine (PDA) film and Au nanoparticles (Au NPs), which are layer-by-layer assembled according to the adhesion, self-polymerization and reduction property of dopamine...
May 1, 2018: Talanta
Shaohua Qi, Lingaonan He, Qin Zhang, Qing Dong, Yajun Wang, Qiuying Yang, Chaoguang Tian, Qun He, Ying Wang
Catalase is an important enzyme found in nearly all aerobic organisms and plays an essential role in protecting cells from oxidative damage by catalyzing the degradation of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. In filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, the expression levels of catalases are rigorously regulated by morphogenetic transition during growth and development in cells. Our study revealed that catalase-3 transcription is positively regulated by histone acetyltransferase GCN5 and the cross-pathway control gene cpc-1, as the cat-3 expression level is significantly decreased in gcn5KO and cpc-1 (j-5) mutants...
February 5, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Yasuyuki Sakai, Marie Shinohara
Animal-free and mechanism-based understanding of human body responses is the ultimate goal of alternative to animal experiments. To achieve this goal, integration of advanced cell-based assays using iPS/ES cell technologies with various numerical methods are required. In this review, from the standpoint of tissue engineering, we focused first on the enhancement of physiological relevance of tissue culture models by overcoming the problem between 3D cellular organization and oxygen/nutrient supply. Second, we summarized the concept and actual systems of microfluidic-based body/organ on-a-chip systems, also called as microphysiological system, MPS, particularly for liver on-a-chip systems...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
Yu Shrike Zhang, Rahmi Oklu, Hassan Albadawi
Thrombosis is a prevailing vascular disorder that has been historically studied in vivo with conventional animal models. Here we review recent advances in methods and techniques that allow for engineering of biomimetic in vitro models of thrombosis, usually combined with microfluidic devices, termed thrombosis-on-a-chip systems, to reproduce such vascular pathology outside living organisms. These human cell-based thrombosis-on-a-chip platforms recapitulate the important characteristics of native thrombosis in terms of vascular structures, extracellular matrix properties, cellular composition, and pathophysiology, making them enabling in vitro models to study this important class of vascular disorders as well as to develop personalized treatment regimens...
December 2017: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
Seiichi Ishida
Assay systems using in vitro cultured cells are increasingly applied for evaluation of the efficacy, safety, and toxicity of drug candidates. In vitro cell-based assays have two main applications in the drug discovery process: searching for a compound that is effective against the target disease (seed investigation) and confirmation of safety during use of the identified compounds (safety assessment). Currently available in vitro cell-based assays have been designed to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity in single organs, but the in vivo pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the administered drug candidates have not been considered...
January 11, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Shunichi Satake, Changyuan Tang
Groundwater denitrification bioreactors under limited phosphorus conditions were studied in column experiments using four types of plant-chips. When the phosphate-P concentration in the influent increased from 0.04mg/L to 0.4mg/L, the nitrate removal ratio increased from 61.6% to 86.1% in reed, from 7.2% to 12.6% in Japanese cedar, from 37.0% to 73.6% in Moso bamboo, and from 19.2% to 50.5% in Lithocarpus edulis. The carbon source of the denitrifiers' growth was indicated by the content of acid detergent soluble organic matter in the chips...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Chia-Wen Tsao, I-Chao Lei, Pi-Yu Chen, Yu-Liang Yang
Mass spectrometry (MS) interfacing technology provides the means for incorporating microfluidic processing with post MS analysis. In this study, we propose a simple piezo-ring-on-chip microfluidic device for the controlled spraying of MALDI-MS targets. This device uses a low-cost, commercially-available ring-shaped piezoelectric acoustic atomizer (piezo-ring) directly integrated into a polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic device to spray the sample onto the MS target substrate. The piezo-ring-on-chip microfluidic device's design, fabrication, and actuation, and its pulsatile pumping effects were evaluated...
January 29, 2018: Analyst
Samuel Sofela, Sarah Sahloul, Mehdi Rafeie, Taehong Kwon, Jongyoon Han, Majid Ebrahimi Warkiani, Yong-Ak Song
In this study, we report the use of a high-throughput microfluidic spiral chip to screen out eggs from a mixed age nematode population, which can subsequently be cultured to a desired developmental stage. For the sorting of a mixture containing three different developmental stages, eggs, L1 and L4, we utilized a microfluidic spiral chip with a trapezoidal channel to obtain a sorting efficiency of above 97% and a sample purity (SP) of above 80% for eggs at different flow rates up to 10 mL min-1. The result demonstrated a cost-effective, simple, and highly efficient method for synchronizing C...
January 26, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Aleksandra Karolak, Dmitry A Markov, Lisa J McCawley, Katarzyna A Rejniak
A main goal of mathematical and computational oncology is to develop quantitative tools to determine the most effective therapies for each individual patient. This involves predicting the right drug to be administered at the right time and at the right dose. Such an approach is known as precision medicine. Mathematical modelling can play an invaluable role in the development of such therapeutic strategies, since it allows for relatively fast, efficient and inexpensive simulations of a large number of treatment schedules in order to find the most effective...
January 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Luke P Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Montserrat Torres-Oliva, Julia Schneider, Gordon Wiegleb, Felix Kaufholz, Nico Posnien
Drosophila melanogaster head development represents a valuable process to study the developmental control of various organs, such as the antennae, the dorsal ocelli and the compound eyes from a common precursor, the eye-antennal imaginal disc. While the gene regulatory network underlying compound eye development has been extensively studied, the key transcription factors regulating the formation of other head structures from the same imaginal disc are largely unknown. We obtained the developmental transcriptome of the eye-antennal discs covering late patterning processes at the late 2nd larval instar stage to the onset and progression of differentiation at the end of larval development...
January 23, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Weinan Xu, Kam Sang Kwok, David H Gracias
With the discovery of graphene, significant research has focused on the synthesis, characterization, and applications of ultrathin materials. Graphene has also brought into focus other ultrathin materials composed of organics, polymers, inorganics, and their hybrids. Together, these ultrathin materials have unique properties of broad significance. For example, ultrathin materials have a large surface area and high flexibility which can enhance conformal contact in wearables and sensors leading to improved sensitivity...
January 23, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
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