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Julien Moreau, Sébastien Ambellouis, Yassine Ruichek
A precise GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) localization is vital for autonomous road vehicles, especially in cluttered or urban environments where satellites are occluded, preventing accurate positioning. We propose to fuse GPS (Global Positioning System) data with fisheye stereovision to face this problem independently to additional data, possibly outdated, unavailable, and needing correlation with reality. Our stereoscope is sky-facing with 360° × 180° fisheye cameras to observe surrounding obstacles...
January 17, 2017: Sensors
Gina R Poe
It is possible that one of the essential functions of sleep is to take out the garbage, as it were, erasing and "forgetting" information built up throughout the day that would clutter the synaptic network that defines us. It may also be that this cleanup function of sleep is a general principle of neuroscience, applicable to every creature with a nervous system.
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Stefano Ricci, Abigail Swillens, Alessandro Ramalli, Patrick Segers, Piero Tortoli
Wall shear stress is known to affect the vessel endothelial function and to be related to important pathologies like the development of atherosclerosis. It is defined as the product of the blood viscosity by the blood velocity gradient at the wall position, i.e., the wall shear rate (WSR). The WSR measurement is particularly challenging in important cardiovascular sites, like the carotid bifurcation, because of the related complex flow configurations characterized by high spatial and temporal gradients, wall movement, and clutter noise...
January 2017: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Patricia Temple Gabbe, Rebecca Reno, Carmen Clutter, T F Schottke, Tanikka Price, Katherine Calhoun, Jamie Sager, Courtney D Lynch
Objectives To describe temporal changes in maternal and child health outcomes in an impoverished urban community after the implementation of an innovative community-based pregnancy support program, named Moms2B. Methods Beginning in 2011, pregnant women in an urban impoverished community were recruited for participation in a community-based pregnancy support program focused on improving nutrition coupled with increasing social and medical support. The comprehensive program targeting pregnancy through the infants' first year of life was developed and staffed by a multidisciplinary team from an academic health system...
January 10, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Jinxin Zhao, Yuanyuan Wang, Jinhua Yu, Wei Guo, Shun Zhang, Saeid Aliabadi
The short-lag spatial coherence (SLSC) imaging has been demonstrated to be advantageous over the traditional B-mode ultrasound imaging. With focused scanning beams, the SLSC imaging has an excellent performance in clutter reduction and lesion detection, especially in the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) scenarios. The synthetic aperture (SA) imaging is an appropriate mode for the SLSC imaging as the dynamic transmit focusing could keep a good focusing quality at any depth. However, the SLSC image may still suffer a bad resolution performance when a low lag value is used in the coherence summation to ensure the contrast enhancement...
January 1, 2017: Ultrasonic Imaging
Kai Lu, Yanbo Xu, Pingbo Yin, Andrew J Oxenham, Jonathan B Fritz, Shihab A Shamma
Perception of segregated sources is essential in navigating cluttered acoustic environments. A basic mechanism to implement this process is the temporal coherence principle. It postulates that a signal is perceived as emitted from a single source only when all of its features are temporally modulated coherently, causing them to bind perceptually. Here we report on neural correlates of this process as rapidly reshaped interactions in primary auditory cortex, measured in three different ways: as changes in response rates, as adaptations of spectrotemporal receptive fields following stimulation by temporally coherent and incoherent tone sequences, and as changes in spiking correlations during the tone sequences...
January 5, 2017: Nature Communications
Denise S Ryan, Rose K Sia, Richard D Stutzman, Joseph F Pasternak, Robin S Howard, Christopher L Howell, Tana Maurer, Mark F Torres, Kraig S Bower
PURPOSE: To compare visual performance, marksmanship performance, and threshold target identification following wavefront-guided (WFG) versus wavefront-optimized (WFO) photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). METHODS: In this prospective, randomized clinical trial, active duty U.S. military Soldiers, age 21 or over, electing to undergo PRK were randomized to undergo WFG (n = 27) or WFO (n = 27) PRK for myopia or myopic astigmatism. Binocular visual performance was assessed preoperatively and 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively: Super Vision Test high contrast, Super Vision Test contrast sensitivity (CS), and 25% contrast acuity with night vision goggle filter...
January 2017: Military Medicine
Emine Merve Kaya, Mounya Elhilali
Sounds in everyday life seldom appear in isolation. Both humans and machines are constantly flooded with a cacophony of sounds that need to be sorted through and scoured for relevant information-a phenomenon referred to as the 'cocktail party problem'. A key component in parsing acoustic scenes is the role of attention, which mediates perception and behaviour by focusing both sensory and cognitive resources on pertinent information in the stimulus space. The current article provides a review of modelling studies of auditory attention...
February 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Salman Khan, Bryan Tripp
There are compelling computational models of many properties of the primate ventral visual stream, but a gap remains between the models and the physiology. To facilitate ongoing refinement of these models, we have compiled diverse information from the electrophysiology literature into a statistical model of inferotemporal (IT) cortex responses. This is a purely descriptive model, so it has little explanatory power. However it is able to directly incorporate a rich and extensible set of tuning properties. So far, we have approximated tuning curves and statistics of tuning diversity for occlusion, clutter, size, orientation, position, and object selectivity in early versus late response phases...
December 13, 2016: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Tyson Neuroth, Franz Sauer, Weixing Wang, Stephane Ethier, Choong-Seock Chang, Kwan-Liu Ma
Visualizing distributions from data samples as well as spatial and temporal trends of multiple variables is fundamental to analyzing the output of today's scientific simulations. However, traditional visualization techniques are often subject to a trade-off between visual clutter and loss of detail, especially in a large-scale setting. In this work, we extend the use of spatially organized histograms into a sophisticated visualization system that can more effectively study trends between multiple variables throughout a spatial domain...
December 20, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Ana Novak, Nicholas Armstrong, Terrence Caelli, Iain Blair
Human target detection is known to be dependent on a number of components: one, basic electrooptics (EO) including image contrast, the target size, pixel resolution and contrast sensitivity; two, target shape, image type and features, types of clutter; and three, context and task requirements. Here we consider a Bayesian approach to investigating how these components contribute to target detection. To this end we develop and compare three different formulations for contrast: Mean Contrast, Perceptual Contrast and a Bayesian-based Histogram Contrast statistic...
December 22, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Yi Jin Liew, Manuel Aranda, Christian R Voolstra
Over the last decade, technological advancements have substantially decreased the cost and time of obtaining large amounts of sequencing data. Paired with the exponentially increased computing power, individual labs are now able to sequence genomes or transcriptomes to investigate biological questions of interest. This has led to a significant increase in available sequence data. Although the bulk of data published in articles are stored in public sequence databases, very often, only raw sequencing data are available; miscellaneous data such as assembled transcriptomes, genome annotations etc...
2016: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
Hasmukh A Patel, Jeehye Byun, Cafer T Yavuz
Excess carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and the inevitable consequences continuing to stimulate hard debate and awareness in both academic and public spaces, despite the clutter on understanding what really is needed to capture and store the unwanted CO2. Capture is the most costly, nearly 70 % of the price tag on the entire carbon capture and storage (CCS) operation. In this tutorial review, we describe and evaluate CO2 capture science and technology based on adsorbents in the context of chemistry and methods, after briefly introducing current status of CO2 emissions...
December 21, 2016: ChemSusChem
Xiao Chen, Yaan Li, Yuxing Li, Jing Yu, Xiaohua Li
The problem of data association for target tracking in a cluttered environment is discussed. In order to improve the real-time processing and accuracy of target tracking, based on a probabilistic data association algorithm, a novel data association algorithm using distance weighting was proposed, which can enhance the association probability of measurement originated from target, and then using a Kalman filter to estimate the target state more accurately. Thus, the tracking performance of the proposed algorithm when tracking non-maneuvering targets in a densely cluttered environment has improved, and also does better when two targets are parallel to each other, or at a small-angle crossing in a densely cluttered environment...
December 18, 2016: Sensors
Emily L Twedell, Wilma Koutstaal, Yuhong V Jiang
Visual clutter imposes significant challenges to older adults in everyday tasks and often calls on selective processing of relevant information. Previous research has shown that both visual search habits and task goals influence older adults' allocation of spatial attention, but has not examined the relative impact of these two sources of attention when they compete. To examine how aging affects the balance between goal-driven and habitual attention, and to inform our understanding of different attentional subsystems, we tested young and older adults in an adapted visual search task involving a display laid flat on a desk...
December 19, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Ping Gong, Pengfei Song, Shigao Chen
The development of ultrafast ultrasound imaging brings great opportunities to improve imaging technologies such as shear wave elastography and ultrafast Doppler imaging. In ultrafast imaging, several tilted plane or diverging wave images are coherently combined to form a compounded image, leading to trade-offs among image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), resolution, and post-compounded frame rate. Multiplane wave (MW) imaging is proposed to solve this trade-off by encoding multiple plane waves with Hadamard matrix during one transmission event (i...
December 12, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Yunchao Wei, Xiaodan Liang, Yunpeng Chen, Xiaohui Shen, Ming-Ming Cheng, Jiashi Feng, Yao Zhao, Shuicheng Yan
Recently, significant improvement has been made on semantic object segmentation due to the development of deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs). Training such a DCNN usually relies on a large number of images with pixel-level segmentation masks, and annotating these images is very costly in terms of both finance and human effort. In this paper, we propose a simple to complex (STC) framework in which only image-level annotations are utilized to learn DCNNs for semantic segmentation. Specifically, we first train an initial segmentation network called Initial-DCNN with the saliency maps of simple images (i...
December 6, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Don Roosan, Matthew Samore, Makoto Jones, Yarden Livnat, Justin Clutter
Complex clinical decision-making could be facilitated by using population health data to inform clinicians. In two previous studies, we interviewed 16 infectious disease experts to understand complex clinical reasoning. For this study, we focused on answers from the experts on how clinical reasoning can be supported by population-based Big-Data. We found cognitive strategies such as trajectory tracking, perspective taking, and metacognition has the potential to improve clinicians' cognition to deal with complex problems...
2016: IEEE International Conference on Healthcare Informatics IEEE International Conference on Healthcare Informatics
Brett Byram, Jasmine Shu
Multipath scattering, or reverberation, takes a substantial toll on image quality in many clinical exams. We have suggested a model-based solution to this problem, which we refer to as aperture domain model image reconstruction (ADMIRE). For ADMIRE to work well, it must be trained with precisely characterized data. To solve this specific problem and the general problem of efficiently simulating reverberation, we propose an approach to simulate reverberation with linear simulation tools. Our simulation method defines total propagation time, first scattering site, and a final scattering site...
October 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging
Mohammadali Shahriari, Mohammad Biglarbegian
This paper presents a new conflict resolution methodology for multiple mobile robots while ensuring their motion-liveness, especially for cluttered and dynamic environments. Our method constructs a mathematical formulation in a form of an optimization problem by minimizing the overall travel times of the robots subject to resolving all the conflicts in their motion. This optimization problem can be easily solved through coordinating only the robots' speeds. To overcome the computational cost in executing the algorithm for very cluttered environments, we develop an innovative method through clustering the environment into independent subproblems that can be solved using parallel programming techniques...
December 9, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
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