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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432139/feature-selective-attention-adaptively-shifts-noise-correlations-in-primary-auditory-cortex
#1
Joshua Downer, Brittany Rapone, Jessica Verhein, Kevin N O'Connor, Mitchell L Sutter
Sensory environments often contain an overwhelming amount of information, with both relevant and irrelevant information competing for neural resources. Feature attention mediates this competition by selecting the sensory features needed to form a coherent percept. How attention affects the activity of populations of neurons to support this process is poorly understood because population coding is typically studied through simulations in which one sensory feature is encoded without competition. Therefore, to study the effects of feature attention on population-based neural coding, investigations must be extended to include stimuli with both relevant and irrelevant features...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425075/technical-note-real-time-web-based-wireless-visual-guidance-system-for-radiotherapy
#2
Danny Lee, Siyong Kim, Jatinder R Palta, Taeho Kim
Describe a Web-based wireless visual guidance system that mitigates issues associated with hard-wired audio-visual aided patient interactive motion management systems that are cumbersome to use in routine clinical practice. Web-based wireless visual display duplicates an existing visual display of a respiratory-motion management system for visual guidance. The visual display of the existing system is sent to legacy Web clients over a private wireless network, thereby allowing a wireless setting for real-time visual guidance...
April 19, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419875/falls-in-people-with-parkinson-s-disease-a-prospective-comparison-of-community-and-home-based-falls
#3
Robyn M Lamont, Meg E Morris, Hylton B Menz, Jennifer L McGinley, Sandra G Brauer
BACKGROUND: Falls are common and debilitating in people with Parkinson's disease (PD) and restrict participation in daily activities. Understanding circumstances of falls in the community and at home may assist clinicians to target therapy more effectively. OBJECTIVE: To compare the characteristics of community and home fallers and the circumstances that contribute to falls in people living with PD. METHODS: People with mild-moderately severe PD (n=196) used a daily falls diary and telephone hotline to report prospectively the occurrence, location and circumstances of falls over 14 months...
April 4, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417832/color-vision-in-color-display-night-vision-goggles
#4
Eric P Liggins, William P Serle
INTRODUCTION: Aircrew viewing eyepiece-injected symbology on color display night vision goggles (CDNVGs) are performing a visual task involving color under highly unnatural viewing conditions. Their performance in discriminating different colors and responding to color cues is unknown. METHODS: Experimental laboratory measurements of 1) color discrimination and 2) visual search performance are reported under adaptation conditions representative of a CDNVG. Color discrimination was measured using a two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) paradigm that probes color space uniformly around a white point...
May 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399432/graph-cut-based-method-for-segmenting-the-left-ventricle-from-mri-or-echocardiographic-images
#5
Michael Bernier, Pierre-Marc Jodoin, Olivier Humbert, Alain Lalande
In this paper, we present a fast and interactive graph cut method for 3D segmentation of the endocardial wall of the left ventricle (LV) adapted to work on two of the most widely used modalities: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and echocardiography. Our method accounts for the fundamentally different nature of both modalities: 3D echocardiographic images have a low contrast, a poor signal-to-noise ratio and frequent signal drop, while MR images are more detailed but also cluttered and contain highly anisotropic voxels...
April 2, 2017: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396415/variations-in-crowding-saccadic-precision-and-spatial-localization-reveal-the-shared-topology-of-spatial-vision
#6
John A Greenwood, Martin Szinte, Bilge Sayim, Patrick Cavanagh
Visual sensitivity varies across the visual field in several characteristic ways. For example, sensitivity declines sharply in peripheral (vs. foveal) vision and is typically worse in the upper (vs. lower) visual field. These variations can affect processes ranging from acuity and crowding (the deleterious effect of clutter on object recognition) to the precision of saccadic eye movements. Here we examine whether these variations can be attributed to a common source within the visual system. We first compared the size of crowding zones with the precision of saccades using an oriented clock target and two adjacent flanker elements...
April 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378781/visual-crowding-is-a-combination-of-an-increase-of-positional-uncertainty-source-confusion-and-featural-averaging
#7
William J Harrison, Peter J Bex
Although we perceive a richly detailed visual world, our ability to identify individual objects is severely limited in clutter, particularly in peripheral vision. Models of such "crowding" have generally been driven by the phenomenological misidentifications of crowded targets: using stimuli that do not easily combine to form a unique symbol (e.g. letters or objects), observers typically confuse the source of objects and report either the target or a distractor, but when continuous features are used (e.g. orientated gratings or line positions) observers report a feature somewhere between the target and distractor...
April 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362605/low-cost-3d-flow-estimation-of-blood-with-clutter
#8
Siyuan Wei, Ming Yang, Jian Zhou, Richard Sampson, Oliver Kripfgans, Brian Fowlkes, Thomas Wenisch, Chaitali Chakrabarti
Volumetric flow rate estimation is an important ultrasound medical imaging modality that is used for diagnosing cardiovascular diseases. Flow rates are obtained by integrating velocity estimates over a cross-sectional plane. Speckle-tracking is a promising approach that overcomes the angle dependency of traditional Doppler methods, but suffers from poor lateral resolution. Recent work improves lateral velocity estimation accuracy by reconstructing a synthetic lateral phase signal. However, the estimation accuracy of such approaches is compromised by the presence of clutter...
March 2, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346395/a-correlation-based-joint-cfar-detector-using-adaptively-truncated-statistics-in-sar-imagery
#9
Jiaqiu Ai, Xuezhi Yang, Fang Zhou, Zhangyu Dong, Lu Jia, He Yan
Traditional constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detectors only use the contrast information between ship targets and clutter, and they suffer probability of detection (PD) degradation in multiple target situations. This paper proposes a correlation-based joint CFAR detector using adaptively-truncated statistics (hereafter called TS-2DLNCFAR) in SAR images. The proposed joint CFAR detector exploits the gray intensity correlation characteristics by building a two-dimensional (2D) joint log-normal model as the joint distribution (JPDF) of the clutter, so joint CFAR detection is realized...
March 27, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329819/development-of-a-physical-environmental-observational-tool-for-dining-environments-in-long-term-care-settings
#10
Habib Chaudhury, Heather Keller, Kaylen Pfisterer, Lillian Hung
Purpose: This paper presents the first standardized physical environmental assessment tool titled Dining Environment Audit Protocol (DEAP) specifically designed for dining spaces in care homes and reports the results of its psychometric properties. Items rated include: adequacy of lighting, glare, personal control, clutter, staff supervision support, restraint use, and seating arrangement option for social interaction. Two scales summarize the prior items and rate the overall homelikeness and functionality of the space...
February 20, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328505/blocked-elements-in-1-d-and-2-d-arrays-part-ii-compensation-methods-as-applied-to-large-coherent-apertures
#11
Marko Jakovljevic, Nick Bottenus, Lily Kuo, Shalki Kumar, Jeremy J Dahl, Gregg E Trahey
In Part I of the paper, we detected elements blocked by ribs during simulated and in vivo transcostal liver scans, and we turned those elements off to compensate for the loss in visibility of liver vasculature. Here, we apply blocked-element detection and adaptive compensation to large synthetic aperture data collected through rib samples ex vivo, in order to reduce near-field clutter and to recover lateral resolution. To construct large synthetic transmit and receive apertures, we collected the individual channel signals from a fully-sampled matrix array at multiple and know array locations across the tissue samples...
March 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321287/keeping-safe-intra-individual-consistency-in-obstacle-avoidance-behaviour-across-grasping-and-locomotion-tasks
#12
Karina Kangur, Jutta Billino, Constanze Hesse
Successful obstacle avoidance requires a close coordination of the visual and the motor systems. Visual information is essential for adjusting movements in order to avoid unwanted collisions. Yet, established obstacle avoidance paradigms have typically either focused on gaze strategies or on motor adjustments. Here we were interested in whether humans show similar visuomotor sensitivity to obstacles when gaze and motor behaviour are measured across different obstacle avoidance tasks. To this end, we measured participants' hand movement paths when grasping targets in the presence of obstacles as well as their gaze behaviour when walking through a cluttered hallway...
January 2017: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320644/visualizing-rank-time-series-of-wikipedia-top-viewed-pages
#13
Jing Xia, Yumeng Hou, Yingjie Victor Chen, Zhenyu Cheryl Qian, David S Ebert, Wei Chen
Visual clutter is a common challenge when visualizing large rank time series data. WikiTopReader, a reader of Wikipedia page rank, lets users explore connections among top-viewed pages by connecting page-rank behaviors with page-link relations. Such a combination enhances the unweighted Wikipedia page-link network and focuses attention on the page of interest. A set of user evaluations shows that the system effectively represents evolving ranking patterns and page-wise correlation.
March 2017: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316563/a-saccade-based-framework-for-real-time-motion-segmentation-using-event-based-vision-sensors
#14
Abhishek Mishra, Rohan Ghosh, Jose C Principe, Nitish V Thakor, Sunil L Kukreja
Motion segmentation is a critical pre-processing step for autonomous robotic systems to facilitate tracking of moving objects in cluttered environments. Event based sensors are low power analog devices that represent a scene by means of asynchronous information updates of only the dynamic details at high temporal resolution and, hence, require significantly less calculations. However, motion segmentation using spatiotemporal data is a challenging task due to data asynchrony. Prior approaches for object tracking using neuromorphic sensors perform well while the sensor is static or a known model of the object to be followed is available...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294138/machine-learning-applications-in-cell-image-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Andrey Kan
Machine learning refers to a set of automatic pattern recognition methods that have been successfully applied across various problem domains, including biomedical image analysis. This review focuses on machine learning applications for image analysis in light microscopy experiments with typical tasks of segmenting and tracking individual cells, and modelling of reconstructed lineage trees. After describing a typical image analysis pipeline and highlighting challenges of automatic analysis (e.g., variability in cell morphology, tracking in presence of clutters) this review gives a brief historical outlook of machine learning, followed by basic concepts and definitions required for understanding examples...
March 15, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272456/computer-vision-and-machine-learning-for-robust-phenotyping-in-genome-wide-studies
#16
Jiaoping Zhang, Hsiang Sing Naik, Teshale Assefa, Soumik Sarkar, R V Chowda Reddy, Arti Singh, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Asheesh K Singh
Traditional evaluation of crop biotic and abiotic stresses are time-consuming and labor-intensive limiting the ability to dissect the genetic basis of quantitative traits. A machine learning (ML)-enabled image-phenotyping pipeline for the genetic studies of abiotic stress iron deficiency chlorosis (IDC) of soybean is reported. IDC classification and severity for an association panel of 461 diverse plant-introduction accessions was evaluated using an end-to-end phenotyping workflow. The workflow consisted of a multi-stage procedure including: (1) optimized protocols for consistent image capture across plant canopies, (2) canopy identification and registration from cluttered backgrounds, (3) extraction of domain expert informed features from the processed images to accurately represent IDC expression, and (4) supervised ML-based classifiers that linked the automatically extracted features with expert-rating equivalent IDC scores...
March 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268360/embedded-clutter-reduction-and-face-detection-algorithms-for-a-visual-prosthesis
#17
Derek M Rollend, Paul E Rosendall, Kevin C Wolfe, Dean M Kleissas, Seth D Billings, Jonathan M Oben, John B Helder, Francesco V Tenore, Philippe M Burlina, Arup Roy, Robert Greenberg, Kapil D Katyal
Retinal prosthetic devices can significantly and positively impact the ability of visually challenged individuals to live a more independent life. We describe a visual processing system which leverages image analysis techniques to produce visual patterns and allows the user to more effectively perceive their environment. These patterns are used to stimulate a retinal prosthesis to allow self guidance and a higher degree of autonomy for the affected individual. Specifically, we describe an image processing pipeline that allows for object and face localization in cluttered environments as well as various contrast enhancement strategies in the "implanted image...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263556/a-chemical-probe-strategy-for-interrogating-inhibitor-selectivity-across-the-mek-kinase-family
#18
Kristine K Deibler, Rama K Mishra, Matthew R Clutter, Aleksandar Antanasijevic, Raymond Bergan, Michael Caffrey, Karl A Scheidt
MEK4 is an upstream kinase in MAPK signaling pathways where it phosphorylates p38 MAPK and JNK in response to mitogenic and cellular stress queues. MEK4 is overexpressed and induces metastasis in advanced prostate cancer lesions. However, the value of MEK4 as an oncology target has not been pharmacologically validated because selective chemical probes targeting MEK4 have not been developed. Despite a high level of sequence homology in the ATP-binding site, most reported MEK inhibitors are selective for MEK1/2 and display reduced potency toward other MEKs...
March 20, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257592/visualization-of-cell-composition-and-maturation-in-the-bone-marrow-using-10-color-flow-cytometry-and-radar-plots
#19
Katayoon Jafari, Anne Tierens, Amr Rajab, Rumina Musani, André Schuh, Anna Porwit
BACKGROUND: The enormous potential of complex data files generated by 10-color flow cytometry (FC) is hindered by the requirement for exhaustive manual gating and the complexity of multidimensional data visualization. We propose a model using radar plots (RPs), to improve FC data visualization by capturing multidimensionality and integration of FC findings. METHOD: We analysed 12 normal/reactive bone marrow (N/R BM) samples and 12 BM samples from patients with myelodysplasia (MDS) with 10-color FC...
March 3, 2017: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical Cytometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226523/embedded-clutter-reduction-and-face-detection-algorithms-for-a-visual-prosthesis
#20
Derek M Rollend, Paul E Rosendall, Kevin C Wolfe, Dean M Kleissas, Seth D Billings, Jonathan M Oben, John B Helder, Francesco V Tenore, Philippe M Burlina, Arup Roy, Robert Greenberg, Kapil D Katyal, Derek M Rollend, Paul E Rosendall, Kevin C Wolfe, Dean M Kleissas, Seth D Billings, Jonathan M Oben, John B Helder, Francesco V Tenore, Philippe M Burlina, Arup Roy, Robert Greenberg, Kapil D Katyal, Arup Roy, Dean M Kleissas, John B Helder, Seth D Billings, Robert Greenberg, Philippe M Burlina, Derek M Rollend, Paul E Rosendall, Jonathan M Oben, Kapil D Katyal, Francesco V Tenore, Kevin C Wolfe
Retinal prosthetic devices can significantly and positively impact the ability of visually challenged individuals to live a more independent life. We describe a visual processing system which leverages image analysis techniques to produce visual patterns and allows the user to more effectively perceive their environment. These patterns are used to stimulate a retinal prosthesis to allow self guidance and a higher degree of autonomy for the affected individual. Specifically, we describe an image processing pipeline that allows for object and face localization in cluttered environments as well as various contrast enhancement strategies in the "implanted image...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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