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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904749/do-you-hear-what-i-see-vocalization-relative-to-visual-detection-rates-of-hawaiian-hoary-bats-lasiurus-cinereus-semotus
#1
Paulo Marcos Gorresen, Paul M Cryan, Kristina Montoya-Aiona, Frank J Bonaccorso
Bats vocalize during flight as part of the sensory modality called echolocation, but very little is known about whether flying bats consistently call. Occasional vocal silence during flight when bats approach prey or conspecifics has been documented for relatively few species and situations. Bats flying alone in clutter-free airspace are not known to forgo vocalization, yet prior observations suggested possible silent behavior in certain, unexpected situations. Determining when, why, and where silent behavior occurs in bats will help evaluate major assumptions of a primary monitoring method for bats used in ecological research, management, and conservation...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886408/the-fate-of-distractors-in-working-memory-no-evidence-for-their-active-removal
#2
Isabelle Dagry, Pierre Barrouillet
Not all the information processed in working memory (WM) must be retained. Due to the strict limitations of its capacity, the mechanisms that prevent WM from being cluttered and choked by no longer relevant information are of paramount importance. The present study tested the hypothesis put forward by the SOB-CS model of an active and attention-demanding mechanism that would remove no-longer relevant items from WM. Such a mechanism has been advocated to account for the well-known fact that, in complex span tasks, processing distractors at a slower pace results in better recall of memory items...
September 5, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885154/sequence-synopsis-optimize-visual-summary-of-temporal-event-data
#3
Yuanzhe Chen, Panpan Xu, Liu Ren
Event sequences analysis plays an important role in many application domains such as customer behavior analysis, electronic health record analysis and vehicle fault diagnosis. Real-world event sequence data is often noisy and complex with high event cardinality, making it a challenging task to construct concise yet comprehensive overviews for such data. In this paper, we propose a novel visualization technique based on the minimum description length (MDL) principle to construct a coarse-level overview of event sequence data while balancing the information loss in it...
September 4, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880169/letters-noise-equalization-for-ultrafast-plane-wave-microvessel-imaging
#4
Pengfei Song, Armando Manduca, Joshua D Trzasko, Shigao Chen
Ultrafast plane wave microvessel imaging significantly improves ultrasound Doppler sensitivity by increasing the number of Doppler ensembles that can be collected within a short period of time. The rich spatiotemporal plane wave data also enables more robust clutter filtering based on singular value decomposition (SVD). However, due to the lack of transmit focusing, plane wave microvessel imaging is very susceptible to noise. This study was designed to: 1) study the relationship between ultrasound system noise (primarily time gain compensation-induced) and microvessel blood flow signal; 2) propose an adaptive and computationally cost-effective noise equalization method that is independent of hardware or software imaging settings to improve microvessel image quality...
September 1, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878956/object-recognition-and-localization-from-3d-point-clouds-by-maximum-likelihood-estimation
#5
Harshana G Dantanarayana, Jonathan M Huntley
We present an algorithm based on maximum-likelihood analysis for the automated recognition of objects, and estimation of their pose, from 3D point clouds. Surfaces segmented from depth images are used as the features, unlike 'interest point'-based algorithms which normally discard such data. Compared to the 6D Hough transform, it has negligible memory requirements, and is computationally efficient compared to iterative closest point algorithms. The same method is applicable to both the initial recognition/pose estimation problem as well as subsequent pose refinement through appropriate choice of the dispersion of the probability density functions...
August 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876165/development-of-material-specific-hemispheric-specialization-from-beginning-to-end
#6
Benjamin Gingras, Claude M J Braun
Disparity of verbal and performance intelligence (VIQ, PIQ) on the Wechsler scales of intelligence is a conceptually cluttered and empirically weak measure of hemispheric specialization (HS). However, in the context of life span research, it is the only measure that can be exploited meta-analytically with the lesion method from prenatal life to late senescence. We assembled 1917 cases with a unilateral cortical focal brain lesion occurring at all ages and a post-lesion VIQ and PIQ. Lesion locus, volume and side were documented for each case, as well as age at lesion onset, age at first symptoms and age at the IQ test, presence/absence of epilepsy, lesion aetiology, gender, date of publication or of transfer of medical file...
September 6, 2017: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873804/a-study-on-evaluations-of-living-spaces-by-caregivers-for-elderly-people
#7
Misato Nihei, Yuya Tamashima, Takumi Yoshida, Masumi Matsumoto, Minoru Kamata
Caregivers who provide nursing-care visits to the elderly learn to notice changes in the physical and mental functions of residents by looking for signs of disorder in living spaces and changes in the orderliness of living spaces. In this research, to understand what draws caregiver attention and how they evaluate them, 15 caregivers are interviewed and asked to evaluate images of 33 living spaces. The results show variances in evaluations concerning the degree of clutter of living spaces even among experienced caregivers, but that it is possible to classify the degree of clutter using a two-axis scale...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871489/what-role-for-parental-attributions-in-parenting-interventions-for-child-conduct-problems-advances-from-research-into-practice
#8
REVIEW
Vilas Sawrikar, Mark Dadds
The role of parental attributions in parenting interventions has been the subject of intense interest from clinicians and researchers attempting to optimise outcomes in treatments for children with conduct problems. Despite research articulating the many ways parental attributions can influence behavioural parent training (BPT) outcomes, and recognition that addressing parental attributions in treatment is one of the great challenges faced by BPT practitioners, parenting interventions generally do not provide components that explicitly target or focus on changing problematic parental attributions...
September 4, 2017: Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866564/analyzing-the-training-processes-of-deep-generative-models
#9
Mengchen Liu, Jiaxin Shi, Kelei Cao, Jun Zhu, Shixia Liu
Among the many types of deep models, deep generative models (DGMs) provide a solution to the important problem of unsupervised and semi-supervised learning. However, training DGMs requires more skill, experience, and know-how because their training is more complex than other types of deep models such as convolutional neural networks (CNNs). We develop a visual analytics approach for better understanding and diagnosing the training process of a DGM. To help experts understand the overall training process, we first extract a large amount of time series data that represents training dynamics (e...
August 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866541/functional-decomposition-for-bundled-simplification-of-trail-sets
#10
Christophe Hurter, Stephane Puechmorel, Florence Nicol, Alexandru Telea
Bundling visually aggregates curves to reduce clutter and help finding important patterns in trail-sets or graph drawings. We propose a new approach to bundling based on functional decomposition of the underling dataset. We recover the functional nature of the curves by representing them as linear combinations of piecewise-polynomial basis functions with associated expansion coefficients. Next, we express all curves in a given cluster in terms of a centroid curve and a complementary term, via a set of so-called principal component functions...
August 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859436/prevalence-of-drug-resistant-minority-variants-in-untreated-hiv-1-infected-individuals-with-and-those-without-transmitted-drug-resistance-detected-by-sanger-sequencing
#11
Dana S Clutter, Shuntai Zhou, Vici Varghese, Soo-Yon Rhee, Benjamin A Pinsky, W Jeffrey Fessel, Daniel B Klein, Ean Spielvogel, Susan P Holmes, Leo B Hurley, Michael J Silverberg, Ronald Swanstrom, Robert W Shafer
Minority variant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance mutations are associated with an increased risk of virological failure during treatment with NNRTI-containing regimens. To determine whether individuals to whom variants with isolated NNRTI-associated drug resistance were transmitted are at increased risk of virological failure during treatment with a non-NNRTI-containing regimen, we identified minority variant resistance mutations in 33 individuals with isolated NNRTI-associated transmitted drug resistance and 49 matched controls...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855979/searching-for-radial-symmetry
#12
Ben J Jennings, Frederick A A Kingdom
Symmetry is ubiquitous in the natural world. Numerous investigations, dating back over one hundred years, have explored the visual processing of symmetry. However, these studies have been concerned with mirror symmetry, overlooking radial (or rotational) symmetry, which is also prevalent in nature. Using a visual search paradigm, which approximates the everyday task of searching for an object embedded in background clutter, we have measured how quickly and how accurately human observers detect radially symmetric dot patterns...
July 2017: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841168/slot-antenna-integrated-re-entrant-resonator-based-wireless-pressure-sensor-for-high-temperature-applications
#13
Shujing Su, Fei Lu, Guozhu Wu, Dezhi Wu, Qiulin Tan, Helei Dong, Jijun Xiong
The highly sensitive pressure sensor presented in this paper aims at wireless passive sensing in a high temperature environment by using microwave backscattering technology. The structure of the re-entrant resonator was analyzed and optimized using theoretical calculation, software simulation, and its equivalent lump circuit model was first modified by us. Micro-machining and high-temperature co-fired ceramic (HTCC) process technologies were applied to fabricate the sensor, solving the common problem of cavity sealing during the air pressure loading test...
August 25, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837969/intrinsic-position-uncertainty-impairs-overt-search-performance
#14
Yelda Semizer, Melchi M Michel
Uncertainty regarding the position of the search target is a fundamental component of visual search. However, due to perceptual limitations of the human visual system, this uncertainty can arise from intrinsic, as well as extrinsic, sources. The current study sought to characterize the role of intrinsic position uncertainty (IPU) in overt visual search and to determine whether it significantly limits human search performance. After completing a preliminary detection experiment to characterize sensitivity as a function of visual field position, observers completed a search task that required localizing a Gabor target within a field of synthetic luminance noise...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833403/cancer-towards-a-general-theory-of-the-target-all-successful-cancer-therapies-actual-or-potential-are-reducible-to-either-or-both-of-two-fundamental-strategies
#15
REVIEW
Mark D Vincent
General theories (GT) are reductionist explications of apparently independent facts. Here, in reviewing the literature, I develop a GT to simplify the cluttered landscape of cancer therapy targets by revealing they cluster parsimoniously according to only a few underlying principles. The first principle is that targets can be only exploited by either or both of two fundamentally different approaches: causality-inhibition, and 'acausal' recognition of some marker or signature. Nonetheless, each approach must achieve both of two separate goals, efficacy (reduction in cancer burden) and selectivity (sparing of normal cells); if the mechanisms are known, this provides a definition of rational treatment...
September 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817631/a-computational-model-for-biosonar-echoes-from-foliage
#16
Chen Ming, Anupam Kumar Gupta, Ruijin Lu, Hongxiao Zhu, Rolf Müller
Since many bat species thrive in densely vegetated habitats, echoes from foliage are likely to be of prime importance to the animals' sensory ecology, be it as clutter that masks prey echoes or as sources of information about the environment. To better understand the characteristics of foliage echoes, a new model for the process that generates these signals has been developed. This model takes leaf size and orientation into account by representing the leaves as circular disks of varying diameter. The two added leaf parameters are of potential importance to the sensory ecology of bats, e...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811888/performance-test-and-verification-of-an-off-the-shelf-automated-avian-radar-tracking-system
#17
Roel May, Yngve Steinheim, Pål Kvaløy, Roald Vang, Frank Hanssen
Microwave radar is an important tool for observation of birds in flight and represents a tremendous increase in observation capability in terms of amount of surveillance space that can be covered at relatively low cost. Based on off-the-shelf radar hardware, automated radar tracking systems have been developed for monitoring avian movements. However, radar used as an observation instrument in biological research has its limitations that are important to be aware of when analyzing recorded radar data. This article describes a method for exploring the detection capabilities of a dedicated short-range avian radar system used inside the operational Smøla wind-power plant...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811585/age-related-changes-in-crowding-and-reading-speed
#18
Rong Liu, Bhavika N Patel, MiYoung Kwon
Crowding, the inability to recognize objects in clutter, is known to play a role in developmental changes in reading speed. Here, we investigated whether crowding also plays a role in age-related changes in reading speed. We recruited 18 young (mean age: 22.6 ± 3.5; range: 18~31) and 21 older adults (mean age: 58.2 ± 7.0; range: 50~73) with normal vision. Reading speed was measured with short blocks of text. The degree of crowding was determined by measuring crowding zone (the distance between a target and flankers required to yield a criterion recognition accuracy) and the size of the visual span (an uncrowded window in the visual field within which letters can be recognizable reliably)...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809785/path-planning-for-non-circular-non-holonomic-robots-in-highly-cluttered-environments
#19
Ricardo Samaniego, Joaquin Lopez, Fernando Vazquez
This paper presents an algorithm for finding a solution to the problem of planning a feasible path for a slender autonomous mobile robot in a large and cluttered environment. The presented approach is based on performing a graph search on a kinodynamic-feasible lattice state space of high resolution; however, the technique is applicable to many search algorithms. With the purpose of allowing the algorithm to consider paths that take the robot through narrow passes and close to obstacles, high resolutions are used for the lattice space and the control set...
August 15, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796608/best-buddies-similarity-robust-template-matching-using-mutual-nearest-neighbors
#20
Shaul Oron, Tali Dekel, Tianfan Xue, William T Freeman, Shai Avidan
We propose a novel method for template matching in unconstrained environments. Its essence is the Best-Buddies Similarity (BBS), a useful, robust, and parameter-free similarity measure between two sets of points. BBS is based on counting the number of Best-Buddies Pairs (BBPs)-pairs of points in source and target sets, where each point is the nearest neighbor of the other. BBS has several key features that make it robust against complex geometric deformations and high levels of outliers, such as those arising from background clutter and occlusions...
August 9, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
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