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Shaoming He, Hyo-Sang Shin, Antonios Tsourdos
This paper proposes a novel joint probabilistic data association (JPDA) filter for joint target tracking and track maintenance under unknown detection probability and clutter rate. The proposed algorithm consists of two main parts: (1) the standard JPDA filter with a Poisson point process birth model for multi-object state estimation; and (2) a multi-Bernoulli filter for detection probability and clutter rate estimation. The performance of the proposed JPDA filter is evaluated through empirical tests. The results of the empirical tests show that the proposed JPDA filter has comparable performance with ideal JPDA that is assumed to have perfect knowledge of detection probability and clutter rate...
January 18, 2018: Sensors
Van Ha Tang, Abdesselam Bouzerdoum, Son Lam Phung
Compressed sensing techniques have been applied to through-the-wall radar imaging (TWRI) and multipolarization TWRI for fast data acquisition and enhanced target localization. The studies so far in this area have either assumed effective wall clutter removal prior to image formation or performed signal estimation, wall clutter mitigation, and image formation independently. This paper proposes a low-rank and sparse imaging model for jointly addressing the problem of wall clutter mitigation and image formation in multichannel TWRI...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Jean-Michel Friedt, Gilles Martin, Gwenhael Goavec-Mérou, David Rabus, Sébastien Alzuaga, Lilia Arapan, Marianne Sagnard, Émile Carry
Passive wireless transducers are used as sensors, probed by a RADAR system. A simple way to separate the returning signal from the clutter is to delay the response, so that the clutter decays before the echoes are received. This can be achieved by introducing a fixed delay in the sensor design. Acoustic wave transducers are ideally suited as cooperative targets for passive, wireless sensing. The incoming electromagnetic pulse is converted into an acoustic wave, propagated on the sensor substrate surface, and reflected as an electromagnetic echo...
January 16, 2018: Sensors
Mingyuan Zhou, Haiting Lin, S Susan Young, Jingyi Yu
The capability to track, detect, and identify human targets in highly cluttered scenes under extreme conditions, such as in complete darkness or on the battlefield, has been one of the primary tactical advantages in military operations. In this paper, we propose a new collaborative, multi-spectrum sensing method to achieve face detection and registration under low-light and unconstrained conditions. We design and prototype a novel type of hybrid sensor by combining a pair of near-infrared (NIR) cameras and a thermal camera (a long-wave infrared camera)...
January 1, 2018: Applied Optics
Segun I Popoola, Aderemi A Atayero, Nasir Faruk
The behaviour of radio wave signals in a wireless channel depends on the local terrain profile of the propagation environments. In view of this, Received Signal Strength (RSS) of transmitted signals are measured at different points in space for radio network planning and optimization. However, these important data are often not publicly available for wireless channel characterization and propagation model development. In this data article, RSS data of a commercial base station operating at 900 and 1800 MHz were measured along three different routes of Lagos-Badagry Highway, Nigeria...
February 2018: Data in Brief
Javier Antich Tobaruela, Alberto Ortiz Rodríguez
Reactive navigation is a well-known paradigm for controlling an autonomous mobile robot, which suggests making all control decisions through some light processing of the current/recent sensor data. Among the many advantages of this paradigm are: 1) the possibility to apply it to robots with limited and low-priced hardware resources, and 2) the fact of being able to safely navigate a robot in completely unknown environments containing unpredictable moving obstacles. As a major disadvantage, nevertheless, the reactive paradigm may occasionally cause robots to get trapped in certain areas of the environment-typically, these conflicting areas have a large concave shape and/or are full of closely-spaced obstacles...
2017: PloS One
Jinglin Li, Jens Lindemann, Martin Egelhaaf
Neuronal representation and extraction of spatial information are essential for behavioral control. For flying insects, a plausible way to gain spatial information is to exploit distance-dependent optic flow that is generated during translational self-motion. Optic flow is computed by arrays of local motion detectors retinotopically arranged in the second neuropile layer of the insect visual system. These motion detectors have adaptive response characteristics, i.e. their responses to motion with a constant or only slowly changing velocity decrease, while their sensitivity to rapid velocity changes is maintained or even increases...
December 27, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
Zhibin Yu, Duo Zhao, Zhiqiang Zhang
Due to the non-contact nature, using Doppler radar sensors to detect vital signs such as heart and respiration rates of a human subject is getting more and more attention. However, the related detection-method research meets lots of challenges due to electromagnetic interferences, clutter and random motion interferences. In this paper, a novel third-order cyclic cummulant (TOCC) detection method, which is insensitive to Gaussian interference and non-cyclic signals, is proposed to investigate the heart and respiration rate based on continuous wave Doppler radars...
December 26, 2017: Sensors
Pierre-Alexandre Blanche, Mark Neifeld, Nasser Peyghambarian
The radar cross section of an object is an important electromagnetic property that is often measured in anechoic chambers. However, for very large and complex structures such as ships or sea and land clutters, this common approach is not practical. The use of computer simulations is also not viable since it would take many years of computational time to model and predict the radar characteristics of such large objects. We have now devised a new scaling technique to overcome these difficulties, and make accurate measurements of the radar cross section of large items...
December 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Nick Bottenus, Will Long, Matthew Morgan, Gregg Trahey
Current clinical abdominal imaging arrays are designed to maximize angular field of view rather than the extent of the coherent aperture. We illustrate, in ex vivo experiments, the use of a large effective aperture to perform high-resolution imaging, even in the presence of abdominal wall-induced acoustic clutter and aberration. Point and lesion phantom targets were imaged through a water path and through three excised cadaver abdominal walls to create different clinically relevant clutter effects with matched imaging targets...
December 14, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Diya Wang, Mengnan Xiao, Hong Hu, Yu Zhang, Zhe Su, Shanshan Xu, Yujin Zong, Mingxi Wan
This study aimed to develop a focal microvascular contrast-enhanced ultrasonic parametric perfusion imaging (PPI) scheme to overcome the tradeoff between the resolution, contrast, and accuracy of focal PPI in the tumor. Its resolution was limited by the low signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) of time-intensity-curves (TICs) induced by multiple limitations, which deteriorated the accuracy and contrast of focal PPI. The scheme was verified by the in-vivo perfusion experiments. Single-pixel TICs were first extracted to ensure PPI with the highest resolution...
December 2, 2017: Ultrasonics
Wu-Jung Lee, Benjamin Falk, Chen Chiu, Anand Krishnan, Jessica H Arbour, Cynthia F Moss
Animals enhance sensory acquisition from a specific direction by movements of head, ears or eyes. As active sensing animals, echolocating bats also aim their directional sonar beam to selectively "illuminate" a confined volume of space, facilitating efficient information processing by reducing echo interference and clutter. Such sonar beam control is generally achieved by head movements or shape changes of the sound-emitting mouth or nose. However, lingual-echolocating Egyptian fruit bats, Rousettus aegyptiacus, which produce sound by clicking their tongue, can dramatically change beam direction at very short temporal intervals without visible morphological changes...
December 15, 2017: PLoS Biology
David M R Orr, Michael Preston-Shoot, Suzy Braye
Hoarding has become increasingly prominent in clinical practice and popular culture in recent years, giving rise to extensive research and commentary. Critical responses in the social sciences have criticised the cultural assumptions built in to the construct of 'hoarding disorder' and expressed fears that it may generate stigma outweighing its benefits; however, few of these studies have engaged directly with 'hoarders' themselves. This paper reports on in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 10 individuals living in England, who received assessment and intervention for hoarding from Social Services...
December 12, 2017: Anthropology & Medicine
Eui Hyuk Lee, Qian Zhang, Taek Lyul Song
A practical probabilistic data association filter is proposed for tracking multiple targets in clutter. The number of joint data association events increases combinatorially with the number of measurements and the number of targets, which may become computationally impractical for even small numbers of closely located targets in real target-tracking applications in heavily cluttered environments. In this paper, a Markov chain model is proposed to generate a set of feasible joint events (FJEs) for multiple target tracking that is used to approximate the multi-target data association probabilities and the probabilities of target existence of joint integrated probabilistic data association (JIPDA)...
December 10, 2017: Sensors
Yu Zhang, Bei Wang, Jin Jing, Jian Zhang, Junzhong Zou, Masatoshi Nakamura
Feature extraction from physiological signals of EEG (electroencephalogram) is an essential part for sleep staging. In this study, multidomain feature extraction was investigated based on time domain analysis, nonlinear analysis, and frequency domain analysis. Unlike the traditional feature calculation in time domain, a sequence merging method was developed as a preprocessing procedure. The objective is to eliminate the clutter waveform and highlight the characteristic waveform for further analysis. The numbers of the characteristic activities were extracted as the features from time domain...
2017: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
Ray M Joe, Anabel Flores, Michael E Doche, Joel M Cline, Erik S Clutter, Paul B Vander, Heimo Riedel, Lawrence S Argetsinger, Christin Carter-Su
The scaffold protein SH2B1, a major regulator of body weight, is recruited to the receptors of multiple cytokines and growth factors, including nerve growth factor (NGF). The β isoform, but not the α isoform, of SH2B1 greatly enhances NGF-dependent neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells. Here we asked how the unique C-terminal tails of the α and β isoforms modulate SH2B1 function. We compared the actions of SH2B1α and SH2B1β to those of the N-terminal 631 amino acids shared by both isoforms. In contrast to the β-tail, the α-tail inhibited the ability of SH2B1 to both cycle through the nucleus and enhance NGF-mediated neurite outgrowth, gene expression, phosphorylation of Akt and PLCγ and autophosphorylation of the NGF receptor TrkA...
December 11, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Lasse Jakobsen, John Hallam, Cynthia F Moss, Anders Hedenström
All echolocating bats and whales measured to date emit a directional bio-sonar beam that affords them a number of advantages over an omni-directional beam, i.e. reduced clutter, increased source level and inherent directional information. In this study we investigated the importance of a directional sound emission for navigation through echolocation by measuring the sonar beam of brown long-eared bats, Plecotus auritusP. auritus emits sound through the nostrils but has no external appendages to readily facility a directional sound emission as found in most nose emitters...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
Jeffery L Belden, Richelle J Koopman, Sonal J Patil, Nathan J Lowrance, Gregory F Petroski, Jamie B Smith
INTRODUCTION: Cluttered documentation may contribute adversely to physician readers' cognitive load, inadvertently obscuring high-value information with less valuable information. We test the hypothesis that a novel, collapsible assessment, plan, subjective, objective (APSO) note design would be faster, more accurate, and more satisfying to use than a conventional electronic health record (EHR) subjective, objective, assessment, plan (SOAP) note for finding information needed for ambulatory chronic disease care...
November 2017: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
Hannah C Levy, Blaise L Worden, Christina M Gilliam, Christine D'Urso, Gail Steketee, Randy O Frost, David F Tolin
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is an empirically-supported treatment for hoarding disorder (HD). However, meta-analytic studies suggest that CBT is only modestly effective, and a significant number of individuals with HD remain symptomatic following treatment. To inform the development of more effective and targeted treatments, it will be important to clarify the mechanisms of treatment response in CBT for HD. To this end, the current study examined whether change in maladaptive saving beliefs mediated symptom change in CBT for HD...
July 2017: Journal of Obsessive-compulsive and related Disorders
Ya Li, Yonghui Wang, Sheng Li
Contour integration is a critical step in visual perception because it groups discretely local elements into perceptually global contours. Previous investigations have suggested that striate and extrastriate visual areas are involved in this mid-level processing of visual perception. However, the temporal dynamics of these areas in the human brain during contour integration is less understood. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging-guided transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to briefly disrupt 1 of 2 visual areas (V1/V2 and V3B) and examined the causal contributions of these areas to contour detection...
November 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
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