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Derek M Rollend, Paul E Rosendall, Kevin C Wolfe, Dean M Kleissas, Seth D Billings, Jonathan M Oben, John B Helder, Francesco V Tenore, Philippe M Burlina, Arup Roy, Robert Greenberg, Kapil D Katyal, Derek M Rollend, Paul E Rosendall, Kevin C Wolfe, Dean M Kleissas, Seth D Billings, Jonathan M Oben, John B Helder, Francesco V Tenore, Philippe M Burlina, Arup Roy, Robert Greenberg, Kapil D Katyal, Arup Roy, Dean M Kleissas, John B Helder, Seth D Billings, Robert Greenberg, Philippe M Burlina, Derek M Rollend, Paul E Rosendall, Jonathan M Oben, Kapil D Katyal, Francesco V Tenore, Kevin C Wolfe
Retinal prosthetic devices can significantly and positively impact the ability of visually challenged individuals to live a more independent life. We describe a visual processing system which leverages image analysis techniques to produce visual patterns and allows the user to more effectively perceive their environment. These patterns are used to stimulate a retinal prosthesis to allow self guidance and a higher degree of autonomy for the affected individual. Specifically, we describe an image processing pipeline that allows for object and face localization in cluttered environments as well as various contrast enhancement strategies in the "implanted image...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Hildward Vandormael, Santiago Herce Castañón, Jan Balaguer, Vickie Li, Christopher Summerfield
Humans move their eyes to gather information about the visual world. However, saccadic sampling has largely been explored in paradigms that involve searching for a lone target in a cluttered array or natural scene. Here, we investigated the policy that humans use to overtly sample information in a perceptual decision task that required information from across multiple spatial locations to be combined. Participants viewed a spatial array of numbers and judged whether the average was greater or smaller than a reference value...
February 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Michele Fornaciai, Joonkoo Park
Behavioral studies of numerical cognition have shown that perceptual threshold for numerosity discrimination depends on the range of numerical values to be estimated. Discrimination threshold is constant when comparing very small numerosities via the mechanism called subitizing, while it increases as a function of numerosity for numbers beyond that range governed by subitizing. However, when numerosity gets so large that the individual elements start to form a cluttered ensemble, discrimination threshold increases as a function of the square root of numerosity...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Pengfei Song, Joshua Trzasko, Armando Manduca, Bo Qiang, Ramanathan Kadirvel, David Kallmes, Shigao Chen
Singular value decomposition (SVD)-based ultrasound blood flow clutter filters have recently demonstrated substantial improvement in clutter rejection for ultrafast plane wave microvessel imaging, and have become the commonly used clutter filtering method for many novel ultrafast imaging applications such as functional ultrasound and super-resolution imaging. At present, however, the computational burden of SVD remains as a major hurdle for practical implementation and clinical translation of this method. To address this challenge, in the study we present two blood flow clutter filtering methods based on randomized singular value decomposition (rSVD) and randomized spatial downsampling to accelerate SVD clutter filtering with minimal compromise to the clutter filter performance...
February 7, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Rigas Kouskouridas, Alykhan Tejani, Andreas Doumanoglou, Danhang Tang, Tae-Kyun Kim
In this paper we present Latent-Class Hough Forests, a method for object detection and 6 DoF pose estimation in heavily cluttered and occluded scenarios. We adapt a state of the art template matching feature into a scale-invariant patch descriptor and integrate it into a regression forest using a novel template-based split function. We train with positive samples only and we treat class distributions at the leaf nodes as latent variables. During testing we infer by iteratively updating these distributions, providing accurate estimation of background clutter and foreground occlusions and, thus, better detection rate...
February 7, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Erik Van der Burg, Christian N L Olivers, John Cass
Peripheral vision can be severely impaired by nearby clutter. Decades of research using sparse displays have established that this phenomenon, known as visual crowding, follows Bouma's rule: Interference occurs for target-distractor separations up to half the target's eccentricity. Although considered a fundamental constraint on human vision, it is unclear whether Bouma's rule holds in dense heterogeneous visual environments. Using a genetic algorithm we investigated crowding in densely cluttered displays. Participants were instructed to identify the orientation of a target line (6° eccentricity) among 284 distractor lines...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
Ohjae Kwon, Jeongjin Lee, Bohyoung Kim, Juneseuk Shin, Yeong-Gil Shin
With the recent advances regarding the acquisition and simulation of blood flow data, blood flow visualization has been widely used in medical imaging for the diagnosis and treatment of pathological vessels. In this paper, we present a novel method for the visualization of the blood flow in vascular structures. The vessel inlet or outlet is first identified using the orthogonality metric between the normal vectors of the flow velocity and vessel surface. Then, seed points are generated on the identified inlet or outlet by Poisson disk sampling...
January 31, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Carolyn I Rodriguez, Amanda Levinson, Sapana R Patel, Kim Rottier, Jordana Zwerling, Susan Essock, Lee Shuer, Randy O Frost, Helen Blair Simpson
OBJECTIVE: To explore the acceptability of currently available treatments and services for individuals who self-report hoarding behaviors. METHOD: Between 10/2013 and 8/2014, participants were invited to complete an online survey that provided them descriptions of eleven treatments and services for hoarding behaviors and asked them to evaluate their acceptability using quantitative (0 [not at all acceptable] -10 [completely acceptable]) Likert scale ratings. The a priori definition of acceptability for a given resource was an average Likert scale score of six or greater...
October 2016: Journal of Obsessive-compulsive and related Disorders
Ivo G Ros, Partha S Bhagavatula, Huai-Ti Lin, Andrew A Biewener
Flying animals must successfully contend with obstacles in their natural environments. Inspired by the robust manoeuvring abilities of flying animals, unmanned aerial systems are being developed and tested to improve flight control through cluttered environments. We previously examined steering strategies that pigeons adopt to fly through an array of vertical obstacles (VOs). Modelling VO flight guidance revealed that pigeons steer towards larger visual gaps when making fast steering decisions. In the present experiments, we recorded three-dimensional flight kinematics of pigeons as they flew through randomized arrays of horizontal obstacles (HOs)...
February 6, 2017: Interface Focus
Amanda M Adams, Kaylee Davis, Michael Smotherman
Echolocating bats face the challenge of actively sensing their environment through their own emissions, while also hearing calls and echoes of nearby conspecifics. How bats mitigate interference is a long-standing question that has both ecological and technological implications, as biosonar systems continue to outperform man-made sonar systems in noisy, cluttered environments. We recently showed that perched bats decreased calling rates in groups, displaying a behavioral strategy resembling the back-off algorithms used in artificial communication networks to optimize information throughput at the group level...
January 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
Julian M Wallace, Susana T L Chung, Bosco S Tjan
Crowding, the phenomenon of impeded object identification due to clutter, is believed to be a key limiting factor of form vision in the peripheral visual field. The present study provides a characterization of object crowding in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) measured at the participants' respective preferred retinal loci with binocular viewing. Crowding was also measured in young and age-matched controls at the same retinal locations, using a fixation-contingent display paradigm to allow unlimited stimulus duration...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Julia Mossbridge, Jacob Zweig, Marcia Grabowecky, Satoru Suzuki
The perceptual system integrates synchronized auditory-visual signals in part to promote individuation of objects in cluttered environments. The processing of auditory-visual synchrony may more generally contribute to cognition by synchronizing internally generated multimodal signals. Reading is a prime example because the ability to synchronize internal phonological and/or lexical processing with visual orthographic processing may facilitate encoding of words and meanings. Consistent with this possibility, developmental and clinical research has suggested a link between reading performance and the ability to compare visual spatial/temporal patterns with auditory temporal patterns...
March 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Siyu Huang, Xi Li, Zhongfei Zhang, Zhouzhou He, Fei Wu, Wei Liu, Jinhui Tang, Yueting Zhuang
Capabilities of inference and prediction are significant components of visual systems. Visual path prediction is an important and challenging task among them, with the goal to infer the future path of a visual object in a static scene. This task is complicated as it needs high-level semantic understandings of both the scenes and underlying motion patterns in video sequences. In practice, cluttered situations have also raised higher demands on the effectiveness and robustness of models. Motivated by these observations, we propose a deep learning framework which simultaneously performs deep feature learning for visual representation in conjunction with spatio-temporal context modeling...
September 26, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Jizhou Ma, Shuai Li, Hong Qin, Aimin Hao
This paper systematically advocates a robust and efficient unsupervised multi-class co-segmentation approach by leveraging underlying subspace manifold propagation to exploit the cross-image coherency. It can combat certain image cosegmentation difficulties due to viewpoint change, partial occlusion, complex background, transient illumination, and cluttering texture patterns. Our key idea is to construct a powerful hyper-graph joint-cut framework, which incorporates mid-level image regions based intra-image feature representation and L1- manifold graph based inter-image coherency exploration...
November 22, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Yunchao Wei, Xiaodan Liang, Yunpeng Chen, Xiaohui Shen, Ming-Ming Cheng, Jiashi Feng, Yao Zhao, Shuicheng Yan
Recently, significant improvement has been made on semantic object segmentation due to the development of deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs). Training such a DCNN usually relies on a large number of images with pixel-level segmentation masks, and annotating these images is very costly in terms of both finance and human effort. In this paper, we propose a simple to complex (STC) framework in which only image-level annotations are utilized to learn DCNNs for semantic segmentation. Specifically, we first train an initial segmentation network called Initial-DCNN with the saliency maps of simple images (i...
December 6, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Tong He, Weilin Huang, Yu Qiao, Jian Yao
Recent deep learning models have demonstrated strong capabilities for classifying text and non-text components in natural images. They extract a high-level feature computed globally from a whole image component (patch), where the cluttered background information may dominate true text features in the deep representation. This leads to less discriminative power and poorer robustness. In this work, we present a new system for scene text detection by proposing a novel Text-Attentional Convolutional Neural Network (Text-CNN) that particularly focuses on extracting text-related regions and features from the image components...
March 28, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Stefano Ricci, Abigail Swillens, Alessandro Ramalli, Patrick Segers, Piero Tortoli
Wall shear stress is known to affect the vessel endothelial function and to be related to important pathologies like the development of atherosclerosis. It is defined as the product of the blood viscosity by the blood velocity gradient at the wall position, i.e. the Wall Shear Rate (WSR). The WSR measurement is particularly challenging in important cardiovascular sites like the carotid bifurcation, because of the related complex flow configurations characterized by high spatial and temporal gradients, wall movement and clutter noise...
September 12, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Junseob Shin, Yu Chen, Harshawn Malhi, Jesse Yen
Despite numerous recent advances in medical ultrasound imaging, reverberation clutter from near-field anatomical structures, such as the abdominal wall, ribs, and tissue layers, is one of the major sources of ultrasound image quality degradation. Reverberation clutter signals are undesirable echoes, which arise as a result of multiple reflections of acoustic waves between the boundaries of these structures, and cause fill-in to lower image contrast. In order to mitigate the undesirable reverberation clutter effects, we present in this paper a new beamforming technique called multi-phase apodization with cross-correlation (MPAX), which is an improved version of our previous technique, DAX...
August 2, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Henan Zhao, Garnett W Bryant, Wesley Griffin, Judith E Terrill, Jian Chen
We designed and evaluated SplitVectors, a new vector field display approach to help scientists perform new discrimination tasks on large-magnitude-range scientific data shown in three-dimensional (3D) visualization environments. SplitVectors uses scientific notation to display vector magnitude, thus improving legibility. We present an empirical study comparing the SplitVectors approach with three other approaches - direct linear representation, logarithmic, and text display commonly used in scientific visualizations...
March 9, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Adrian Chee, Billy Yiu, Alfred Yu
Eigen-filters with attenuation response adapted to clutter statistics in color flow imaging (CFI) have shown improved flow detection sensitivity in the presence of tissue motion. Nevertheless, its practical adoption in clinical use is not straightforward due to the high computational cost for solving eigen-decompositions. Here, we provide a pedagogical description of how a real-time computing framework for eigen-based clutter filtering can be developed through a single-instruction, multiple data (SIMD) computing approach that can be implemented on a graphical processing unit (GPU)...
September 7, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
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