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Ya Li, Yonghui Wang, Sheng Li
Contour integration is a critical step in visual perception because it groups discretely local elements into perceptually global contours. Previous investigations have suggested that striate and extrastriate visual areas are involved in this mid-level processing of visual perception. However, the temporal dynamics of these areas in the human brain during contour integration is less understood. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging-guided transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to briefly disrupt 1 of 2 visual areas (V1/V2 and V3B) and examined the causal contributions of these areas to contour detection...
November 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
Chenghao Wang, Guisheng Liao, Qingjun Zhang
In spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensors, it is a challenging task to detect ground slow-moving targets against strong clutter background with limited spatial channels and restricted pulse repetition frequency (PRF). In this paper, we evaluate the image-based dual-channel SAR-ground moving target indication (SAR-GMTI) workflow for the Gaofen-3 SAR sensor and analyze the impact of strong azimuth ambiguities on GMTI when the displaced phase center antenna (DPCA) condition is not fully satisfied, which has not been demonstrated yet...
November 21, 2017: Sensors
Nitesh Saxena, Dinesh Natesan, Sanjay P Sane
Flying insects routinely forage in complex and cluttered sensory environments. Their search for a food or a pheromone source typically begins with a whiff of odor, which triggers a flight response, eventually bringing the insect near the odor source. However, pinpointing the precise location of an odor source requires use of both visual and olfactory modalities, aided by odor plumes. Here, we investigated odor-tracking behavior in fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) presented with low- or high-contrast visual landmarks, either paired with or separate from an attractive odor cue...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
Travis Hall, Donald Y C Lie, Tam Q Nguyen, Jill C Mayeda, Paul E Lie, Jerry Lopez, Ron E Banister
It has been the dream of many scientists and engineers to realize a non-contact remote sensing system that can perform continuous, accurate and long-term monitoring of human vital signs as we have seen in many Sci-Fi movies. Having an intelligible sensor system that can measure and record key vital signs (such as heart rates and respiration rates) remotely and continuously without touching the patients, for example, can be an invaluable tool for physicians who need to make rapid life-and-death decisions. Such a sensor system can also effectively help physicians and patients making better informed decisions when patients' long-term vital signs data is available...
November 15, 2017: Sensors
Kurt Eggers, Sabine Van Eerdenbrugh
PURPOSE: Speech and language development in individuals with Down syndrome is often delayed and/or disordered and speech disfluencies appear to be more common. These disfluencies have been labeled over time as stuttering, cluttering or both. FINDINGS: were usually generated from studies with adults or a mixed age group, quite often using different methodologies, making it difficult to compare findings. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze and describe the speech disfluencies of a group, only consisting of children with Down Syndrome between 3 and 13 years of age...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Communication Disorders
Brittany E Moore, Michele P Carr, Rachel C Kearney, Jill Clutter
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a difference between attrition rates for dental hygiene programs that use selective admissions and nonselective admissions. Admissions to dental hygiene programs is based on a predetermined class size; therefore, applicants must meet the criteria to be considered for selection. Dental hygiene programs want to retain their enrolled students and maximize their student successes; therefore, it is imperative to validate current admissions practices that help reduce attrition rates...
December 2016: Journal of Dental Hygiene: JDH
Yu Liu, Jun Liu, Gang Li, Lin Qi, Yaowen Li, You He
This paper focuses on the tracking problem of multiple targets with multiple sensors in a nonlinear cluttered environment. To avoid Jacobian matrix computation and scaling parameter adjustment, improve numerical stability, and acquire more accurate estimated results for centralized nonlinear tracking, a novel centralized multi-sensor square root cubature joint probabilistic data association algorithm (CMSCJPDA) is proposed. Firstly, the multi-sensor tracking problem is decomposed into several single-sensor multi-target tracking problems, which are sequentially processed during the estimation...
November 5, 2017: Sensors
Carl Pankok, David B Kaber
Existing measures of display clutter in the literature generally exhibit weak correlations with task performance, which limits their utility in safety-critical domains. A literature review led to formulation of an integrated display data- and user knowledge-driven measure of display clutter. A driving simulation experiment was conducted in which participants were asked to search 'high' and 'low' clutter displays for navigation information. Data-driven measures and subjective perceptions of clutter were collected along with patterns of visual attention allocation and driving performance responses during time periods in which participants searched the navigation display for information...
November 3, 2017: Ergonomics
Marielle Ong, Michael Bulmer, Julia Groening, Mandyam V Srinivasan
Flying insects constantly face the challenge of choosing efficient, safe and collision-free routes while navigating through dense foliage. We examined the route-choice behavior of foraging honeybees when they encountered a barrier which could be traversed by flying through one of two apertures, positioned side by side. When the bees' choice behavior was averaged over the entire tested population, the two apertures were chosen with equal frequency when they were equally wide. When the apertures were of different width, the bees, on average, showed a preference for the wider aperture, which increased sharply with the difference between the aperture widths...
2017: PloS One
Ge Yu, T C Yang, Shengchun Piao
A chirp signal is a signal with linearly varying instantaneous frequency over the signal bandwidth, also known as a linear frequency modulated (LFM) signal. It is widely used in communication, radar, active sonar, and other applications due to its Doppler tolerance property in signal detection using the matched filter (MF) processing. Modern sonar uses high-gain, wideband signals to improve the signal to reverberation ratio. High gain implies a high product of the signal bandwidth and duration. However, wideband and/or long duration LFM signals are no longer Doppler tolerant...
October 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Kit D Longden, Martina Wicklein, Ben J Hardcastle, Stephen J Huston, Holger G Krapp
Many animals use the visual motion generated by traveling straight-the translatory optic flow-to successfully navigate obstacles: near objects appear larger and to move more quickly than distant objects. Flies are expert at navigating cluttered environments, and while their visual processing of rotatory optic flow is understood in exquisite detail, how they process translatory optic flow remains a mystery. We present novel cell types that have local motion receptive fields matched to translation self-motion, the vertical translation (VT) cells...
November 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Rang Liu, Dejiang Wang, Dabiao Zhou, Ping Jia
The research on optical imaging characteristics of infrared dim point targets in the presence of nonstationary cloud clutter and random noise is necessary for target detection. We analyze the energy concentration of point targets that are less than 3×3 pixels in size and deduce a simulation model of the point target imaging process. Then we adopt omnidirectional multiscale structural elements to detect all the possible targets distributing in every direction. The adaptive threshold and the energy concentration criterion are employed to eliminate false alarms...
August 20, 2017: Applied Optics
Pin-Chao Liao, Xinlu Sun, Mei Liu, Yu-Nien Shih
INTRODUCTION: Navigated safety inspection based on task-specific checklists can increase the hazard detection rate, theoretically interfered by scene complexity. Visual clutter, a proxy of scene complexity, can theoretically impair visual search performance, but its impact on the effect of safety inspection performance remains to be explored for the optimization of navigated inspection. This research aims to explore whether the relationship between working memory and hazard detection rate is moderated by visual clutter...
October 18, 2017: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
Judit Bóna
In this article, disfluent word-repetitions are analysed in cluttered and control speech. The main questions are the following: (1) Do different functions of word-repetitions occur in different ratio in cluttered and control speech? (2) Are there any differences between PWC and control speakers in durational parameters of disfluent word-repetitions? Results show that there are differences between the two groups of speakers in the types of word-repetitions, and in their durational parameters. In cluttered speech, the most frequent type of repetitions were covert self-repairs while in control speech canonical repetitions are dominated...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Andrea Helo, Sandrien van Ommen, Sebastian Pannasch, Lucile Danteny-Dordoigne, Pia Rämä
Conceptual representations of everyday scenes are built in interaction with visual environment and these representations guide our visual attention. Perceptual features and object-scene semantic consistency have been found to attract our attention during scene exploration. The present study examined how visual attention in 24-month-old toddlers is attracted by semantic violations and how perceptual features (i. e. saliency, centre distance, clutter and object size) and linguistic properties (i. e. object label frequency and label length) affect gaze distribution...
October 10, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
Lichuan Zhang, Tonghao Wang, Feihu Zhang, Demin Xu
Cooperative localization (CL) is considered a promising method for underwater localization with respect to multiple autonomous underwater vehicles (multi-AUVs). In this paper, we proposed a CL algorithm based on information entropy theory and the probability hypothesis density (PHD) filter, aiming to enhance the global localization accuracy of the follower. In the proposed framework, the follower carries lower cost navigation systems, whereas the leaders carry better ones. Meanwhile, the leaders acquire the followers' observations, including both measurements and clutter...
October 8, 2017: Sensors
Carmen Wong, Keir G Pearson, Stephen G Lomber
A working memory of obstacles is essential for navigating complex, cluttered terrain. In quadrupeds, it has been proposed that parietal cortical areas related to movement planning and working memory may be important for guiding the hindlegs over an obstacle previously cleared by the forelegs. To test this hypothesis, parietal areas 5 and 7 were reversibly deactivated in walking cats. The working memory of an obstacle was assessed in both a visually dependent and tactilely dependent paradigm. Reversible bilateral deactivation of area 5, but not area 7, altered hindleg stepping in a manner indicating that the animals did not recall the obstacle over which their forelegs had stepped...
August 2, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
Jingli Gao, Chenglin Wen, Meiqin Liu
In this paper, a novel infrared target co-detection model combining the self-correlation features of backgrounds and the commonality features of targets in the spatio-temporal domain is proposed to detect small targets in a sequence of infrared images with complex backgrounds. Firstly, a dense target extraction model based on nonlinear weights is proposed, which can better suppress background of images and enhance small targets than weights of singular values. Secondly, a sparse target extraction model based on entry-wise weighted robust principal component analysis is proposed...
September 29, 2017: Sensors
Courtney J Spoerer, Patrick McClure, Nikolaus Kriegeskorte
Feedforward neural networks provide the dominant model of how the brain performs visual object recognition. However, these networks lack the lateral and feedback connections, and the resulting recurrent neuronal dynamics, of the ventral visual pathway in the human and non-human primate brain. Here we investigate recurrent convolutional neural networks with bottom-up (B), lateral (L), and top-down (T) connections. Combining these types of connections yields four architectures (B, BT, BL, and BLT), which we systematically test and compare...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Hongsen Liao, Yingcai Wu, Li Chen, Wei Chen
The use of scatterplots is an important method for multivariate data visualization. The point distribution on the scatterplot, along with variable values represented by each point, can help analyze underlying patterns in data. However, determining the multivariate data variation on a scatterplot generated using projection methods, such as multidimensional scaling, is difficult. Furthermore, the point distribution becomes unclear when the data scale is large and clutter problems occur. These conditions can significantly decrease the usability of scatterplots on multivariate data analysis...
September 20, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
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