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Spinal chord

Camille Corbier, Chantal Sellier
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Dementia (ALS-FTD) are devastating neurodegenerative disease affecting motoneurons from the spinal chord and neurons from the frontal and temporal cortex, respectively. The most common genetic cause for ALS-FTD is an expansion of GGGGCC repeats within the first intron of the C9ORF72 gene. However, little is known on the function of C9ORF72. Recently, other and we found that C9ORF72 forms a stable complex with the SMCR8 and WDR41 proteins. This complex acts as a GDP/GTP exchange factor for the small RAB GTPases Rab8a and Rab39b...
August 5, 2016: Small GTPases
Kiranpreet Kaur, Roop Singh, Vishnu Prasath, Sarita Magu, Milind Tanwar
BACKGROUND: To collect a baseline computer software aided normative morphometric data of thoracic spine in the Indian population and analyze it to give pre-procedural guidelines to clinicians for safe surgical and anaesthetic procedures in the thoracic spine. METHODS: CT scans of thoracic spine of patients free from spinal disorders were reviewed in a total of 600 vertebrae in 50 patients. Parameters recorded with the help of computer software were pedicle width, length and height, transverse pedicle angles, chord length, canal dimensions, body width and height, spinous process angle and transverse process length...
April 2016: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma
Tom B Mole, Kate MacIver, Vanessa Sluming, Gerard R Ridgway, Turo J Nurmikko
Why only certain patients develop debilitating pain after spinal chord injury and whether structural brain changes are implicated remain unknown. The aim of this study was to determine if patients with chronic, neuropathic below-level pain have specific cerebral changes compared to those who remain pain-free. Voxel-based morphometry of high resolution, T1-weighted images was performed on three subject groups comprising patients with pain (SCI-P, n = 18), patients without pain (SCI-N, n = 12) and age- and sex-matched controls (n = 18)...
2014: NeuroImage: Clinical
Thomas E M Crijnen, Sandra van Gijlswijk, Jozef De Dooy, Maurits H J Voormolen, Dominique Robert, Philippe G Jorens, Jose Ramet
We present a case of a 3-year-old boy with neurodegeneration. Family history reveals Rendu-Osler-Weber disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spinal cord and spinal angiography showed a spinal arteriovenous fistula with venous aneurysm, causing compression of the lumbar spinal cord. Embolisation of the fistula was executed, resulting in clinical improvement. A week after discharge he was readmitted with neurologic regression. A second MRI scan revealed an intraspinal epidural haematoma and increase in size of the aneurysm with several new arterial feeders leading to it...
2014: Case Reports in Pediatrics
Céline Delloye-Bourgeois, Arnaud Jacquier, Julien Falk, Valérie Castellani
During development, axon guidance receptors play a crucial role in regulating axons sensitivity to both attractive and repulsive cues. Indeed, activation of the guidance receptors is the first step of the signaling mechanisms allowing axon tips, the growth cones, to respond to the ligands. As such, the modulation of their availability at the cell surface is one of the mechanisms that participate in setting the growth cone sensitivity. We describe here a method to precisely visualize the spatio-temporal cell surface dynamics of an axon guidance receptor both in vitro and in vivo in the developing chick spinal cord...
2014: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
W Reith, H Körner
Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome is an autosomal dominant inherited phacomatosis with a predisposition for the central nervous system and retina. There is variable expression with hemangioblastomas in the brain, medulla oblongata, spinal chord, renal carcinoma, pheochromocytoma, pancreatic cysts and islet cell tumors as well as tumors of the endolymphatic sac of the inner ear. Clinical symptoms occur first after an age of approximately 30 years. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the neuroaxis is indicated in all patients with a suspicion of von Hippel-Lindau syndrome...
December 2013: Der Radiologe
Jae-Young Hong, Seung-Woo Suh, T R Easwar, Suk Joo Hong, Yong-Chul Yoon, Hyung-Jin Kang
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Few accurate analyses of clinically useful vertebral anatomy have been conducted, and most have focused on thoracic idiopathic scoliosis. PURPOSE: To evaluate the different anatomic characteristics in scoliosis by disease type and level. STUDY DESIGN: Observational cohort study. PATIENT SAMPLE: Forty-eight patients with scoliosis were included in this study. OUTCOME MEASURES: Subjects underwent computed tomography (CT) of the whole spine...
November 2013: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
E Kahouadji, O Lucas, R H Khonsari, J Longis, O Hamel, P Corre
INTRODUCTION: Occipitalization of the atlas is the most common malformation of the craniovertebral junction. It can be diagnosed on lateral teleradiography and its finding imposes screening for associated atlantoaxial instability. In case of instability, brisk movements of the cervical spine during surgery may result in compression and distortion of the spinal chord and vertebro-basilar vascular system. OBSERVATION: An 18 year-old female patient was referred to our department for facial dysmorphosis and extraction of the third molars...
June 2013: Revue de Stomatologie, de Chirurgie Maxillo-faciale et de Chirurgie Orale
Jin-Hai Xu, Wen Mo, Jie Ye, Jun-Ming Ma, Hong-Bo Wan, Zheng-Yi Tong, Jun-ming Ma
OBJECTIVE: To discuss the correlation between the degree of cervical spinal cord compression and gender, age, height of intervertebral space and the abnormality curvature of cervical vertebrae. The multivariable linear regression was used to build the prediction model of cervical spinal cord compression. METHODS: One hundred and twenty patients with cervical spondylosis were divided into 4 groups according to the degree of spinal cord compression. To measure the sagittal diameter of spinal cord (a) and medulla-pons junction (M) in MRI individually, and then calculate the ratio of a/M; according to the ratio to evaluate the degree of cervical spinal cord compression...
September 2012: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
Andreas Zierer, Ali El-Sayed Ahmad, Nestoras Papadopoulos, Anton Moritz, Anno Diegeler, Paul P Urbanski
OBJECTIVES: The use of selective antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) makes deep hypothermia nonessential for aortic arch replacement. Consequently, a growing tendency to increase the body temperature during circulatory arrest with ACP has recently been reported from various institutions. However, very little is known about the clinical effect of different modes of ACP (unilateral vs bilateral) on neurologic morbidity. Also, the safe limits of this approach for spinal chord and visceral organ protection are yet to be defined...
November 2012: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Chee S Wong, Donagh Healy, Catriona Canning, J Calvin Coffey, Jonathan R Boyle, Stewart R Walsh
BACKGROUND: The use of thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR) is increasing. Similar to open repair, TEVAR carries a risk of spinal cord ischemia (SCI). We undertook a systematic review to determine whether preoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage reduces SCI. METHODS: PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and conference abstracts were searched using the keywords thoracic endovascular aortic repair, cerebrospinal fluid, spinal cord ischaemia, TEVAR, and aneurysm...
November 2012: Journal of Vascular Surgery
A Cogan, B Ilharreborde, T Lenoir, E Hoffmann, C Dauzac, P Guigui
We report, a very unusual case of multilevel vertebral hydatidosis adjacent to the thoracolumbar junction, without concomitant chord compression. Two months after initiating oral antiparasite treatment, the patient underwent resection of the lesion using a posterior approach, medullary decompression, and a T11-L3 instrumented arthrodesis. Arthrodesis via the anterior approach was performed at a later stage. In addition to its diagnostic value, this case raises renewed discussion about single-level lesions given their rarity: their indication for preoperative medullary angiography, their indication for circumferential surgery, the timing of medical treatment, and the strategy to implement for the residual lesions...
November 2011: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
Daniela Calvetti, Brian Wodlinger, Dominique M Durand, Erkki Somersalo
Electroneurography (ENG) is a method of recording neural activity within nerves. Using nerve electrodes with multiple contacts the activation patterns of individual neuronal fascicles can be estimated by measuring the surface voltages induced by the intraneural activity. The information about neuronal activation can be used for functional electric stimulation (FES) of patients suffering from spinal chord injury, or to control a robotic prosthetic limb of an amputee. However, the ENG signal estimation is a severely ill-posed inverse problem due to uncertainties in the model, low resolution due to limitations of the data, geometric constraints and the difficulty in separating the signal from biological and exogenous noise...
October 2011: Journal of Neural Engineering
Parya MomayyezSiahkal, Kaleem Siddiqi
Partial differential equations have been successfully used for fibre tractography and for mapping connectivity indices in the brain. However, the current implementation of methods which require 3D orientation to be tracked can suffer from serious shortcomings when invariance to 3D rotation is desired. In this paper we focus on the 3D stochastic completion field and introduce a new methodology to solve the underlying PDE in a manner that achieves rotation invariance. The key idea is to use spherical harmonics to solve the Fokker-Planck equation representing the evolution of the probability density function of a 3D directional random walk...
2011: Information Processing in Medical Imaging: Proceedings of the ... Conference
Masayuki Ohashi, Takui Ito, Toru Hirano, Naoto Endo
STUDY DESIGN: An analysis of computed tomography images of the spine in adult Japanese patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the variation of the position of the aorta relative to a spine with a thoracic kyphotic angle and to verify the safety margin for transpedicular screw fixation. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Recent studies have suggested that the aorta is positioned more laterally and posteriorly in patients with idiopathic scoliosis than in normal patients; however, variation of the position of the aorta in thoracic sagittal alignment has not been performed...
February 15, 2012: Spine
Philip J Wiffen, Henry J McQuay, Jayne Edwards, R Andrew Moore
BACKGROUND: February 2009: The authors are aware of unpublished trial data for Gabapentin which could affect the results of this review. This information together with that from trials published since 2005, will be considered when this review is updated in 2009.Anticonvulsant drugs have been used in the management of pain since the 1960s. The clinical impression is that they are useful for chronic neuropathic pain, especially when the pain is lancinating or burning. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the analgesic effectiveness and adverse effects of gabapentin for pain management in clinical practice...
2011: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
I Cižmář, E Ehler, N Calabová, R Vinter, J Palčák
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Injury to the spinal chord at the C5 level results in a severe handicap to the patient because of a loss of active motion of the wrist and hand. Selected surgical procedures can effectively restore active extension of the wrist and provide conditions for some vital pinching and gripping abilities. The deltoid muscle also has a potential for restoration of upper limb function, because its posterior portion can be used to restore elbow extension. The aim of this clinical retrospective study was to describe and evaluate the techniques used to improve the quality of life in patients with spinal chord lesions at the C5 level...
2010: Acta Chirurgiae Orthopaedicae et Traumatologiae Cechoslovaca
M C Brandt, F Mahfoud, M Böhm, U C Hoppe
As much as one third of patients with arterial hypertension are treatment refractory as they do not reach sufficient blood pressure control despite antihypertensive combination therapy of significant duration. In patients with therapy-resistant hypertension, the kidneys play a central role as activator of the sympathetic nervous system. Sympathetic nervous activation via efferent nerve fibers lying in the adventitia of the renal arteries leads to increased Na(+) reabsorption, increased renin secretion and reduction of renal plasma flow...
February 2011: Herz
Michael Klüppel
Proteoglycans carrying chondroitin sulfate side chains have been shown to fulfill important biological functions in development, disease, and signaling. One area of considerable interest is the functional importance of chondroitin sulfates as inhibitors of the regeneration of axonal projections in the mammalian central nervous system. In animal models of spinal cord injury, injections of the enzyme Chondroitinase ABC from the bacterium Proteus vulgaris into the lesion site leads to degradation of chondroitin sulfates, and promotes axonal regeneration and significant functional recovery...
May 2011: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Christopher J Kwolek, Elizabeth Blazick
Traumatic aortic rupture is a devastating injury that is difficult to manage because of the need to approach aortic repair, often in concert with management of complex associated injuries to nonvascular organ systems. Traditional open repair, while effective in the long-term, is associated with a periprocedural mortality between 10% and 20%, along with a 5% risk of stroke and up to a 5% risk of spinal chord ischemia. The advent of endovascular stent graft repair has allowed single centers to cut periprocedural mortality in half and decrease the risk of major neurologic events to <2%...
December 2010: Seminars in Vascular Surgery
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