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Adrenal gland neoplasm

Markus Luster, Andreas Pfestroff, Frederik A Verburg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose is to review recent advances concerning the role of nuclear medicine in endocrine oncology. RECENT FINDINGS: For I therapy of thyroid cancer a thyrotropin (TSH) more than 30 mU/l has for many years been deemed a condition sine qua non. However, new data show that patients with lower TSH levels at the time of ablation have the same rate of successful ablation as those with TSH more than 30 mU/l.I-124 combined integrated positron emission tomography and computed X-ray tomography was shown to be highly accurate in predicting findings on posttherapy radioiodine scanning and was shown to have a high prognostic power...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
Elena Pagani, Massimiliano Tursi, Chiara Lorenzi, Alberto Tarducci, Barbara Bruno, Enrico Corrado Borgogno Mondino, Renato Zanatta
BACKGROUND: Ultrasonography to visualize adrenal gland lesions and evaluate incidentally discovered adrenal masses in dogs has become more reliable with advances in imaging techniques. However, correlations between sonographic and histopathological changes have been elusive. The goal of our study was to investigate which ultrasound features of adrenal gland abnormalities could aid in discriminating between benign and malignant lesions. To this end, we compared diagnosis based on ultrasound appearance and histological findings and evaluated ultrasound criteria for predicting malignancy...
November 28, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Anna Kobayashi, Takanori Hirose, Eiji Kudo, Youichiro Kawashita, Toshiyuki Yagi
We present a rare case of retroperitoneal dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLPS) masquerading as rhabdomyosarcoma. The patient was a 74-year-old man, complaining a loss of appetite. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a retroperitoneal mass, 10 cm in diameter, between the liver and the right adrenal gland. The tumor was resected and histologically diagnosed as conventional DDLPS, in which dedifferentiated component was highly cellular and composed of pleomorphic anaplastic cells. After 3 years, the tumor recurred in the right retroperitoneal space...
October 31, 2016: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Mir B Alikhan, Garrison Pease, William Watkin, Raymon Grogan, Thomas Krausz, Tatjana Antic
Epithelioid sarcoma (ES) is a malignant mesenchymal neoplasm with some morphologic or immunophenotypic evidence of epithelial differentiation. The "classical" subtype occurs in younger patients, often in distal extremities as compared to the "proximal" type. Tumors of the proximal type primarily arising in solid organs are rare with only few case reports in the literature. We report two cases of primary ES in the kidney of a 27-year-old female and the adrenal gland of a 73-year-old male. Clinical exam and imaging, including computer tomography and positron emission tomography did not reveal tumor elsewhere in both cases...
October 18, 2016: Human Pathology
Cristian M Suárez-Santana, Carolina Fernández-Maldonado, Josué Díaz-Delgado, Manuel Arbelo, Alejandro Suárez-Bonnet, Antonio Espinosa de Los Monteros, Nakita Câmara, Eva Sierra, Antonio Fernández
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed neoplasm in humans, however this does not apply to other animal species. Living in an aquatic environment the respiratory system of cetaceans had to undergo unique adaptations in order to them to survive and cope with totally different respiratory pathogens and potentially carcinogens from those affecting humans. CASE PRESENTATION: This article discusses not only macroscopical, histopathological and immunohistochemical features of a pulmonary carcinoma with disseminated metastases in a long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas), as well as the immunohistochemical analysis performed on various tissues of cetaceans belonging to the genus Globicephala...
October 11, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Zhun Wang, Qiliang Cai, Gang Li, Ning Jiang, Yuanjie Niu
We present a rare case of silent giant pheochromocytoma with leukemoid reaction which has not been reported before. The patient was a 61-year-old woman who complained of progressive weight loss for 3 months. Preoperative the urine VMA was 105.54mg/24h. WBC count was 56.9x10(9)/L. Abdominal ultrasound and CT revealed a mass measured 18×11cm in the left adrenal area. The patient underwent the adrenal gland neoplasm resection. Postoperative histopathologic evaluation confirmed the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma...
October 5, 2016: Urology
Delia Proposito, Francesca De Lucia, Alessandra Giannella, Francesca Frangella, Giuseppe Pappalardo, Maria Santangelo, Domenico Magagnano
AIM: Ganglioneuroma (GN) is the most uncommon and the most benign tumor among neuroblastic neoplasms, and in 29.7% of cases it finds in an adrenal gland. Usually asymptomatic, this tumor is detected incidentally in the majority of cases. It is generally challenging to obtain a precise diagnosis of adrenal ganglioneuroma (AGN) before surgery. Misdiagnosis rate of AGN on CT and MRI is 64.7% and clinicians and surgeons are often lacking in knowledge of this rare disease. For this reason, we pointed out the clinical, biochemical, radiologic and pathologic features of AGN in an our experience, with the aim to find out if there are some features able to facilitate a preoperative diagnosis...
2016: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
Julia Dörner, Verena Martinez Rodriguez, Ricarda Ziegler, Theresa Röhrig, Rebecca S Cochran, Ronni M Götz, Mark D Levin, Marjut Pihlajoki, Markku Heikinheimo, David B Wilson
As certain strains of mice age, hyperplastic lesions resembling gonadal tissue accumulate beneath the adrenal capsule. Gonadectomy (GDX) accelerates this heterotopic differentiation, resulting in the formation of wedge-shaped adrenocortical neoplasms that produce sex steroids. Stem/progenitor cells that reside in the adrenal capsule and retain properties of the adrenogonadal primordium are thought to be the source of this heterotopic tissue. Here, we demonstrate that GLI1(+) progenitors in the adrenal capsule give rise to gonadal-like cells that accumulate in the subcapsular region...
August 29, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
S Corner, T Walsh, L Padilla, A MacNeill, M Wallig, M Kiupel, K Terio
Clouded leopards in North American zoological institutions have a high frequency of pheochromocytomas and were identified in 32 of 70 (45%) animals necropsied. Archival sections of adrenal gland from 20 adult clouded leopards with unilateral or bilateral pheochromocytomas collected between 1984 and 2011 were examined by light microscopy and immunohistochemistry, and case demographics were reviewed. Affected leopards were older than 10 years of age (mean, 16 years; range, 11-19 years), and males were overrepresented (12 males, 8 females)...
August 19, 2016: Veterinary Pathology
Hervé Lefebvre, Michaël Thomas, Céline Duparc, Jérôme Bertherat, Estelle Louiset
In the normal human adrenal gland, steroid secretion is regulated by a complex network of autocrine/paracrine interactions involving bioactive signals released by endothelial cells, nerve terminals, chromaffin cells, immunocompetent cells, and adrenocortical cells themselves. ACTH can be locally produced by medullary chromaffin cells and is, therefore, a major mediator of the corticomedullary functional interplay. Plasma ACTH also triggers the release of angiogenic and vasoactive agents from adrenocortical cells and adrenal mast cells and, thus, indirectly regulates steroid production through modulation of the adrenal blood flow...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Neha Sood, Kaniksha Desai, Ana-Maria Chindris, Jason Lewis, Tri A Dinh
Steroid cell tumor not otherwise specified (NOS) is a rare subtype of sex cord stromal tumor of the ovary and contributes less than 0.1% of all ovarian neoplasms. The majority of tumors occur in pre-menopausal women (mean age: 43 years), in which 56-77% of patients present with virilization due to excess testosterone. An 80-year-old woman with worsening alopecia and excessive growth of coarse hair on abdomen and genital area was found to have elevated serum testosterone level (462 ng/mL). Radiologic studies were consistent with bilateral adrenal adenomas...
June 28, 2016: Rare Tumors
Mina Shenouda, Linda G Brown, Krista L Denning, Toni Pacioles
Oncocytic neoplasms are tumors composed predominantly or exclusively of oncocytes (large polygonal cells with granular eosinophilic cytoplasm due to abnormal mitochondrial accumulation). These tumors are frequently reported in the thyroid, kidneys, and salivary glands. However, they are distinctly rare in the adrenal cortex. Oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasms (OAN) are classified regarding their biological behavior by their histological features according to the Lin-Weiss-Bisceglia system (LWB). Here, we report a case of OAN of borderline or uncertain malignant potential (BMP) with subsequently identified papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)...
2016: Curēus
Marouene Chakroun, Waild Kerkeni, Yosra Zidi, Haroun Ayed, Abderrazak Bouzouita, Mohamed Riadh Ben Slama, Sihem Rammeh, Amine Derouiche, Mohamed Chebil
A 74-year-old man presented with right flank pain and a palpable mass in the left flank. Blood pressure was normal. Contrastenhanced computed tomography (CT) showed a 17 × 16 × 12 cm retroperitoneal mass over the left kidney, solid and heterogeneous. There were also 3 retro aortic lymph nodes and bilateral renal lithiasis. Twenty four-hour urinary metanephrines and normetanephrines were normal. The patient underwent a resection of the mass with left adrenalectomy by a lumbar incision. Histological findings revealed an adrenal oncocytic neoplasm (AON) with uncertain malignant potential...
September 2016: Urology Case Reports
W Saeger, P A Schnabel, P Komminoth
The current WHO classification of neuroendocrine tumors (NET) differentiates between typical carcinoids (low grade NET), atypical carcinoids (intermediate grade NET) and small cell and large cell carcinomas (high grade NET) according to the prognosis. Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) of the gastrointestinal tract and the pancreas are graded in an identical way. Together with the TNM system this enables a preoperative estimation of the prognosis in biopsies and fine needle aspirates. Well-differentiated tumors are graded into G1 tumors by the number of mitoses, <2 per 10 high-power fields (HPF) and the Ki-67 (index <3 %) and G2 tumors (2-20 mitoses/10 HPF, Ki-67 3-20 %)...
July 2016: Der Pathologe
Noriyoshi Ishikawa, Mamiko Nagase, Saki Takami, Asuka Araki, Nahoko Ishikawa, Chiaki Koike, Hiroaki Shiina, Riruke Maruyama
Adrenocortical carcinomas are relatively rare, but they are considered to be highly aggressive malignant tumors. Sarcomatoid carcinomas represent an even more aggressive type. Bilateral malignant adrenal tumors are extraordinary rare, except for those that represent metastatic spread from a primary neoplasm. Here we report a case of a 69-year-old woman who presented symptoms that raised strong suspicions of adrenal insufficiency. Bilateral adrenal masses, identified in the imaging study, were responsible for the clinical manifestation and surgically resected...
June 27, 2016: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
Dongfeng Pan, Peifeng Liang, Hongyan Xiao
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a genetic disorder associated with neurofibromin 1 (NF1) gene mutation, which generates an increased risk of variety of tumor types. The current study reports a case involving NF1, pheochromocytoma (PHEO) and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). A 56-year-old man presented with abdominal pain and polypnea. Clinical investigation revealed multiple diffuse soft-tissue lesions throughout his body, and pigmented macules on the skin. Imaging analyses revealed thoracic scoliosis, multiple subcutaneous nodules in the abdomen and trunk, and a 7...
July 2016: Oncology Letters
Hailong Liu, Mingshan Zhang, Xuan Wang, Yanming Qu, Hongwei Zhang, Chunjiang Yu
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) and ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome are frequent in adult patients. However, primary intracranial NETs, exhibiting immunonegativity for ACTH, high serum ACTH level and treated with anterior skull base reconstruction, are rare and complicated. We herein present a case of a primary intracranial NET immunonegative for ACTH, resulting in ectopic ACTH syndrome. A 40-year-old woman presented with intermittent rhinorrhea, rapid weight gain, polydipsia, polyuria, hypertension, dimness, bilateral exophthalmus, diminution of vision in the left eye and pigmentation of the skin of the face and trunk...
July 2016: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Luana Andrade, Vitória Lana Massarente, Stéphanie Corradini Tormin, Karina Braga Ribeiro, Geanete Pozzan, Mauro Ajaj Saieg
BACKGROUND: The use of minimally invasive procedures in autopsies such as image-guided fine-needle aspiration may facilitate family acceptance and, therefore, increase the number of postmortem examinations. The objective of the current study was to validate the use of cytology in a prospective set of conventional autopsies. METHODS: All lesions and organs sampled for histological examination were concomitantly evaluated by scrape cytology of exactly the same location...
November 2016: Cancer
Yazan Abdeen, Sawsan Amireh, Alpa Patel, Moh'd Al-Halawani, Hamid Shaaban, Richard Miller
CONTEXT: According to the recent World Health Organization reports, lung cancer has become the most common type of malignancy and the leading cause of death from cancer. Lung cancer frequently metastasizes to hilar lymphnodes, brain, adrenal glands, bone, but rarely to skin. CASE REPORT: We report a case of a 72-year-old male with a past medical history of pulmonary fibrosis and no prior history of smoking who presented to the emergency room for progressive dyspnea over three weeks...
May 2016: North American Journal of Medical Sciences
L M A Colgin, D J Schwahn, F Castillo-Alcala, M Kiupel, A D Lewis
Pheochromocytoma, a rarely reported adrenal gland neoplasm in Old World primates, was diagnosed in 5 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and 2 African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) from 3 research institutions. Age and sex were available for 6 primates. Two males and 4 females were affected, ranging in age from 9 to 31 years. All neoplasms were unilateral and, in the cases reporting the affected gland, 4 involved the right adrenal gland and 2 involved the left. Diagnosis was established by characteristic histologic features...
November 2016: Veterinary Pathology
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