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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419461/assent-in-pediatric-patients
#1
Jean C Self, Jennifer A Coddington, Karen J Foli, Melanie L Braswell
AIM: To report an analysis of the concept of pediatric assent. BACKGROUND: The concept of assent is poorly defined in current literature which may lead to potentially flawed practices in obtaining pediatric assent. DESIGN: The Walker and Avant (2011) method is used to provide clarity to the concept of pediatric assent. DATA SOURCES: Data were collected from PubMed, Academic Search Premier, PhilPapers, Wikipedia, and Google...
April 17, 2017: Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419019/complexities-of-consent-ethics-in-the-pediatric-emergency-department
#2
Naomi Dreisinger, Nathan Zapolsky
Informed consent is a communicative process of sharing information with patients, which helps assure their understanding of the information provided and asks for their permission to proceed. Informed consent allows a patient or a patient's family to use his or her own value system to determine the need for a particular procedure or test. Asking a patient for permission to treat requires the provider to respect the patient's autonomy through allowing him or her to be an active part of the decision-making process...
April 18, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416426/-the-jard%C3%A3-law-a-real-simplification-of-research-in-france
#3
C Levy, A Rybak, R Cohen, C Jung
The Jardé law was voted in 2012 and its implementing decrees were published in November 2016. The delay between the vote and the decrees highlights the difficulties encountered. This law concerns all research, interventional and otherwise, involving the human person. Each research study must receive the approval of a randomly assigned ethics committee or Committee for the Protection of Persons. The approach here is based on risk in three types of study: interventional studies, studies with minimal risk and intervention, and non-interventional studies (observational studies)...
April 14, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415900/pediatric-nurse-practitioners-clinical-competencies-and-knowing-patterns-in-nursing-focus-group-interviews
#4
Hyejung Lee, Anna Kim, Anna Meong, Minjeong Seo
BACKGROUND: The generic competency domains of advanced nursing practice have been reported on in numerous countries, but rather few studies have examined competencies specific to pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs). OBJECTIVES: We identified the core clinical competencies of PNPs in South Korea and related these identified competencies to the five patterns of knowing in nursing. DESIGN: Focus group interviews were conducted with five PNP students and four PNPs using two thematic questions, one on clinical competencies required for PNPs and the other on competencies specific to Korean PNPs...
April 18, 2017: Contemporary Nurse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410086/premature-discontinuation-of-pediatric-randomized-controlled-trials-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#5
Stefan Schandelmaier, Yuki Tomonaga, Dirk Bassler, Joerg J Meerpohl, Erik von Elm, John J You, Anette Bluemle, Francois Lamontagne, Ramon Saccilotto, Alain Amstutz, Theresa Bengough, Mihaela Stegert, Kelechi K Olu, Kari A O Tikkinen, Ignacio Neumann, Alonso Carrasco-Labra, Markus Faulhaber, Sohail M Mulla, Dominik Mertz, Elie A Akl, Xin Sun, Jason W Busse, Ignacio Ferreira-González, Alain Nordmann, Viktoria Gloy, Heike Raatz, Lorenzo Moja, Rachel Rosenthal, Shanil Ebrahim, Per O Vandvik, Bradley C Johnston, Martin A Walter, Bernard Burnand, Matthias Schwenkglenks, Lars G Hemkens, Gordon Guyatt, Heiner C Bucher, Benjamin Kasenda, Matthias Briel
OBJECTIVES: To determine the proportion of pediatric randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that are prematurely discontinued, examine the reasons for discontinuation, and compare the risk for recruitment failure in pediatric and adult RCTs. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study of RCTs approved by 1 of 6 Research Ethics Committees (RECs) in Switzerland, Germany, and Canada between 2000 and 2003. We recorded trial characteristics, trial discontinuation, and reasons for discontinuation from protocols, corresponding publications, REC files, and a survey of trialists...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399664/ethical-considerations-surrounding-germline-next-generation-sequencing-of-children-with-cancer
#6
Liza-Marie Johnson, Kayla V Hamilton, Jessica M Valdez, Esther Knapp, Justin N Baker, Kim E Nichols
The advent of next generation sequencing (NGS) has introduced an exciting new era in biomedical research. NGS forms the foundation of current genetic testing approaches, including targeted gene panel testing, as well as more comprehensive whole exome and whole genome sequencing. Together, these approaches promise to provide critical insights into the understanding of health and disease. However, with NGS testing come many ethical questions and concerns, particularly when testing involves children. These concerns are especially relevant for children with cancer, where the testing of tumor and germline tissues is increasingly being incorporated into clinical care...
April 12, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377660/comprehensive-format-of-informed-consent-in-research-and-practice-a-tool-to-uphold-the-ethical-and-moral-standards
#7
REVIEW
P Arun Bhupathi, G R Ravi
Informed consent in research, clinical trial, and practice is a process in which a patient/participant consents to participate or undergo the proposed procedures after being informed of its procedures, risks, and benefits. Ideally, the patient/participant is expected to give his consent only after fully comprehending the information about the procedures, benefits, and risks involved in research/clinical trial/practice. Thus, many ethical issues are entwined in the process of obtaining a proper informed consent...
January 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377649/comparative-evaluation-of-clinical-and-radiographic-success-of-formocresol-propolis-turmeric-gel-and-calcium-hydroxide-on-pulpotomized-primary-molars-a-preliminary-study
#8
Shivayogi M Hugar, Pratibha Kukreja, Shweta S Hugar, Niraj Gokhale, Harsha Assudani
AIMS: Despite various advents in technology, the present era marks a shift to phytotherapeutics and alternative modalities to conventional endodontic treatments. Newer endodontic modalities have been developed inculcating the ancient system of medicine. The present study was done to compare and evaluate the clinical pulp response and radiographic signs after pulpotomy in four groups of primary molar teeth treated with formocresol (control), propolis extract, turmeric gel, and calcium hydroxide respectively...
January 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376548/effect-of-an-educational-presentation-about-extremely-preterm-infants-on-knowledge-and-attitudes-of-health-care-providers
#9
Stefani Doucette, Brigitte Lemyre, Thierry Daboval, Sandra Dunn, Salwa Akiki, Nick Barrowman, Gregory P Moore
Objective To determine healthcare providers' knowledge (HCP) about survival rates of extremely preterm infants (EPI) and attitudes toward resuscitation before and after an educational presentation and, to examine the relationship between knowledge and attitudes toward resuscitation. Study Design Participants completed a survey before and after attending a presentation detailing evidence-based estimates of survival rates and surrounding ethical issues. Respondents included neonatologists, obstetricians, pediatricians, maternal-fetal medicine specialists, trainees in pediatrics, obstetrics, neonatal-perinatal medicine and neonatal and obstetrical nurses...
April 4, 2017: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362930/past-present-and-future-of-neurosurgery-in-uganda
#10
Michael M Haglund, Benjamin Warf, Anthony Fuller, Kyle Freischlag, Michael Muhumuza, Hussein Ssenyonjo, John Mukasa, John Mugamba, Joel Kiryabwire
Neurosurgery in Uganda was virtually non-existent up until late 1960s. This changed when Dr. Jovan Kiryabwire spearheaded development of a neurosurgical unit at Mulago Hospital in Kampala. His work ethic and vision set the stage for rapid expansion of neurosurgical care in Uganda.At the beginning of the 2000s, Uganda was a country of nearly 30 million people, but had only 4 neurosurgeons. Neurosurgery's progress was plagued by challenges faced by many developing countries, such as difficulty retaining specialists, lack of modern hospital resources, and scarce training facilities...
April 1, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361727/beyond-an-open-future
#11
Jenny I Krutzinna
Discussions about the ethical permissibility of pediatric cognitive enhancement frequently revolve around arguments about welfare, and often include an appeal to the child's right to an open future. Both proponents and opponents of cognitive enhancement claim that their respective positions best serve the interests of the child by promoting an open future. This article argues that this right to an open future argument only captures some of the risks to the welfare of children, therefore requiring a broader ethical approach...
April 2017: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353189/reflections-on-ethics-and-humanity-in-pediatric-neurology-the-value-of-recognizing-ethical-issues-in-common-clinical-practice
#12
REVIEW
Gabriel M Ronen, Peter L Rosenbaum
Our goals in this reflection are to (i) identify the ethical dimensions inherent in any clinical encounter and (ii) bring to the forefront of our pediatric neurology practice the myriad of opportunities to explore and learn from these ethical questions. We highlight specifically Beauchamp and Childress's principles of biomedical ethics. We use the terms ethics in common clinical practice and an ethical lens to remind people of the ubiquity of ethical situations and the usefulness of using existing ethical principles to analyze and resolve difficult situations in clinical practice...
May 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342432/-ethical-dilemmas-in-practice-of-medicine-child
#13
Justo Ruiz López, Javier Navarro Zaragoza, Francisco Carrillo Navarro, Aurelio Luna Maldonado
After reviewing the existing bibliography in the last 20 years, we concluded that there is a lack of information regarding the ethical conflicts that affect to pediatrics in their daily practice. It produces certain degree of uncertainty in these professionals at the time of solving these problems. We made a systematic search in the main data bases, finding more than 150 articles related, of which 80 were considered outstanding. After studying them, we have found 40 ethical dilemmas, related to some principle of solution and that we described in this article...
January 2017: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337687/assessing-the-culture-of-residency-using-the-c-change-resident-survey-validity-evidence-in-34-u-s-residency-programs
#14
Linda H Pololi, Arthur T Evans, Janet T Civian, Sandy Shea, Robert T Brennan
BACKGROUND: A practical instrument is needed to reliably measure the clinical learning environment and professionalism for residents. OBJECTIVE: To develop and present evidence of validity of an instrument to assess the culture of residency programs and the clinical learning environment. DESIGN: During 2014-2015, we surveyed residents using the C - Change Resident Survey to assess residents' perceptions of the culture in their programs. PARTICIPANTS: Residents in all years of training in 34 programs in internal medicine, pediatrics, and general surgery in 14 geographically diverse public and private academic health systems...
March 23, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326208/a-child-as-a-donor-for-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-bioethical-justification-a-case-study-on-sickle-cell-disease
#15
Andrea Z Pereira, Ricardo Hellman, Nelson Hamerschlak, Andrea Kondo, Polianna Mara Rodrigues de Souza, Wilson Leite Pedreira, Luiz Fernando Alves Lima Mantovani, Eduardo Juan Troster, Henrique Grunspun, Marco Aurélio Scarpinella Bueno
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an important treatment option for children with severe and refractory sickle cell disease (SCD) with debilitating clinical complications. HSCT with cells from the bone marrow of a HLA-identical sibling used in SCD has a low mortality risk, high cure rate, and high event-free survival rate after a median follow-up of 5-6 years. However, matched donors are found in only about 20% of the patients. A boy aged 8 years with SCD had a sister, <2 years old, a fully compatible donor...
2017: Case Reports in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298942/liver-acoustic-radiation-force-impulse-arfi-in-childhood-obesity-comparison-and-correlation-with-biochemical-markers
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Rajeev Kamble, Kushaljit S Sodhi, Babu R Thapa, Akshay K Saxena, Anmol Bhatia, Devi Dayal, Niranjan Khandelwal
PURPOSE: To compare and correlate the diagnostic efficiency of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography with biochemical markers for assessing hepatic changes in overweight and obese children. METHODS: This prospective study was approved by the institutional ethics committee. It included 54 overweight and obese children and 50 normal children (as a control group) in the age range 5-18 years. For all children, we performed grayscale ultrasonography to diagnose fatty liver, ARFI elastography to measure liver stiffness, and biochemical evaluation for aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and serum triglyceride (TG) levels...
March 2017: Journal of Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288355/time-required-to-initiate-outbreak-and-pandemic-observational-research
#17
Asgar H Rishu, Nicole Marinoff, Lisa Julien, Mariana Dumitrascu, Nicole Marten, Shauna Eggertson, Su Willems, Stacy Ruddell, Dan Lane, Bruce Light, Henry T Stelfox, Philippe Jouvet, Richard Hall, Steven Reynolds, Nick Daneman, Robert A Fowler
PURPOSE: Observational research focused upon emerging infectious diseases such as Ebola virus, Middle East respiratory syndrome, and Zika virus has been challenging to quickly initiate. We aimed to determine the duration of start-up procedures and barriers encountered for an observational study focused upon such infectious outbreaks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: At 1 pediatric and 5 adult intensive care units, we measured durations from protocol receipt to a variety of outbreak research milestones, including research ethics board (REB) approval, data sharing agreement (DSA) execution, and patient study screening initiation...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271812/elite-youth-sports-from-best-pediatric-science-practice-to-sports-practice-2016
#18
Craig A Williams
In my 2015 editorial, I selected two research publications with a focus on an applied sports sciences perspective. This year I have chosen to focus on two publications from a methodological viewpoint, highlighting the importance of laboratory procedures and extraction of data through a systematic review respectively. The first publication by Leites and colleagues (J Appl Physiol) addresses questions in relation to thermoregulation and carbohydrate metabolism in young people. This topic is difficult to conduct due to additional ethical and safety concerns due to exercising in the heat...
February 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261576/personalized-medicine-in-allergic-asthma-at-the-crossroads-of-allergen-immunotherapy-and-biologicals
#19
REVIEW
Benedikt Fritzsching
Major allergic disease can be viewed as clinical syndromes rather than discrete disease entities. Emerging evidence indicates that allergic asthma includes several disease phenotypes. Immunological deviation toward high T helper cell type 2 cytokine levels has been demonstrated for a subgroup of pediatric asthma patients, and now, several novel monoclonal antibodies have been approved for treatment of this subgroup as a stratified approach of "personalized" medicine in allergy. Introduction of component-based IgE testing before allergen immunotherapy (AIT), i...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250033/cross-sectional-analysis-of-national-dental-residency-match-data
#20
Sivaraman Prakasam, Patrick Brady, Veeratrishul Allareddy, Sankeerth Rampa, Kyungsup Shin, Romesh Nalliah, Veerasathpurush Allareddy
The Dental Residency Match (DRM) program provides an ethical and unbiased selection process for applicants to postdoctoral dental programs, based on mutual interests of applicants and programs. The aims of this study were to conduct a descriptive analysis of DRM metrics for the years 2008 to 2015 and to test the hypothesis that there was a difference in number of ranks submitted between programs that filled all their offered positions and those that did not. DRM metrics data from years 2008 to 2015 were obtained from the National Matching Service...
March 2017: Journal of Dental Education
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