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Dale W Litzenberg, Daniel G Muenz, Paul G Archer, William C Jackson, Daniel A Hamstra, Jason W Hearn, Matthew J Schipper, Daniel E Spratt
PURPOSE: Investigate the impact on prostate orientation caused by use and removal of a Foley catheter, and the dosimetric impact on men prospectively treated with prostate stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). METHODS: Twenty-two men underwent a CT simulation with a Foley in place (FCT), followed immediately by a second treatment planning simulation without the Foley (TPCT). The change in prostate orientation was determined by rigid registration of three implanted transponders between FCT and TPCT and compared to measured orientation changes during treatment...
February 23, 2018: Medical Physics
Ryan Morrow, Michael A McGuire, Jiaqiang Yan, Patrick M Woodward
Six LaABB'O6 (A = Ca, Sr; B = Co, Ni; B' = Ru, Os) double perovskites were synthesized, several for the first time, and their crystal structures and magnetic behavior were characterized with neutron powder diffraction and direct-current and alternating-current magnetometry. All six compounds crystallize with P21 /n space group symmetry, resulting from a- a- c+ octahedral tilting and complete rock salt ordering of transition-metal ions. Despite the electronic configurations of the transition-metal ions, either d8 -d3 or d7 -d3 , not one of the six compounds shows ferromagnetism as predicted by the Goodenough-Kanamori rules...
February 23, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Brian Derbyshire
Radiographic measurement of two-dimensional acetabular cup wear is usually carried out on a series of follow-up radiographs of the patient's pelvis. Since the orientation of the pelvis might not be consistent at every X-ray examination, the resulting change in view of the wear plane introduces error into the linear wear measurement. This effect is amplified on some designs of cup in which the centre of the socket is several millimetres below the centre of the cup or circular wire marker. This study describes the formulation of a mathematical method to correct radiographic wear measurements for changes in pelvis orientation...
February 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
Alberto Porta, Riccardo Colombo, Andrea Marchi, Vlasta Bari, Beatrice De Maria, Giovanni Ranuzzi, Stefano Guzzetti, Tommaso Fossali, Ferdinando Raimondi
This study checks whether autonomic markers derived from spontaneous fluctuations of heart period (HP) and systolic arterial pressure (SAP) and from their interactions with spontaneous or mechanical respiration (R) are associated with mortality in patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU). Three-hundred consecutive HP, SAP and R values were recorded during the first day in ICU in 123 patients. Population was divided into survivors (SURVs, n = 83) and non-survivors (NonSURVs, n = 40) according to the outcome...
February 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yunwei Cui, Pan Hu, Ning Wei, Xiaodong Cheng, Wenli Chang, Wei Chen
BACKGROUND Clinical studies indicate that in total ankle arthroplasty, postoperative implant subsidence and medial tilt become two significant concerns of the ankle replacement system, and which are associated with the contact between the bones and the talar component. Up to now, little attention has focused on the contact between the bones and the talar component. MATERIAL AND METHODS In order to address implant subsidence and medial tilt, one three-dimensional finite element model of contact between the bone and the talar components was built with the material properties of the cancellous bone interpolated from the experimental data, which represents variation of material properties through the cancellous bones...
February 23, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Joseph Cremaldi, Bharat Bhushan
The mechanical properties, corrosion-resistance, and aesthetics of stainless steel make it one of the most important and widely used materials worldwide in the construction, food, and transportation industries just to name a few. In this paper we demonstrate how these properties can be further enhanced by changing the hydrophilic stainless steel surface to be superhydrophilic, superhydrophobic, or superliquiphobic. Creation of these functional surfaces requires hierarchical roughness and chemistry. Roughness is created using various pathways including sandblasting, chemical etching, and nanocomposite coatings...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Yi Zhong, Herbert Gross
It is well known that freeform surfaces are used to improve the resolution in systems without rotational symmetry. For Scheimpflug systems, the tilted object plane leads to variant magnification in the system imaging. Thus, the system suffers from non-rotationally symmetric aberrations, non-uniform resolution, and non-uniform intensity distribution. In this paper, the paraxial imaging condition of Scheimpflug systems is discussed. From the classical viewpoint, the aberration theory is used to understand, balance, and improve the system performance for variant object distance...
February 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Chahine Assi, Nadim Kheir, Camille Samaha, Pascal Kouyoumjian, Kaissar Yammine
INTRODUCTION: Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) remains a therapeutic challenge for patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA). The majority of these patients are young with high functional demand, and show an increased risk of dislocation following surgery than patients with osteoarthritis. The use of double mobility cup (DMC) has been linked with lower rates of complications when compared to conservative cups; however, the literature is scarce over DMC results in patients with ONFH...
2018: SICOT-J
Sergei Vlassov, Sven Oras, Mikk Antsov, Jelena Butikova, Rünno Lõhmus, Boris Polyakov
High surface energy of individual nanostructures leads to high adhesion and static friction that can completely hinder the operation of nanoscale systems with movable parts. For instance, silver or gold nanowires cannot be moved on silicon substrate without plastic deformation. In this paper we experimentally demonstrate the operational prototype of low-friction nano-joint. The movable part of the prototype is made either from gold or silver nano-pin produced by laser-induced partial melting of silver and gold nanowires resulting in formation of rounded bulbs on their ends...
February 22, 2018: Nanotechnology
Daniel Hernandez, Mohamed Elsayed Eldib, Mohamed A A Hegazy, Myung Hye Cho, Min Hyoung Cho, Soo Yeol Lee
A small head motion of the patient can compromise the image quality detrimentally in a dental CT in which a slow cone-beam scan is adopted. We introduce a retrospective head-motion estimation method by which we can estimate the motion waveform from the projection images without employing any external motion monitoring devices. We compute the cross-correlation between every two successive projection images which would result in a sinusoid-like displacement curve over the projection view when there is no patient motion...
February 22, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
S Y Ha, K M Park, J Park, S E Kim, B I Lee, K J Shin
OBJECTIVE: Neurological progression is a major problem in managing the patients with acute lacunar infarction. The purpose of this was to investigate whether autonomic dysfunction is associated with neurological progression in patients with acute lacunar infarction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study comprised 60 patients with acute lacunar infarction. All enrolled subjects underwent autonomic function tests including the 30° head-up tilt test, Valsalva test, heart rate response to deep breathing, and sympathetic skin response...
February 21, 2018: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Eric Wang, Jeffery B Klauda
The barrier function of the stratum corneum (SC) is intimately related to the structure of the lipid matrix, which is composed of ceramides (Cer), cholesterol (Chol), and free fatty acid (FFA). In this study, the all-atom CHARMM36 (C36) force field is used to simulate bilayers of N-palmitoylsphingosine (Cer16), N-lignoceroylsphingosine (Cer24), Chol, and lignoceric acid (LA) as simple models of the SC. Equimolar mixtures of Cer, Chol, and LA are replicated from experiment for comparison and validation of the C36 force field, and the effect of lipid diversity and temperature is studied...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Einar-Jón Einarsson, Mitesh Patel, Hannes Petersen, Thomas Wiebe, Per-Anders Fransson, Måns Magnusson, Christian Moëll
Chemotherapy in childhood can result in long-term neurophysiological side-effects, which could extend to visual processing, specifically the degree to which a person relies on vision to determine vertical and horizontal (visual dependency). We investigated whether adults treated with chemotherapy in childhood experience elevated visual dependency compared to controls and whether any difference is associated with the age at which subjects were treated. Visual dependency was measured in 23 subjects (mean age 25...
2018: PloS One
Misa Hayashida, Shinichi Ogawa, Marek Malac
We evaluate the suitability of simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT), filtered back projection, and simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique methods for buried interface roughness measurements. We also investigate the effect of total electron dose distributed over the entire tilt series on measured roughness values. We investigate the applicability of the dose fractionation theorem by evaluating the effect of an increasing number of images, i.e., decreasing tilt increment size at fixed total electron irradiation dose on the quantitative measurement of buried interface roughness...
February 21, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Yodpong Chantarasorn, Settapong Techalertsuwan, Pongsavit Siripanthong, Anurak Tamerug
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to describe a new technique for small-incision scleral fixation of intraocular lens (IOL) using double 10-0 polypropylene sutures, and to report the outcomes of IOL position compared with intrascleral IOL fixation at 12-month follow-up. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective comparative study. METHOD: This new technique, called double sutured scleral fixated-IOL (DSF-IOL), was created to help with long-term knots strengthening by applying double sutures to each IOL haptic using an augmented Clove-hitch knot instead of the conventional knots tied by single suture...
February 20, 2018: Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology
Jonathan Ausman, Joelcio Abbade, Leonardo Ermini, Abby Farrell, Andrea Tagliaferro, Martin Post, Isabella Caniggia
Mitochondria are in a constant balance of fusing and dividing in response to cellular cues. Fusion creates healthy mitochondria, whereas fission results in removal of non-functional organelles. Changes in mitochondrial dynamics typify several human diseases. However, the contribution of mitochondrial dynamics to preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy characterized by placental cell autophagy and death, remains unknown. Herein, we show that the mitochondrial dynamic balance in preeclamptic placentae is tilted toward fission (increased DRP1 expression/activation and decreased OPA1 expression)...
February 20, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Xinyan Qin, Gongping Wu, Jin Lei, Fei Fan, Xuhui Ye, Quanjie Mei
With the growth of the national economy, there is increasing demand for electricity, which forces transmission line corridors to become structurally complicated and extend to complex environments (e.g., mountains, forests). It is a great challenge to inspect transmission line in these regions. To address these difficulties, a novel method of autonomous inspection for transmission line is proposed based on cable inspection robot (CIR) LiDAR data, which mainly includes two steps: preliminary inspection and autonomous inspection...
February 15, 2018: Sensors
Matthew D Smith, Hemamala I Karunadasa
With nearly 20% of global electricity consumed by lighting, more efficient illumination sources can enable massive energy savings. However, effectively creating the high-quality white light required for indoor illumination remains a challenge. To accurately represent color, the illumination source must provide photons with all the energies visible to our eye. Such a broad emission is difficult to achieve from a single material. In commercial white-light sources, one or more light-emitting diodes, coated by one or more phosphors, yield a combined emission that appears white...
February 20, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Bernard Cohen, Sergei B Yakushin, Catherine Cho
The Mal de Debarquement syndrome (MdDS) generally follows sea voyages, but it can occur after turbulent flights or spontaneously. The primary features are objective or perceived continuous rocking, swaying, and/or bobbing at 0.2 Hz after sea voyages or 0.3 Hz after flights. The oscillations can continue for months or years and are immensely disturbing. Associated symptoms appear to be secondary to the incessant sensation of movement. We previously suggested that the illness can be attributed to maladaptation of the velocity storage integrator in the vestibular system, but the actual neural mechanisms driving the MdDS are unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Francesca Izzi, Fabio Placidi, Claudio Liguori, Benedetta Lauretti, Girolama A Marfia, Antonio Pisani, Nicola B Mercuri, Camilla Rocchi
OBJECTIVE: This study is aimed at evaluating whether Continuous Positive Airway Pressure treatment (CPAP) may affect autonomic nervous system (ANS) in male patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSAS). METHODS: We compared autonomic symptoms of de novo severe OSAS patients, OSAS patients on chronic CPAP treatment and healthy controls, using the Scales for Outcome in Parkinson disease-Autonomic (SCOPA-AUT) questionnaire. All groups underwent cardiovascular function tests including head-up tilt test (HUTT), Valsalva maneuver, deep breathing, hand grip and cold face tests...
February 2018: Sleep Medicine
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