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Taiga Okumura, Minami Shoji, Akiko Hisada, Yusuke Ominami, Sukehiro Ito, Tatsuo Ushiki, Masato Nakajima, Takashi Ohshima
Since a three-dimensional (3D) cellular ultrastructure is significant for biological functions, it has been investigated using various electron microscopic techniques. Although transmission electron microscopy (TEM)-based techniques are traditionally used, cells must be embedded in resin and sliced into ultrathin sections in sample preparation processes. Block-face observation using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) has also been recently applied to 3D observation of cellular components, but this is a destructive inspection and does not allow re-examination...
October 16, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
Lara A Thompson, Csilla Haburcakova, Adam D Goodworth, Richard F Lewis
Quantitative animal models are critically needed to provide proof-of-concept for the investigation of rehabilitative balance therapies (e.g., invasive vestibular prostheses) and treatment response prior to, or in conjunction with, human clinical trials. This paper describes a novel approach to modeling the non-human primate postural control system. Our observation that rhesus macaques and humans have even remotely similar postural control motivates the further application of the rhesus macaque as a model for studying the effects of vestibular dysfunction, as well as vestibular prosthesis-assisted states, on human postural control...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Eckart Zimmermann, Ralph Weidner, Gereon R Fink
Saccades shift the retina with high-speed motion. In order to compensate for the sudden displacement, the visuomotor system needs to combine saccade-related information and visual metrics. Many neurons in oculomotor but also in visual areas shift their receptive field shortly before the execution of a saccade (Duhamel, Colby, & Goldberg, 1992; Nakamura & Colby, 2002). These shifts supposedly enable the binding of information from before and after the saccade. It is a matter of current debate whether these shifts are merely location based (i...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Reenu Elizabeth John, Anoop Chandran, Justin George, Ajai Jose, Gijo Jose, Joshy Jose, N V Unnikrishnan, Marykutty Thomas, K C George
Nanostructuring followed by incorporation of defect induced non-stoichiometry is an emerging field of prominence due to its capacity to introduce unprecedented properties in materials with potential applications. In this work, crystalline α-MnO2 nanorods are synthesised using a facile co-precipitation method to exhibit ferroelectric behaviour for the first time. The evolution mechanism of the nanorods is investigated using XRD, HRTEM and FTIR spectra, while their thermal stability is probed using TGA/DTA. The novel properties observed are the result of structural rearrangements sparked by electrons in mixed valence cations (Mn(3+)/Mn(4+))...
October 19, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Lili Jiang, Xiaodong Zhang, Fengzhou Fang, Xianlei Liu, Linlin Zhu
A simple, precise, and innovative technique for wavefront aberration measurement is presented in this paper. This technique is based on transmitted fringe deflectometry (TFD) used to measure wavefront slope and wavefronts. The system measurement error when measuring wavefront aberration is analyzed, including the aberration of the reference wavefront caused by shape distribution and the tilt and decentration of the phase object. Based on this, the system error model is established, and the system error compensation method is also presented...
September 10, 2017: Applied Optics
Haolin Ding, Shihe Yi, Yangzhu Zhu, Lin He
Nanoparticle-based planar laser scattering was used to measure the density distribution of the supersonic (Ma=3.0) turbulent boundary layer and the optical path difference (OPD), which is quite crucial for aero-optics study. Results were obtained using ray tracing. The influences of different layers in the boundary layer, turbulence scales, and light incident angle on aero-optics were examined, and the underlying flow physics were analyzed. The inner layer plays a dominant role, followed by the outer layer...
September 20, 2017: Applied Optics
Yuyan Chen, Yongkai Wang, Tiankun Wang, Yongyuan Zhang, Li Wang, Zhongyue Zhang
Asymmetric transmission (AT) has significant applications in optical polarization control. In this paper, we propose a kind of periodic nanoslit rather than the protruding planar structures, such as G-shaped structure and coupled split-ring resonators, to realize the AT effect. The planar periodic obliquely intersecting nanoslits (OINs) in the gold film, composed of gratings with an infinite length and tilted nanoslits with a finite length, are proposed to realize the AT effect by performing the finite element method...
July 10, 2017: Applied Optics
Y Wei, M Ibison, G Xia, J D A Smith, C P Welsch
This paper investigates numerically dual-grating dielectric laser-driven accelerators driven by a pulse-front-tilted (PFT) laser, which extends the interaction length and boosts the electrons' energy gain. The optical system necessary to generate PFT laser beams with an ultrashort pulse duration of 100 fs is also studied in detail. Through two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we show that such a PFT laser effectively increases the energy gain by (91±25) % compared to that of a normally incident laser with a waist radius of 50 μm for a 100-period dual-grating structure...
October 10, 2017: Applied Optics
Jing Luo, Dong Liu, Binyu Wang, Lei Bi, Kejun Zhang, Yuling Liu, Chunao Wen, Lingying Jiang, Liming Yang, Lin Su
A half-wave plate (HWP) is a critical component for calibrating the gain ratio in polarization lidars. In this paper, the effects of a nonideal HWP on the gain ratio calibration measurements are analyzed. We focus on the ±45° method and the multi-rotation HWP method, which are the two main approaches for calibrating the gain ratio. Specifically, we discuss the influences of a nonideal HWP from two scenarios: an HWP with nonideal polarization properties and an ideal HWP under nonideal external conditions. The allowable ranges of relevant parameters for the nonideal polarization properties of HWPs are obtained, which can help to determine qualified HWPs in polarization lidars...
October 10, 2017: Applied Optics
Dede Zhai, Shanyong Chen, Feng Shi
An exact multishear zonal algorithm is proposed to reconstruct two-dimensional wavefronts in frequency domain. The algorithm maintains the advantage of fast Fourier transform and loosens the "natural extension" requirement that the shear amounts must be divisors of sampling points N; therefore, it can be rapidly executed for large data arrays. The effect of tilt errors in multishear interferometry is analyzed and compensated in our method. The presented algorithm is applicable for a general aperture shape by using an iterative method...
October 10, 2017: Applied Optics
Jinpeng Liu, Hideyoshi Horimai, Xiao Lin, Jinyan Liu, Yong Huang, Xiaodi Tan
The collinear holographic data storage system (CHDSS) is a very promising storage system due to its large storage capacities and high transfer rates in the era of big data. The digital micro-mirror device (DMD) as a spatial light modulator is the key device of the CHDSS due to its high speed, high precision, and broadband working range. To improve the system stability and performance, an optimal micro-mirror tilt angle was theoretically calculated and experimentally confirmed by analyzing the relationship between the tilt angle of the micro-mirror on the DMD and the power profiles of diffraction patterns of the DMD at the Fourier plane...
June 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Gregory Samelsohn
Propagation of directed waves in forward-scattering media is considered. It is assumed that the evolution of the wave field is governed by the standard parabolic wave equation. An efficient one-step momentum-space propagator, suitable for a tilted plane wave illumination of extended objects, is derived. It is expressed in terms of a propagation operator that transforms (the complex exponential of) a linogram of the illuminated object into a set of its diffraction patterns. The invertibility of the propagator is demonstrated, which permits a multiple-shot scatter correction to be performed, and makes the solution especially attractive for either projective or tomographic imaging...
May 10, 2017: Applied Optics
Eman A Elzahaby, Ishac Kandas, Moustafa H Aly
In this work, the characteristics of reflectivity spectra produced inside a reflective-tilted fiber Bragg grating (R-TFBG) are investigated, seeking a remarkable performance that could be able to upgrade the sensitivity range for temperature-strain sensors of quasi-distribution type. We introduce an optimized performance through a comparative investigation among different evaluation parameters, such as core radius, tilt angle, and the elite selection of apodization profiles, in addition to the traditional parameters, such as grating length, L, and index modulation amplitude, Δn...
July 1, 2017: Applied Optics
James A Lock, Gunther P Können
Using ray theory, the Möbius shift of the (p-1)-order rainbow angle for a particle having an elliptical cross section is obtained to first order in the ellipticity as a function of the tilt of the ellipse with respect to the propagation direction of the incoming rays. The result is then adapted to the geometry of scattering of light rays from the sun by a falling water drop as a function of sun height angle. The variation in the angular spacing between the supernumeraries is determined as a function of location along the rainbow arc, the conditions under which the rainbow angle is insensitive to drop flattening were determined, and the dependence of the Möbius shift on the drop refractive index is shown for rainbows up to fourth order (p=5)...
July 1, 2017: Applied Optics
J F Wang, Z Li, K S Zhang, F Yuan, R J Li, Q J Zhong, Z P Guan
OBJECTIVE: To perform unilateral patellar resurfacing and contralateral patellar retention in bilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA) randomly, and to compare the clinical effects of patellar retention with patellar resurfacing in TKA. METHODS: In the study, 14 bilateral knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients were randomized in the bilateral TKA to receive unilateral patellar resurfacing and contralateral patellar retention, including 28 knees, all were females, 53 to 78 years old, with average (66...
October 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Y Liao, Q Y Zhang, H X Li, Y L Wang, P Liu, J B DU
OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical characteristics of the co-morbidity of vasovagal syncope (VVS) and postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) with allergic diseases in children. METHODS: A re-trospective analysis was launched to summarize the clinical data of children with VVS and POTS. They were divided into allergic group and non-allergic group according to the history of allergic diseases. The participants' clinical characteristics were compared between allergic group and non-allergic group using independent sample t test or rank sum test; composition comparisons were completed by Chi-square test...
October 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
W R Xu, Y Liao, H F Jin, Q Y Zhang, C S Tang, J B DU
Syncope is a common emergency of children and adolescents, which has serious influence on the quality of life. Neurally-mediated syncope, including postural tachycardia syndrome, vasovagal syncope, orthostatic hypotension and orthostatic hypertension, is the main cause of syncope in children and adolescents. The main manifestations of neurally-mediated syncope are diverse, such as dizziness, headache, chest tightness, chest pain, pale complexion, fatigue, pre-syncope and syncope. Although the clinical manifestations are similar, each subtype of syncope has its hemodynamic feature and optimal treatment option...
October 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Gwenaelle Rousse, Hania Ahouari, Vladimir Pomjakushin, Jean-Marie Tarascon, Nadir Recham, Artem M Abakumov
We report on a thorough structural study on two members of layered fluorocarbonates KMCO3F (M = Ca, Mn). The Ca-based member demonstrates a phase transition at ∼320 °C, evidenced for the first time. The crystal structure of the high temperature phase (HT-KCaCO3F) was solved using neutron powder diffraction. A new Mn-based phase KMnCO3F was synthesized, and its crystal structure was solved from electron diffraction tomography data and refined from a combination of X-ray synchrotron and neutron powder diffraction...
October 18, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Jiangman Lou, Hongxia Chen, Jinhua Han, Hanqing He, Michael S Y Huen, Xin-Hua Feng, Ting Liu, Jun Huang
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are mainly repaired by either homologous recombination (HR) or non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). Here, we identify AUNIP/C1orf135, a largely uncharacterized protein, as a key determinant of DSB repair pathway choice. AUNIP physically interacts with CtIP and is required for efficient CtIP accumulation at DSBs. AUNIP possesses intrinsic DNA-binding ability with a strong preference for DNA substrates that mimic structures generated at stalled replication forks. This ability to bind DNA is necessary for the recruitment of AUNIP and its binding partner CtIP to DSBs, which in turn drives CtIP-dependent DNA-end resection and HR repair...
October 17, 2017: Nature Communications
Alessio Baricich, A de Sire, E Antoniono, F Gozzerino, G Lamberti, C Cisari, M Invernizzi
Patients who have suffered severe traumatic or nontraumatic brain injuries can show a progressive recovery, transitioning through a range of clinical conditions. They may progress from coma to a vegetative state (VS) and/or a minimally conscious state (MCS). A longer duration of the VS is known to be related to a lower probability of emergence from it; furthermore, the literature seems to lack evidence of late improvements in these patients. This real-practice prospective cohort study was conducted in inpatients in a VS following a severe brain injury, consecutively admitted to a vegetative state unit (VSU)...
July 2017: Functional Neurology
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