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environmental illness

Stacy A Voils, Mohamed H Shahin, Timothy J Garrett, Reginald F Frye
OBJECTIVE: Incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in critically ill patients remains unacceptably high despite widespread use of thromboprophylaxis. A systems biology approach may be useful in understanding disease pathology and predicting response to treatment. Metabolite profile under specific environmental conditions provides the closest link to phenotype, but the relationship between metabolomics and risk of VTE in critically ill patients is unknown. In this study, metabolomics signatures are compared in patients with and without VTE...
March 8, 2018: Thrombosis Research
Michael A Taylor, Jong W Yu, Thomas L Howell, Stephen H Jones
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of seafood-borne human infections in the United States, and many of these illnesses are associated with consumption of raw molluscan shellfish. V. parahaemolyticus levels in shellfish vary temporally and spatially with environmental conditions in and around production areas. The objective of this study was to study the potential for reducing levels of V. parahaemolyticus in live oysters by relaying them during higher-risk warm weather to a site with elevated salinity and consistently low V...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Germano Orrù, Mauro Giovanni Carta
Background: Bipolar Disorder (BD), along with depression and schizophrenia, is one of the most serious mental illnesses, and one of the top 20 causes of severe impairment in everyday life. Recent molecular studies, using both traditional approaches and new procedures such as Whole-Genome Sequencing (WGS), have suggested that genetic factors could significantly contribute to the development of BD, with heritability estimates of up to 85%. However, it is assumed that BD is a multigenic and multifactorial illness with environmental factors that strongly contribute to disease development/progression, which means that progress in genetic knowledge of BD might be difficult to interpret in clinical practice...
2018: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
Isaac R Galatzer-Levy, Kelly Ruggles, Zhe Chen
Diverse environmental and biological systems interact to influence individual differences in response to environmental stress. Understanding the nature of these complex relationships can enhance the development of methods to: (1) identify risk, (2) classify individuals as healthy or ill, (3) understand mechanisms of change, and (4) develop effective treatments. The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative provides a theoretical framework to understand health and illness as the product of multiple inter-related systems but does not provide a framework to characterize or statistically evaluate such complex relationships...
January 2018: Chronic Stress
Yahel Segal, Shani Dahan, Kassem Sharif, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Abdulla Watad, Howard Amital
Autoimmune Syndrome Induced by Adjuvant (ASIA) is a definition aimed to describe the common etiological process at the root of five clinical entities sharing similar symptomatology: macrophagic myofasciitis syndrome (MMF), Gulf War Syndrome (GWS), sick building syndrome (SBS), siliconosis, and post vaccination autoimmune phenomena. ASIA illustrates the role of environmental immune stimulating agents, or adjuvants, in the instigation of complex autoimmune reactions among individuals bearing a genetic preponderance for autoimmunity...
March 8, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
Małgorzata Kiełczykowska, Joanna Kocot, Marek Paździor, Irena Musik
Selenium is a trace element which fulfils important functions in the organism. Its deficit may cause acute disorders, but an overdose can also lead to severe consequences. The functions of selenium in the organism are mainly connected with its antioxidant properties, as it is an essential part of important antioxidant enzymes. Disturbances of oxidant balance have been found to be involved in the activity of numerous harmful factors as well as in the pathogenesis of diverse illnesses. Selenium administration has proved to be effective against the toxicity of many agents and the side effects of drugs...
February 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Ketan K Marballi, Amelia L Gallitano
While the causes of myriad medical and infectious illnesses have been identified, the etiologies of neuropsychiatric illnesses remain elusive. This is due to two major obstacles. First, the risk for neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, is determined by both genetic and environmental factors. Second, numerous genes influence susceptibility for these illnesses. Genome-wide association studies have identified at least 108 genomic loci for schizophrenia, and more are expected to be published shortly...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Shlomo Yeshurun, Anthony J Hannan
In recent years, striking new evidence has demonstrated non-genetic inheritance of acquired traits associated with parental environmental exposures. In particular, this transgenerational modulation of phenotypic traits is of direct relevance to psychiatric disorders, including depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and other anxiety disorders. Here we review the recent progress in this field, with an emphasis on acquired traits of psychiatric illnesses transmitted epigenetically via the male lineage. We discuss the transgenerational effects of paternal exposure to stress vs...
March 8, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Michael J Rothrock, Peixin Fan, Kwangcheol C Jeong, Sun Ae Kim, Steven C Ricke, Si Hong Park
Investigation of Listeria monocytogenes transmission from environmental sources associated with pasture-raised chickens to poultry products is needed to determine ways to prevent potential foodborne illness. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Listeria monocytogenes MR310, one of the isolates from a pastured-flock poultry management system.
March 8, 2018: Genome Announcements
Elizabeth C Lee, Ali Arab, Sandra M Goldlust, Cécile Viboud, Bryan T Grenfell, Shweta Bansal
The surveillance of influenza activity is critical to early detection of epidemics and pandemics and the design of disease control strategies. Case reporting through a voluntary network of sentinel physicians is a commonly used method of passive surveillance for monitoring rates of influenza-like illness (ILI) worldwide. Despite its ubiquity, little attention has been given to the processes underlying the observation, collection, and spatial aggregation of sentinel surveillance data, and its subsequent effects on epidemiological understanding...
March 7, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Se Ji Jung, Jodhbir Mehta, Louis Tong
The twenty-first century is fraught with dangers like climate change and pollution, which impacts human health and mortality. As levels of pollution increase, respiratory illnesses and cardiovascular ailments become more prevalent. Less understood are the eye-related complaints, which are commonly associated with increasing pollution. Affected people may complain of irritation, redness, foreign body sensation, tearing, and blurring of vision. Sources of pollution are varied, ranging from gases (such as ozone and NO2 ) and particulate matter produced from traffic, to some other hazards associated with indoor environments...
March 3, 2018: Ocular Surface
Gianna P Ahnrud, Alma J Mendoza, Matthew J Hurley, Patrick J Marek
Enhancements in swabbing technology to increase sample collection efficacy would benefit the food industry. Specifically these enhancements would assist the food industry in implementing the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) requirements by improving environmental monitoring effectiveness. A sonicating swab device, an example of an enhanced swabbing technology, was demonstrated previously to remove biofilm from stainless steel more efficiently than a standard cotton swab. Within this study, the performance of the sonicating swab was compared to the standard cotton swab for recovery of Listeria monocytogenes from inoculated surfaces (plastic cutting board, wood cutting board, vinyl floor tile, and quarry clay floor tile)...
March 2, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Laura G Brown, Edward Rickamer Hoover, Brenda V Faw, Nicole K Hedeen, David Nicholas, Melissa R Wong, Craig Shepherd, Daniel L Gallagher, Janell R Kause
Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) causes the third highest number of foodborne illness deaths annually. L. monocytogenes contamination of sliced deli meats at the retail level is a significant contributing factor to L. monocytogenes illness. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net) conducted a study to learn more about retail delis' practices concerning L. monocytogenes growth and cross-contamination prevention. This article presents data from this study on the frequency with which retail deli refrigerator temperatures exceed 41°F, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-recommended maximum temperature for ready-to-eat food requiring time and temperature control for safety (TCS) (such as retail deli meat)...
March 2, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Victoria Malone, Roger Harrison, Gavin Daker-White
INTRODUCTION: People with mental illness are up to 3 times more likely to smoke and experience greater challenges and less success when trying to quit, therefore have higher risk of smoking-related morbidity and mortality. There is a lack of evidence on successful interventions to reduce the smoking rates in people living with serve mental illness. A meta-synthesis was undertaken to summarise data from multiple studies to inform the development of future smoking cessation intervention studies...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
Paula Lozano, Amy Houtrow
Self-management improves health outcomes in chronic illness not only by improving adherence to the treatment plan but also by building the individual's capacity to navigate challenges and solve problems. Support for self-management is a critical need among children and adolescents with (medically and/or socially) complex chronic conditions. Self-management support refers to services that health systems and community agencies provide to persons with chronic illness and their families to facilitate self-management; it is a collaboration between the patient, family, and care providers...
March 2018: Pediatrics
Oren Froy, Marta Garaulet
Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of illnesses, such as insulin resistance and hypertension and has become a serious public health problem. Mammals have developed a circadian clock located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) that responds to the environmental light-dark cycle. Clocks similar to the one located in the SCN are found in peripheral tissues, such as the kidney, liver and adipose tissue. The circadian clock regulates metabolism and energy homeostasis in peripheral tissues by mediating activity and/or expression of key metabolic enzymes and transport systems...
February 27, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Yunhe Yen, Borshuh Cheng, Changchung Chan, Chiwei Lin, Hsiuling Chen
Lifestyle, food intake, and exposure to chemicals are potential risk factors for the development of calcium urolithiasis. Pb, Cd, and Hg have been proved to cause renal illness, and urinary tract stones might be caused by exposure to metals. Therefore, this study aimed to measure the concentration of metals in urinary tract stones and blood simultaneously in urolithiasis patients. Moreover, we intended to determine whether urinary tract stones can be regarded as a biomarker of exposure or an effect marker in a population with environmental exposure to metals...
February 27, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Victoria Wan, Lorraine McIntyre, Debra Kent, Dennis Leong, Sarah B Henderson
BACKGROUND: Data from poison centers have the potential to be valuable for public health surveillance of long-term trends, short-term aberrations from those trends, and poisonings occurring in near-real-time. This information can enable long-term prevention via programs and policies and short-term control via immediate public health response. Over the past decade, there has been an increasing use of poison control data for surveillance in the United States, Europe, and New Zealand, but this resource still remains widely underused...
February 23, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Antonio Vita, Stefano Barlati
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Schizophrenia has a heterogeneous range of end states, from severe cases requiring repeated hospitalization to cases in which a single illness episode is followed by complete remission. The purpose of the present review is to examine recent literature on recovery in schizophrenia, focusing on the predictive factors and on the possibility to achieve it. RECENT FINDINGS: Roughly half of schizophrenia patients recovered or significantly improved over the long term, suggesting that functional remission is possible...
February 22, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Dibyadeep Datta, Amy F T Arnsten
Schizophrenia is associated with core deficits in cognitive abilities and impaired functioning of the newly evolved prefrontal association cortex (PFC). In particular, neuropathological studies of schizophrenia have found selective atrophy of the pyramidal cell microcircuits in deep layer III of the dorsolateral PFC (dlPFC), and compensatory weakening of related GABAergic interneurons. Studies in monkeys have shown that recurrent excitation in these layer III microcircuits generates the precisely patterned, persistent firing needed for working memory and abstract thought...
February 22, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
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