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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335428/an-updated-review-of-ciguatera-fish-poisoning-clinical-epidemiological-environmental-and-public-health-management
#1
REVIEW
Melissa A Friedman, Mercedes Fernandez, Lorraine C Backer, Robert W Dickey, Jeffrey Bernstein, Kathleen Schrank, Steven Kibler, Wendy Stephan, Matthew O Gribble, Paul Bienfang, Robert E Bowen, Stacey Degrasse, Harold A Flores Quintana, Christopher R Loeffler, Richard Weisman, Donna Blythe, Elisa Berdalet, Ram Ayyar, Danielle Clarkson-Townsend, Karen Swajian, Ronald Benner, Tom Brewer, Lora E Fleming
Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world. It causes substantial human health, social, and economic impacts. The illness produces a complex array of gastrointestinal, neurological and neuropsychological, and cardiovascular symptoms, which may last days, weeks, or months. This paper is a general review of CFP including the human health effects of exposure to ciguatoxins (CTXs), diagnosis, human pathophysiology of CFP, treatment, detection of CTXs in fish, epidemiology of the illness, global dimensions, prevention, future directions, and recommendations for clinicians and patients...
March 14, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334933/disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1is-essential-for-normal-hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal-hpi-axis-function
#2
Helen Eachus, Charlotte Bright, Vincent T Cunliffe, Marysia Placzek, Jonathan D Wood, Penelope J Watt
Psychiatric disorders arise due to an interplay of genetic and environmental factors, including stress. Studies in rodents have shown that mutants for Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1), a well-accepted genetic risk factor for mental illness, display abnormal behaviours in response to stress, but the mechanisms through which DISC1 affects stress responses remain poorly understood. Using two lines of zebrafish homozygous mutant for disc1, we investigated behaviour and functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis, the fish equivalent of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis...
March 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333110/stakeholder-perceptions-of-welfare-issues-and-indicators-for-extensively-managed-sheep-in-australia
#3
Amanda K Doughty, Grahame J Coleman, Geoff N Hinch, Rebecca E Doyle
An online survey was designed to form the basis of a framework for the welfare assessment of extensively managed sheep in Australia. The survey focused on welfare compromise and useful welfare indicators. A total of 952 people completed the survey in its entirety, representing four stakeholder groups: Public (53.6%), Producer (27.4%), Scientist (9.9%), and Service provider (9.1%). Animal welfare was considered to be important by all participating groups in this survey (average score of 3.78/4). Respondents felt the welfare of grazing sheep was generally adequate but improvement was desired (2...
March 23, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330467/mental-health-care-and-delivery-system-at-temeke-hospital-in-dar-es-salaam-tanzania
#4
Joel Seme Ambikile, Masunga K Iseselo
BACKGROUND: Low and middle income countries face many challenges in meeting mental health needs in their regions. Treatment of patients with mental disorders is inadequate in most of these countries and majority of individuals with severe mental disorders remain untreated. The bad news is that mental health problems in these countries are on the rise due to socioeconomic challenges being faced. Regardless of guidelines and directives provided by WHO for organizing mental health services, these countries continue to face many challenges in the effort to cater for mental health needs...
March 23, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323285/utilization-of-machine-learning-for-prediction-of-post-traumatic-stress-a-re-examination-of-cortisol-in-the-prediction-and-pathways-to-non-remitting-ptsd
#5
I R Galatzer-Levy, S Ma, A Statnikov, R Yehuda, A Y Shalev
To date, studies of biological risk factors have revealed inconsistent relationships with subsequent post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The inconsistent signal may reflect the use of data analytic tools that are ill equipped for modeling the complex interactions between biological and environmental factors that underlay post-traumatic psychopathology. Further, using symptom-based diagnostic status as the group outcome overlooks the inherent heterogeneity of PTSD, potentially contributing to failures to replicate...
March 21, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315615/mir155-regulation-of-ubiquilin1-and-ubiquilin2-implications-in-cellular-protection-and-tumorigenesis
#6
Sanjay Yadav, Nishant Singh, Parag P Shah, David A Rowbotham, Danial Malik, Ankita Srivastav, Jai Shankar, Wan L Lam, William W Lockwood, Levi J Beverly
Ubiquilin (UBQLN) proteins are adaptors thought to link ubiquitinated proteins to the proteasome. However, our lab has recently reported a previously unappreciated role for loss of UBQLN in lung cancer progression. In fact, UBQLN genes are lost in over 50% of lung cancer samples examined. However, a reason for the loss of UBQLN has not been proposed, nor has a selective pressure that could lead to deletion of UBQLN been reported. Diesel Exhaust Particles (DEP) are a major concern in the large cities of developing nations and DEP exposed populations are at an increased risk of developing a number of illnesses, including lung cancer...
March 15, 2017: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314926/american-football-and-fatal-exertional-heat-stroke-a-case-study-of-korey-stringer
#7
Andrew Grundstein, John A Knox, Jennifer Vanos, Earl R Cooper, Douglas J Casa
On August 1, 2001, Korey Stringer, a Pro Bowl offensive tackle for the Minnesota Vikings, became the first and to date the only professional American football player to die from exertional heat stroke (EHS). The death helped raise awareness of the dangers of exertional heat illnesses in athletes and prompted the development of heat safety policies at the professional, collegiate, and interscholastic levels. Despite the public awareness of this death, no published study has examined in detail the circumstances surrounding Stringer's fatal EHS...
March 17, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314448/the-transitional-age-brain-the-best-of-times-and-the-worst-of-times
#8
REVIEW
Winston W Chung, James J Hudziak
Over the past two decades, there have been substantial developments in the understanding of brain development and the importance of environmental inputs and context. This paper focuses on the neurodevelopmental mismatch that occurs during the epoch we term the 'transitional age brain' (ages 13-25) and the collateral behavioral correlates. We summarize research findings supporting the argument that, because of this neurodevelopmental mismatch, transitional age youth are at high risk for engaging in behaviors that lead to negative outcomes, morbidity, and mortality...
April 2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314060/-these-power-lines-make-me-ill-a-typology-of-residents-health-responses-to-a-new-high-voltage-power-line
#9
Jarry T Porsius, Liesbeth Claassen, Fred Woudenberg, Tjabe Smid, Danielle R M Timmermans
Little attention has been devoted to the potential diversity in residents' health responses when exposed to an uncertain environmental health risk. The present study explores whether subgroups of residents respond differently to a new high-voltage power line (HVPL) being put into operation. We used a quasi-experimental prospective field study design with two pretests during the construction of a new HVPL, and two posttests after it was put into operation. Residents living nearby (0-300 m, n = 229) filled out questionnaires about their health and their perception of the environment...
March 17, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301453/investigation-of-salmonella-enteritidis-outbreak-associated-with-truffle-oil-district-of-columbia-2015
#10
S Janet Kuramoto-Crawford, Sasha McGee, Keith Li, Andrew K Hennenfent, Kossia Dassie, Jhetari T Carney, Arian Gibson, Ivory Cooper, Morris Blaylock, Reginald Blackwell, Angela Fields, John Davies-Cole
On September 8, 2015, the District of Columbia Department of Health (DCDOH) received a call from a person who reported experiencing gastrointestinal illness after eating at a District of Columbia (DC) restaurant with multiple locations throughout the United States (restaurant A). Later the same day, a local emergency department notified DCDOH to report four persons with gastrointestinal illness, all of whom had eaten at restaurant A during August 30-September 5. Two patients had laboratory-confirmed Salmonella group D by stool culture...
March 17, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300281/moral-hard-wiring-and-moral-enhancement
#11
Ingmar Persson, Julian Savulescu
We have argued for an urgent need for moral bioenhancement; that human moral psychology is limited in its ability to address current existential threats due to the evolutionary function of morality to maximize cooperation in small groups. We address here Powell and Buchanan's novel objection that there is an 'inclusivist anomaly': humans have the capacity to care beyond in-groups. They propose that 'exclusivist' (group-based) morality is sensitive to environmental cues that historically indicated out-group threat...
March 16, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294570/how-does-obesity-affect-the-endocrine-system-a-narrative-review
#12
REVIEW
M Poddar, Y Chetty, V T Chetty
Obesity is a chronic, relapsing medical condition that results from an imbalance of energy expenditure and consumption. It is a leading cause of preventable illness, disability and premature death. The causes of obesity are multifactorial and include behavioural, socioeconomic, genetic, environmental and psychosocial factors. Rarely are endocrine diseases, e.g., hypothyroidism or Cushing's syndrome, the cause of obesity. What is less understood is how obesity affects the endocrine system. In this review, we will discuss the impact of obesity on multiple endocrine systems, including the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, changes in vitamin D homeostasis, gender steroids and thyroid hormones...
March 15, 2017: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292189/translating-agricultural-health-and-medicine-education-across-the-pacific-a-united-states-and-australian-comparison-study
#13
Susan A Brumby, Josie Ruldolphi, Diane Rohlman, Kelley J Donham
BACKGROUND: Populations in agricultural communities require<b> </b>health care that is interdisciplinary and cross-sectoral to address the high rate of workplace deaths, preventable injuries and illness. These rates are compounded by limited access to services and the distinctive personal values and culture of farming populations, which both health and rural practitioners must be aware of to reduce the gap between rural and urban population health outcomes. To address the unique health and medical characteristics of agricultural populations, education in agricultural medicine was established through the College of Medicine and the College of Public Health at the University of Iowa in the USA...
January 2017: Rural and Remote Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291805/socioeconomic-factors-associated-with-severe-acute-malnutrition-in-jamaica
#14
Debbie S Thompson, Novie Younger-Coleman, Parris Lyew-Ayee, Lisa-Gaye Greene, Michael S Boyne, Terrence E Forrester
OBJECTIVES: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is an important risk factor for illness and death globally, contributing to more than half of deaths in children worldwide. We hypothesized that SAM is positively correlated to poverty, low educational attainment, major crime and higher mean soil concentrations of lead, cadmium and arsenic. METHODS: We reviewed admission records of infants admitted with a diagnosis of SAM over 14 years (2000-2013) in Jamaica. Poverty index, educational attainment, major crime and environmental heavy metal exposure were represented in a Geographic Information System (GIS)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290970/severe-systemic-lead-toxicity-resulting-from-extra-articular-retained-shrapnel-presenting-as-jaundice-and-hepatitis-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#15
Ian A Grasso, Matthew R Blattner, Tyler Short, John W Downs
INTRODUCTION: Despite greater than 60,000 nonfatal firearm injuries per year in the United States, retained shrapnel is a relatively rare cause of systemic lead toxicity with less than 100 cases reported in the medical literature since 1867. While intra-articular retained shrapnel as a cause of lead toxicity is well-described, extra-articular fragments are less well known to cause symptomatic disease. CASE REPORT: A 31-year-old man initially presented with abdominal pain, constipation, jaundice, and elevated liver transaminases approximately 3 weeks after suffering a left lower extremity injury during athletic activity...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289276/david-skae-and-his-nineteenth-century-etiologic-psychiatric-diagnostic-system-looking-forward-by-looking-back
#16
K S Kendler
The Kraepelinian syndromal approach to diagnosis taken by DSM-III and its successors, which defines disorders by their clinical phenomenon, has come under rising criticism with increasing calls for an etiologically based nosology. The relative virtues of a syndromal versus etiologic psychiatric nosology have actually been debated within our field for a long time. To deepen and historically contextualize our current discussion, I review in detail the proposal for etiologic diagnostic systems for insanity by David Skae (1814-1873)...
March 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285490/review-of-54-cases-of-prolonged-field-care
#17
Erik DeSoucy, Stacy Shackelford, Joseph J DuBose, Seth Zweben, Stephen C Rush, Russ S Kotwal, Harold R Montgomery, Sean Keenan
BACKGROUND: Prolonged field care (PFC) is field medical care applied beyond doctrinal planning time-lines. As current and future medical operations must include deliberate and contingency planning for such events, data are lacking to support efforts. A case review was conducted to define the epidemiology, environment, and operational factors that affect PFC outcomes. METHODS: A survey distributed to US military medical providers solicited details of PFC encounters lasting more than 4 hours and included patient demographics, environmental descriptors, provider training, modes of transportation, injuries, mechanism of injury, vital signs, treatments, equipment and resources used, duration of PFC, and morbidity and mortality status on delivery to the next level of care...
2017: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283121/health-care-expenditures-associated-with-pollution-exploratory-methods-and-findings
#18
Alexander S Preker, Olusoji O Adeyi, Marisa Gil Lapetra, Diane-Charlotte Simon, Eric Keuffel
BACKGROUND: The research done for this paper is part of the background analysis undertaken to support the work of the Global Commission on Pollution, Health and Development, an initiative of The Lancet, the Global Alliance on Health and Pollution, and the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. The paper expands on areas where the current literature has gaps in knowledge related to the health care cost of pollution. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to generate an initial estimate of total tangible health care expenditure attributable to man-made pollution affecting air, soil and water...
September 2016: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281387/barriers-and-motives-to-pa-in-south-asian-indian-immigrant-women
#19
Manju Daniel, Maryann Abendroth, Judith A Erlen
The high prevalence of chronic illnesses in South Asian Indian immigrant women underscores the need for identifying factors that could influence their PA. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the perspectives of South Asian Indian immigrant women related to barriers to and motives for lifestyle PA within the PA Framework for South Asian Indian Immigrants. Forty women participated in focus groups that were conducted in English and Hindi. Focus group questions were open-ended and semistructured...
March 1, 2017: Western Journal of Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279583/a-quantitative-microbial-risk-assessment-model-for-total-coliforms-and-e-%C3%A2-coli-in-surface-runoff-following-application-of-biosolids-to-grassland
#20
Rachel Clarke, Dara Peyton, Mark G Healy, Owen Fenton, Enda Cummins
In Ireland, the land application of biosolids is the preferred option of disposing of municipal sewage waste. Biosolids provide nutrients in the form of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and increases organic matter. It is also an economic way for a country to dispose of its municipal waste. However, biosolids may potentially contain a wide range of pathogens, and following rainfall events, may be transported in surface runoff and pose a potential risk to human health. Thus, a quantitative risk assessment model was developed to estimate potential pathogens in surface water and the environmental fate of the pathogens following dilution, residence time in a stream, die-off rate, drinking water treatment and human exposure...
March 6, 2017: Environmental Pollution
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