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Jing-Min Liu, Yao-Yao Liu, Dong-Dong Zhang, Guozhen Fang, Shuo Wang
The rise of multimodal nanoprobes has promoted the development of new methods to explore multiple molecular targets simultaneously, or to combine various bioimaging tools in one assay to more clearly delineate localization and expression of bio-markers. Persistent luminescence nanophosphors (PLNPs) have been qualified as the promising contrast agent for in vivo imaging. The easy surface modification and proper nanostructure design strategy would favor the fabrication of PLNPs based multi-functional nanoprobes for biological application...
October 19, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
J Bonenfant, E Bajeux, V Deburghgraeve, E Le Page, G Edan, A Kerbrat
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The benefits of immunomodulatory treatments in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) are unclear, calling into question their continuation. In the present observational study, we investigated the effect of treatment withdrawal on the clinical course of SPMS. METHODS: We included 100 consecutive patients with SPMS who regularly attended our multiple sclerosis clinic. Inclusion criteria were (i) secondary progressive phenotype for at least 2 years, (ii) immunomodulatory treatment for at least 6 months and (iii) treatment stopped with no plans to switch to another...
October 18, 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Yuan Zhang, Yong-Hua Cui, Ying Hu, Zhong-Yao Mao, Qiu-Xia Wang, Chu Pan, Ai-Guo Liu
The purpose of the study was to observe changes in endolymphatic hydrops by using intratympanic injection of gadolinium and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and after endolymphatic sac surgery in patients with unilateral Meniere's disease. Thirteen patients with unilateral Meniere's disease undergoing endolymphatic sac surgery were retrospectively and prospectively analyzed. Three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery or three-dimensional real inversion recovery MRI was performed 24 h after an intratympanic injection of gadolinium to grade the presence of endolymphatic hydrops...
October 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
Takuya Toyonaga, Shigeru Yamaguchi, Kenji Hirata, Kentaro Kobayashi, Osamu Manabe, Shiro Watanabe, Shunsuke Terasaka, Hiroyuki Kobayashi, Naoya Hattori, Tohru Shiga, Yuji Kuge, Shinya Tanaka, Yoichi M Ito, Nagara Tamaki
PURPOSE: Metabolic activity and hypoxia are both important factors characterizing tumor aggressiveness. Here, we used F-18 fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) and F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to define metabolically active hypoxic volume, and investigate its clinical significance in relation to progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in glioblastoma patients. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Glioblastoma patients (n = 32) underwent FMISO PET, FDG PET, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before surgical intervention...
October 18, 2016: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Tamilmani Vairapperumal, Ariya Saraswathy, Jayasree S Ramapurath, Sreeram Kalarical Janardhanan, Nair Balachandran Unni
Tetragonal (t)-LaVO4 has turned out to be a potential host for luminescent materials. Synthesis of t-LaVO4 till date has been based on chelating effect of EDTA making it not ideal for bioimaging applications. An alternative was proposed by us through the use of catechin. In recent times there is interest for new MRI contrast agents that can through appropriate doping function both as MRI contrast and optical/upconversion materials. It is generally believed that under appropriate doping, t-LaVO4 would be a better upconversion material than monoclinic (m)-LaVO4...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Masatoshi Kudo
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Sonazoid-enhanced ultrasound and gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-enhanced MRI are the most important imaging modalities in diagnosing HCC. There are 2 non-contradictory HCC treatment algorithms in Japan. Hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy plays an important role in the treatment of advanced HCC with main or branch portal vein invasion. Regorafenib, as a second-line systemic treatment, prolongs survival in patients with intermediate and advanced HCC who progressed on sorafenib...
2016: Digestive Diseases
Takayuki Iwamoto, Yasuharu Imai, Sachiyo Kogita, Takumi Igura, Yoshiyuki Sawai, Kazuto Fukuda, Yoshitaka Yamaguchi, Yasushi Matsumoto, Masanori Nakahara, Osakuni Morimoto, Yasushi Seki, Hiroshi Ohashi, Norihiko Fujita, Masatoshi Kudo, Tetsuo Takehara
OBJECTIVE: We compared the efficacy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound sonography (CEUS) with sonazoid and gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced MRI for the assessment of macroscopic classification of nodular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Seventy-seven consecutive patients with 79 surgically resected HCCs who underwent both preoperative CEUS and Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI were enrolled in this retrospective study...
2016: Digestive Diseases
Yuh-Feng Tsai, Ching-Wen Huang, Jo-Hua Chiang, Fuu-Jen Tsai, Yuan-Man Hsu, Chi-Cheng Lu, Chen-Yu Hsiao, Jai-Sing Yang
Gadolinium (Gd) compounds are important as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents, and are potential anticancer agents. However, no report has shown the effect of gadolinium chloride (GdCl3) on osteosarcoma in vitro. The present study investigated the apoptotic mechanism of GdCl3 on human osteosarcoma U-2 OS cells. Our results indicated that GdCl3 significantly reduced cell viability of U-2 OS cells in a concentration-dependent manner. GdCl3 led to apoptotic cell shrinkage and DNA fragmentation in U-2 OS cells as revealed by morphologic changes and TUNEL staining...
October 14, 2016: Oncology Reports
Tara F Carr
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to review the classification of adverse drug reactions, highlight the known pathophysiology of immediate hypersensitivity reactions, and discuss the utility of diagnostic testing for immunologically mediated immediate reactions to gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). METHODS: Current literature on immediate reactions to GBCA was reviewed and summarized. RESULTS: Adverse drug reactions to GBCA are rare, and can be attributed to physiologic, immunologic, and nonimmunologic processes...
June 29, 2016: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Ashkan Heshmatzadeh Behzadi, Martin R Prince
Although the low incidence of immediate-type gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) allergic reactions is widely known, preventing these reactions and properly managing them to reduce their adverse sequel can improve the already exceedingly favorable GBCA safety profile. This review article should help those who order, supervise, or administer GBCA contrast agents, including recognizing and handling allergic reaction risks intrinsic to their use. Areas of focus include factors indicating increased allergic reaction risk, patient selection strategies, skin testing, premedication, and treatment of adverse events...
June 29, 2016: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
James R Costello, Bobby Kalb, Diego R Martin
Since their clinical introduction in 1988, gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) have demonstrated an excellent safety profile with a reported acute adverse reaction rate ranging from 0.01% to 2%. By comparison, the acute adverse reaction rate of low osmolar nonionic computed tomography contrast agents (CTCs) ranges from 0.7% to 3.1%. Many of the risk factors associated with CTC reactions (drug allergies, asthma, atopy, prior contrast reaction) also point toward an increased incidence of acute adverse events to GBCAs...
June 29, 2016: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Makoto Nakao, Hideki Muramatsu, Tetsushi Takahashi, Shunsuke Niwa, Yusuke Kagawa, Ryota Kurokawa, Kazuki Sone, Yuki Uozumi, Misako Ohkusu, Katsuhiko Kamei, Hiroshi Koga
A 39-year-old man presented to our hospital with a four-week history of headache and a two-week history of low-grade fever. Chest X-rays showed a tumor of approximately 50 mm in size in the right lower field. A histopathological examination of a transbronchial lung biopsy specimen from the right S9/10 revealed numerous fungal elements that appeared as encapsulated yeast with clear halos. Gadolinium-enhanced brain magnetic resonance images showed multiple cerebral nodules. Cryptococcus gattii (Genotype VGIIa) was isolated from the bronchial lavage and cerebrospinal fluid specimens...
2016: Internal Medicine
Alexander Morzycki, Anuj Bhatia, Kieran Murphy
Imaging techniques frequently employ contrast agents to improve image resolution and enhance pathology detection. These gadolinium- and iodine-based media, although generally considered safe, are associated with a number of adverse effects ranging from mild to severe. Reactions are classified as either anaphylactoid ("anaphylaxis-like") or nonanaphylactoid, depending on a number of elements that will be reviewed. Herein, we have summarized predisposing risk factors for adverse events resulting from the use of contrast, their associated pathophysiological mechanisms as well as known prophylaxis for the antitreatment of high-risk patients...
October 13, 2016: Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Journal L'Association Canadienne des Radiologistes
Shigeki Matsubara
Conservative management (leaving the placenta in situ) for abnormally invasive placenta (AIP: accreta, increta, percreta) has been repeatedly discussed in AOGS (1, 2). Delayed hemorrhage and infection are important adverse events. Especially, delayed hemorrhage required hysterectomy 3-9 months post-cesarean section in 22-58% of cases (1, 3), often performed as an emergency surgery (1, 3). Although delayed hysterectomy is not always associated with massive bleeding, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed marked gadolinium enhancement (marked blood flow) in the placental-bed-myometrium on post-cesarean day 34 (4), suggesting that hemorrhage may be serious during delayed hysterectomy at least up to one month post-cesarean...
October 14, 2016: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Marcus R Makowski, Christian H P Jansen, Ullrich Ebersberger, Tobias Schaeffter, Reza Razavi, Massimo Mangino, Tim D Spector, Rene M Botnar, Gerald F Greil
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of BMI on late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) of the coronary artery wall in identical monozygous twins discordant for BMI. Coronary LGE represents a useful parameter for the detection and quantification of atherosclerotic coronary vessel wall disease. METHODS: Thirteen monozygote female twin pairs (n = 26) with significantly different BMIs (>1.6 kg/m2) were recruited out of >10,000 twin pairs (TwinsUK Registry)...
October 14, 2016: European Radiology
Seung-Ah Lee, Yeonyee E Yoon, Jung-Eun Kim, Jin Joo Park, Il-Young Oh, Chang-Hwan Yoon, Jung-Won Suh, Jun-Sung Kim, Eun Ju Chun, Young-Suk Cho, Tae-Jin Youn, Cheong Lim, Goo-Young Cho, In-Ho Chae, Kay-Hyun Park, Dong-Ju Choi, Sang Il Choi
The value of late gadolinium-enhanced (LGE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the prediction of functional recovery after surgical revascularization has been previously established. However, the impact of LGE-MRI on the long-term prognosis after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) remains incompletely understood. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the long-term prognostic value of LGE-MRI, based on the presence or absence of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, in patients with coronary artery disease undergoing CABG...
August 30, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
Muhammad Shahid, Edward Hoey, Sandeep Basavarajaiah
We report a case of focal myocarditis in a young boy mimicking acute ST-segment elevation MI. He presented with chest pain and the EKG changes were consistent with infero-laeral ST-segment elevation MI. Coronary angiogram revealed smooth arteries with no obstruction. Troponin was significantly elevated and the echocardiogram exhibited mildly impaired LV function with hypokinetic inferior and lateral walls. Subsequently performed cardiac magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the diagnosis of myocarditis by exhibiting classic features of delayed gadolinium enhancement in the epi and mid-myocardial regions of the lateral wall sparing the sub-endocardial region...
August 24, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
John Y-K Lee, Jayesh P Thawani, John Pierce, Ryan Zeh, Maria Martinez-Lage, Michelle Chanin, Ollin Venegas, Sarah Nims, Kim Learned, Jane Keating, Sunil Singhal
BACKGROUND: Although real-time localization of gliomas has improved with intraoperative image guidance systems, these tools are limited by brain shift, surgical cavity deformation, and expense. OBJECTIVE: To propose a novel method to perform near-infrared (NIR) imaging during glioma resections based on preclinical and clinical investigations, in order to localize tumors and to potentially identify residual disease. METHODS: Fifteen patients were identified and administered a Food and Drug Administration-approved, NIR contrast agent (Second Window indocyanine green [ICG], 5 mg/kg) before surgical resection...
October 11, 2016: Neurosurgery
Johannes T Kowallick, Miguel Silva Vieira, Shelby Kutty, Joachim Lotz, Gerd Hasenfu, Amedeo Chiribiri, Andreas Schuster
OBJECTIVES: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is associated with left atrial (LA) functional abnormalities. The determinants and the degree of LA dysfunction in the course of HCM are not fully understood. We aimed to characterize LA mechanics in HCM, according to the extent of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and fibrosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seventy-three HCM patients and 23 age- and sex-matched controls underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging including late gadolinium enhancement (LGE)...
October 12, 2016: Investigative Radiology
Nandor K Pinter, Joshua P Klein, Laszlo L Mechtler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews recent research on gadolinium deposit formation in the brain linked to contrast-enhanced MRI studies. RECENT FINDINGS: Human and animal studies have confirmed the presence of gadolinium in the brain following the serial administration of gadolinium-based contrast agents. This is a relatively new and growing field of research primarily driven by concerns regarding unknown and potentially harmful side effects of gadolinium-based contrast agents...
October 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
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