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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092503/propagation-modeling-and-analysis-of-molecular-motors-in-molecular-communication
#1
Youssef Chahibi, Ian F Akyildiz, Ilangko Balasingham
Molecular motor networks (MMNs) are networks constructed from molecular motors to enable nanomachines to perform coordinated tasks of sensing, computing, and actuation at the nano- and micro- scales. Living cells are naturally enabled with this same mechanism to establish point-to-point communication between different locations inside the cell. Similar to a railway system, the cytoplasm contains an intricate infrastructure of tracks, named microtubules, interconnecting different internal components of the cell...
December 2016: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087654/effects-of-external-strain-on-the-regulation-of-microtubule-sliding-induced-by-outer-arm-dynein-of-sea-urchin-sperm-flagella
#2
Hiroshi Yoke, Chikako Shingyoji
Oscillatory bending movement of eukaryotic flagella is powered by orchestrated activity of dynein motor proteins that hydrolyze ATP and produce microtubule sliding. Although the ATP concentration within a flagellum is kept uniform at a few mmol l(-1) level, sliding activities of dyneins are dynamically coordinated along the flagellum in accordance with the phase of bending waves. Thus, at the organellar level the dynein not only generates force for bending but also modulates its motile activity by responding to bending of the flagellum...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079116/katanin-p80-numa-and-cytoplasmic-dynein-cooperate-to-control-microtubule-dynamics
#3
Mingyue Jin, Oz Pomp, Tomoyasu Shinoda, Shiori Toba, Takayuki Torisawa, Ken'ya Furuta, Kazuhiro Oiwa, Takuo Yasunaga, Daiju Kitagawa, Shigeru Matsumura, Takaki Miyata, Thong Teck Tan, Bruno Reversade, Shinji Hirotsune
Human mutations in KATNB1 (p80) cause severe congenital cortical malformations, which encompass the clinical features of both microcephaly and lissencephaly. Although p80 plays critical roles during brain development, the underlying mechanisms remain predominately unknown. Here, we demonstrate that p80 regulates microtubule (MT) remodeling in combination with NuMA (nuclear mitotic apparatus protein) and cytoplasmic dynein. We show that p80 shuttles between the nucleus and spindle pole in synchrony with the cell cycle...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077622/ciliary-entry-of-kif17-is-dependent-on-its-binding-to-the-ift-b-complex-via-ift46-ift56-as-well-as-on-its-nuclear-localization-signal
#4
Teruki Funabashi, Yohei Katoh, Saki Michisaka, Masaya Terada, Maho Sugawa, Kazuhisa Nakayama
Cilia function as cellular antennae to sense and transduce extracellular signals. A number of proteins are specifically localized in cilia. Anterograde and retrograde ciliary protein trafficking are mediated by the IFT-B and IFT-A complexes in concert with kinesin-2 and dynein-2 motors, respectively. However, the role of KIF17, a homodimeric kinesin-2 protein, in protein trafficking has not been fully understood in vertebrate cilia. In this study, we first demonstrated by taking advantage of the visible immunoprecipitation assay, that KIF17 interacts with the IFT46-IFT56 dimer in the IFT-B complex through its C-terminal sequence located immediately upstream of the nuclear localization signal (NLS)...
January 11, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077618/mechanism-of-nuclear-movements-in-a-multinucleated-cell
#5
Romain Gibeaux, Antonio Z Politi, Peter Philippsen, François Nédélec
Multinucleated cells are important in many organisms but the mechanisms governing the movements of nuclei sharing a common cytoplasm are not understood. In the hyphae of the plant pathogenic fungus Ashbya gossypii, nuclei move back and forth, occasionally bypassing each other, and, preventing the formation of nuclear clusters, this is essential for genetic stability. These movements depend on cytoplasmic microtubules emanating from the nuclei, that are pulled by dynein motors anchored at the cortex. Using 3D stochastic simulations with parameters constrained by the literature, we predict the cortical anchors density from the characteristics of nuclear movements...
January 11, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077446/regulating-chromosomal-movement-by-the-cochaperone-fkb-6-ensures-timely-pairing-and-synapsis
#6
Benjamin Alleva, Nathan Balukoff, Amy Peiper, Sarit Smolikove
In meiotic prophase I, homologous chromosome pairing is promoted through chromosome movement mediated by nuclear envelope proteins, microtubules, and dynein. After proper homologue pairing has been established, the synaptonemal complex (SC) assembles along the paired homologues, stabilizing their interaction and allowing for crossing over to occur. Previous studies have shown that perturbing chromosome movement leads to pairing defects and SC polycomplex formation. We show that FKB-6 plays a role in SC assembly and is required for timely pairing and proper double-strand break repair kinetics...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069381/establishment-of-a-mutation-system-in-tetrahymena-outer-arm-dynein-and-p-loop-functions-of-the-alpha-heavy-chain-dyh3p
#7
Masaki Edamatsu
Axonemal dyneins are large AAA+ type motor proteins that exhibit unique motor properties during ciliary beating. This study established a mutation system for Tetrahymena outer arm dynein and characterized four nucleotide-binding loops (P-loops; P1-P4) in the alpha heavy chain (Dyh3p). Macronuclear transformation of the mutant DYH3 genes in DYH3-knockout (KO-DYH3) cells enabled P-loop mutations that abolish the ability of nucleotide binding to be stably maintained in the polyploid genome. This mutation system revealed that the P3 and P4 mutant dyneins rescued lethality in macronuclear KO-DYH3 cells and exhibited normal ciliary localization...
January 6, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057765/insulin-signaling-regulates-a-functional-interaction-between-adenomatous-polyposis-coli-apc-and-cytoplasmic-dynein
#8
Feng J Gao, Liang Shi, Timothy Hines, Sachin Hebbar, Kristi L Neufeld, Deanna S Smith
Diabetes is linked to an increased risk for colorectal cancer, but the mechanistic underpinnings of this clinically important effect are unclear. Here we describe an interaction between the microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein, the adenomatous polyposis coli tumor suppressor protein (APC), and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) that could shed light on this issue. GSK-3β is perhaps best known for glycogen regulation, being inhibited downstream in an insulin-signaling pathway. However, the kinase is also important in many other processes...
January 5, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057761/microtubules-are-reversibly-depolymerized-in-response-to-changing-gaseous-microenvironments-within-aspergillus-nidulans-biofilms
#9
Nandini Shukla, Aysha H Osmani, Stephen A Osmani
How microtubules (MTs) are regulated during fungal biofilm formation is unknown. By tracking MT +end binding proteins (+TIPS) in Aspergillus nidulans we report MTs are regulated to depolymerize within forming fungal biofilms. During this process EB1, dynein and ClipA form transient fibrous then bar-like structures, novel configurations for +TIPS. Cells also respond in an automatous manner with cells separated by a septum able to maintain different MT dynamics. Surprisingly, all cells with depolymerized MTs rapidly repolymerize their MTs after air exchange above the static culture media of biofilms...
January 5, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041644/mutations-in-pih1d3-cause-x-linked-primary-ciliary-dyskinesia-with-outer-and-inner-dynein-arm-defects
#10
Tamara Paff, Niki T Loges, Isabella Aprea, Kaman Wu, Zeineb Bakey, Eric G Haarman, Johannes M A Daniels, Erik A Sistermans, Natalija Bogunovic, Gerard W Dougherty, Inga M Höben, Jörg Große-Onnebrink, Anja Matter, Heike Olbrich, Claudius Werner, Gerard Pals, Miriam Schmidts, Heymut Omran, Dimitra Micha
Defects in motile cilia and sperm flagella cause primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), characterized by chronic airway disease, infertility, and left-right body axis disturbance. Here we report maternally inherited and de novo mutations in PIH1D3 in four men affected with PCD. PIH1D3 is located on the X chromosome and is involved in the preassembly of both outer (ODA) and inner (IDA) dynein arms of cilia and sperm flagella. Loss-of-function mutations in PIH1D3 lead to absent ODAs and reduced to absent IDAs, causing ciliary and flagellar immotility...
January 5, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036279/proteins-that-interact-with-calgranulin-b-in-the-human-colon-cancer-cell-line-hct-116
#11
Jae Kyung Myung, Seung-Gu Yeo, Kyung Hee Kim, Kwang-Soo Baek, Daye Shin, Jong Heon Kim, Jae Youl Cho, Byong Chul Yoo
Calgranulin B is released from immune cells and can be internalized into colon cancer cells to prevent proliferation. The present study aimed to identify proteins that interact with calgranulin B to suppress the proliferation of colon cancer cells, and to obtain information on the underlying anti-tumor mechanism(s) of calgranulin B. Calgranulin B expression was induced in colon cancer cell line HCT-116 by infection with calgranulin B-FLAG expressing lentivirus, and it led to a significant suppression of cell proliferation...
27, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028052/an-rna-binding-atypical-tropomyosin-recruits-kinesin-1-dynamically-to-oskar-mrnps
#12
Imre Gáspár, Vasiliy Sysoev, Artem Komissarov, Anne Ephrussi
Localization and local translation of oskar mRNA at the posterior pole of the Drosophila oocyte directs abdominal patterning and germline formation in the embryo. The process requires recruitment and precise regulation of motor proteins to form transport-competent mRNPs. We show that the posterior-targeting kinesin-1 is loaded upon nuclear export of oskar mRNPs, prior to their dynein-dependent transport from the nurse cells into the oocyte. We demonstrate that kinesin-1 recruitment requires the DmTropomyosin1-I/C isoform, an atypical RNA-binding tropomyosin that binds directly to dimerizing oskar 3'UTRs...
December 27, 2016: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003657/the-light-intermediate-chain-2-subpopulation-of-dynein-regulates-mitotic-spindle-orientation
#13
Sagar Mahale, Megha Kumar, Amit Sharma, Aswini Babu, Shashi Ranjan, Chetana Sachidanandan, Sivaram V S Mylavarapu
Cytoplasmic dynein 1 is a multi-protein intracellular motor essential for mediating several mitotic functions, including the establishment of proper spindle orientation. The functional relevance and mechanistic distinctions between two discrete dynein subpopulations distinguished only by Light Intermediate Chain (LIC) homologues, LIC1 and LIC2 is unknown during mitosis. Here, we identify LIC2-dynein as the major mediator of proper spindle orientation and uncover its underlying molecular mechanism. Cortically localized dynein, essential for maintaining correct spindle orientation, consists majorly of LIC2-dynein, which interacts with cortical 14-3-3 ε- ζ and Par3, conserved proteins required for orienting the spindle...
December 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003186/posttranslational-modifications-of-tubulin-and-cilia
#14
Dorota Wloga, Ewa Joachimiak, Panagiota Louka, Jacek Gaertig
Tubulin undergoes several highly conserved posttranslational modifications (PTMs) including acetylation, detyrosination, glutamylation, and glycylation. These PTMs accumulate on a subset of microtubules that are long-lived, including those in the basal bodies and axonemes. Tubulin PTMs are distributed nonuniformly. In the outer doublet microtubules of the axoneme, the B-tubules are highly enriched in the detyrosinated, polyglutamylated, and polyglycylated tubulin, whereas the A-tubules contain mostly unmodified tubulin...
December 21, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000671/local-synthesis-of-dynein-cofactors-matches-retrograde-transport-to-acutely-changing-demands
#15
Joseph M Villarin, Ethan P McCurdy, José C Martínez, Ulrich Hengst
Cytoplasmic dynein mediates retrograde transport in axons, but it is unknown how its transport characteristics are regulated to meet acutely changing demands. We find that stimulus-induced retrograde transport of different cargos requires the local synthesis of different dynein cofactors. Nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced transport of large vesicles requires local synthesis of Lis1, while smaller signalling endosomes require both Lis1 and p150(Glued). Lis1 synthesis is also triggered by NGF withdrawal and required for the transport of a death signal...
December 21, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994513/lis1-regulates-osteoclastogenesis-through-modulation-of-m-scf-and-rankl-signaling-pathways-and-cdc42
#16
Shiqiao Ye, Toshifumi Fujiwara, Jian Zhou, Kottayil I Varughese, Haibo Zhao
We have previously reported that depletion of LIS1, a key regulator of microtubules and cytoplasmic dynein motor complex, in osteoclast precursor cells by shRNAs attenuates osteoclastogenesis in vitro. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we show that conditional deletion of LIS1 in osteoclast progenitors in mice led to increased bone mass and decreased osteoclast number on trabecular bone. In vitro mechanistic studies revealed that loss of LIS1 had little effects on cell cycle progression but accelerated apoptosis of osteoclast precursor cells...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993970/identification-of-a-multifunctional-docking-site-on-the-catalytic-unit-of-phosphodiesterase-4-pde4-that-is-utilised-by-multiple-interaction-partners
#17
Kirsty F Houslay, Frank Christian, Ruth MacLeod, David R Adams, Miles D Houslay, George Scott Baillie
Cyclic AMP (cAMP) specific phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) enzymes underpin compartmentalised cAMP signalling by localising to distinct signalling complexes. PDE4 long isoforms can be phosphorylated by mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2), which attenuates activation of such enzymes through their phosphorylation by protein kinase A (PKA). Here we show that MK2 interacts directly with PDE4 long isoforms and define the sites of interaction. One is a unique site that locates within the regulatory UCR1 domain and contains a core Phe141, Leu142 and Tyr143 (FLY) cluster (PDE4A5 numbering)...
December 19, 2016: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976861/probing-the-energetics-of-dynactin-filament-assembly-and-the-binding-of-cargo-adaptor-proteins-using-molecular-dynamics-simulation-and-electrostatics-based-structural-modeling
#18
Wenjun Zheng
Dynactin, a large multiprotein complex, binds with the cytoplasmic dynein-1 motor and various adaptor proteins to allow recruitment and transportation of cellular cargoes toward the minus end of microtubules. The structure of the dynactin complex is built around an actin-like minifilament with a defined length, which has been visualized in a high-resolution structure of the dynactin filament determined by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). To understand the energetic basis of dynactin filament assembly, we used molecular dynamics simulation to probe the intersubunit interactions among the actin-like proteins, various capping proteins, and four extended regions of the dynactin shoulder...
December 29, 2016: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964786/dynein-light-chain-family-genes-in-15-plant-species-identification-evolution-and-expression-profiles
#19
Jun Cao, Xiangyang Li, Yueqing Lv
Dynein light chain (DLC) is one important component of the dynein complexes, which have been proved involving in a variety of cellular functions. However, higher plants lack all other components of the complexes except DLCs, suggesting that in plants, the DLC protein does not carry out the same function as it in animals. Therefore, the function of this family in plants is mysterious. In this study, we investigated the DLC gene family in 15 plant species and analyzed their expression profiles. In total, 128 DLC genes were identified from the 15 studied plant species and were divided into eight groups by their phylogenetic relation...
January 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941648/anaphase-b
#20
REVIEW
Jonathan M Scholey, Gul Civelekoglu-Scholey, Ingrid Brust-Mascher
Anaphase B spindle elongation is characterized by the sliding apart of overlapping antiparallel interpolar (ip) microtubules (MTs) as the two opposite spindle poles separate, pulling along disjoined sister chromatids, thereby contributing to chromosome segregation and the propagation of all cellular life. The major biochemical "modules" that cooperate to mediate pole-pole separation include: (i) midzone pushing or (ii) braking by MT crosslinkers, such as kinesin-5 motors, which facilitate or restrict the outward sliding of antiparallel interpolar MTs (ipMTs); (iii) cortical pulling by disassembling astral MTs (aMTs) and/or dynein motors that pull aMTs outwards; (iv) ipMT plus end dynamics, notably net polymerization; and (v) ipMT minus end depolymerization manifest as poleward flux...
December 8, 2016: Biology
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