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Yadong Zheng, Xiaola Guo, Meng Su, Xiaoqian Chen, Xiaoliang Jin, Juntao Ding, Zhengrong Wang, Xinwen Bo, Mazhar Ayaz, Ivan Kutyrev, Wanzhong Jia, Xichen Zhang, Jing Zhang
Tegumental proteins (TegPs) are a group of proteins that coat on the surface of worms, mainly being involved in ion uptake and immune evasion. Echinococcus species have many TegPs, but none of them have been characterized and their role remains unclear. The genome-wide analysis revealed that there were at least 14 tegp genes (tegp1 - 14) in Echinococcus species, the majority of which were found to contain an EF-hand domain or a dynein light chain-like domain or both. Despite low identity, all TegP11 proteins from 25 flatworms were conserved in structure...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Shoko Shimizu, Yugo Ishino, Masaya Tohyama, Shingo Miyata
Oligodendrocytes, the myelin-forming cells in the central nervous system (CNS), undergo morphological differentiation characterized by elaborated branched processes to enwrap neuronal axons. However, the basic molecular mechanisms underlying oligodendrocyte morphogenesis remain unknown. Herein, we describe the essential roles of Nuclear Distribution E Homolog 1 (NDE1), a dynein cofactor, in oligodendrocyte morphological differentiation. In the mouse corpus callosum, Nde1 mRNA expression was detected in oligodendrocyte lineage cells at the postnatal stage...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Y Z Shao, H J Zhao, Y Wang, J J Liu, J L Li, L Y Luo, M W Xing
The aim of this study is to investigate whether arsenic (As) could induce testicular poisoning and influence the oxidative stress, apoptosis and autophagy in chickens. Seventy-two 1-day-old male Hy-line chickens were divided into 4 groups which were exposed to 0, 0.625, 1.25, and 2.5 mg/kg body weight (BW) of arsenic trioxide (As2O3) for 30, 60 and 90 days, respectively. Histological and ultrastructural changes, antioxidant enzyme activity, mRNA and protein levels of apoptosis and autophagy-related genes were detected...
May 14, 2018: Poultry Science
Chandler A Walker, Lisa K Randolph, Carlos Matute, Elena Alberdi, Jimena Baleriola, Ulrich Hengst
Neurons frequently encounter neurodegenerative signals first in their periphery. For example, exposure of axons to oligomeric Aβ1-42 is sufficient to induce changes in the neuronal cell body that ultimately lead to degeneration. Currently, it is unclear how the information about the neurodegenerative insult is transmitted to the soma. Here, we find that the translation of pre-localized but normally silenced sentinel mRNAs in axons is induced within minutes of Aβ1-42 addition in a Ca2+ -dependent manner. This immediate protein synthesis following Aβ1-42 exposure generates a retrograde signaling complex including vimentin...
May 14, 2018: EMBO Reports
Allison M Gicking, Kyle W Swentowsky, R Kelly Dawe, Weihong Qiu
In most eukaryotes, cytoplasmic dynein serves as the primary cytoskeletal motor for minus-end-directed processes along microtubules. However, land plants lack dynein, having instead a large number of kinesin-14s, which suggests that kinesin-14s may have evolved to fill the cellular niche left by dynein. In addition, land plants do not have centrosomes, but contain specialized microtubule-based structures called phragmoplasts that facilitate the formation of new cell walls following cell division. This Review aims to compile the evidence for functional diversification of kinesin-14s in land plants...
May 12, 2018: FEBS Letters
María Cecilia De Rossi, Valeria Levi, Luciana Bruno
Molecular motors play relevant roles on the regulation of mitochondria size and shape, essential properties for the cell homeostasis.  In this work, we tracked single rod-shaped mitochondria with nanometer precision to explore the performance of microtubule motor teams during processive anterograde and retrograde transport.  We analyzed simultaneously the organelle size and verified that mitochondria retracted during retrograde transport with their leading tip moving slower in comparison to the rear tip.  In contrast, mitochondria preserved their size during anterograde runs indicating a different performance of plus-end directed teams...
May 11, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Petra Zur Lage, Panagiota Stefanopoulou, Katarzyna Styczynska-Soczka, Niall Quinn, Girish Mali, Alex von Kriegsheim, Pleasantine Mill, Andrew P Jarman
The massive dynein motor complexes that drive ciliary and flagellar motility require cytoplasmic preassembly, a process requiring dedicated dynein assembly factors (DNAAFs). How DNAAFs interact with molecular chaperones to control dynein assembly is not clear. By analogy with the well-known multifunctional HSP90-associated cochaperone, R2TP, several DNAAFs have been suggested to perform novel R2TP-like functions. However, the involvement of R2TP itself (canonical R2TP) in dynein assembly remains unclear. Here we show that in Drosophila melanogaster , the R2TP-associated factor, Wdr92, is required exclusively for axonemal dynein assembly, likely in association with canonical R2TP...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Yuki Hamada, Yuta Tsurumi, Shohei Nozaki, Yohei Katoh, Kazuhisa Nakayama
The dynein-2 complex mediates trafficking of ciliary proteins by powering the intraflagellar transport (IFT) machinery containing IFT-A and IFT-B complexes. Although 11 subunits are known to constitute the dynein-2 complex, with several light chain subunits shared by the dynein-1 complex, the overall architecture of the dynein-2 complex has not been fully clarified. Utilizing the visible immunoprecipitation assay, we demonstrated the interaction modes among the dynein-2 subunits, including previously undefined interactions, such as that between WDR60 and the TCTEX1D2-DYNLT1/DYNLT3 dimer...
May 9, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Kazuo Inaba, Kogiku Shiba
Cilia and flagella are cell machines that power hydrodynamic forces by fast beating. They are composed of bundles of 9 + 2 microtubules that associate with several protein structures including axonemal dyneins and their regulators. Spermatozoa are single cells with in most cases a single flagellum and are good cell models to study how flagellar movements are regulated and linked to cell behavior. In addition, the assessment of sperm motility is an important diagnostic tool for evaluating male fertility in human reproductive medicine, and in livestock and fisheries sciences...
May 8, 2018: Microscopy
Ewelina Betleja, Rashmi Nanjundappa, Tao Cheng, Moe R Mahjoub
The two centrioles of the centrosome in quiescent cells are inherently asymmetric structures that differ in age, morphology and function. How these asymmetric properties are established and maintained during quiescence remains unknown. Here we show that a daughter centriole-associated ciliopathy protein, Cep120, plays a critical inhibitory role at daughter centrioles. Depletion of Cep120 in quiescent mouse and human cells causes accumulation of pericentriolar material (PCM) components including Pericentrin, Cdk5Rap2, Ninein and Cep170...
May 9, 2018: ELife
Hiroshi Yamaguchi, Toshiyuki Oda, Masahide Kikkawa, Hiroyuki Takeda
Construction of motile cilia/flagella requires cytoplasmic preassembly of axonemal dyneins before transport into cilia. Axonemal dyneins have various subtypes, but the roles of each dynein subtype and their assembly processes remain elusive in vertebrates. The PIH protein family, consisting of four members, has been implicated in the assembly of different dynein subtypes, although evidence for this idea is sparse. Here, we established zebrafish mutants of all four PIH-protein genes: pih1d1 , pih1d2 , ktu , and twister , and analyzed the structures of axonemal dyneins in mutant spermatozoa by cryo-electron tomography...
May 9, 2018: ELife
Samara L Reck-Peterson, William B Redwine, Ronald D Vale, Andrew P Carter
In Figure 1c of the original article, ARP1 was incorrectly labelled as ARP11. The highlight for reference 37 was mistakenly placed under reference 36 and the highlight for reference 29 should have also referred to reference 16 (instead of 19). The HTML and PDF versions of the article have now been corrected.
May 8, 2018: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
Julian Esteve-Rudd, Roni A Hazim, Tanja Diemer, Antonio E Paniagua, Stefanie Volland, Ankita Umapathy, David S Williams
Stargardt macular dystrophy 3 (STGD3) is caused by dominant mutations in the ELOVL4 gene. Like other macular degenerations, pathogenesis within the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) appears to contribute to the loss of photoreceptors from the central retina. However, the RPE does not express ELOVL4 , suggesting photoreceptor cell loss in STGD3 occurs through two cell nonautonomous events: mutant photoreceptors first affect RPE cell pathogenesis, and then, second, RPE dysfunction leads to photoreceptor cell death...
May 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Michael T Kelliher, Yang Yue, Ashley Ng, Daichi Kamiyama, Bo Huang, Kristen J Verhey, Jill Wildonger
Neuronal polarity relies on the selective localization of cargo to axons or dendrites. The molecular motor kinesin-1 moves cargo into axons but is also active in dendrites. This raises the question of how kinesin-1 activity is regulated to maintain the compartment-specific localization of cargo. Our in vivo structure-function analysis of endogenous Drosophila melanogaster kinesin-1 reveals a novel role for autoinhibition in enabling the dendrite-specific localization of Golgi outposts. Mutations that disrupt kinesin-1 autoinhibition result in the axonal mislocalization of Golgi outposts...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Inga M Höben, Rim Hjeij, Heike Olbrich, Gerard W Dougherty, Tabea Nöthe-Menchen, Isabella Aprea, Diana Frank, Petra Pennekamp, Bernd Dworniczak, Julia Wallmeier, Johanna Raidt, Kim G Nielsen, Maria C Philipsen, Francesca Santamaria, Laura Venditto, Israel Amirav, Huda Mussaffi, Freerk Prenzel, Kaman Wu, Zeineb Bakey, Miriam Schmidts, Niki T Loges, Heymut Omran
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is characterized by chronic airway disease, male infertility, and randomization of the left/right body axis as a result of defects of motile cilia and sperm flagella. We identified loss-of-function mutations in the open-reading frame C11orf70 in PCD individuals from five distinct families. Transmission electron microscopy analyses and high-resolution immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrate that loss-of-function mutations in C11orf70 cause immotility of respiratory cilia and sperm flagella, respectively, as a result of the loss of axonemal outer (ODAs) and inner dynein arms (IDAs), indicating that C11orf70 is involved in cytoplasmic assembly of dynein arms...
May 3, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
Mahmoud R Fassad, Amelia Shoemark, Pierrick le Borgne, France Koll, Mitali Patel, Mellisa Dixon, Jane Hayward, Charlotte Richardson, Emily Frost, Lucy Jenkins, Thomas Cullup, Eddie M K Chung, Michel Lemullois, Anne Aubusson-Fleury, Claire Hogg, David R Mitchell, Anne-Marie Tassin, Hannah M Mitchison
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous disorder characterized by destructive respiratory disease and laterality abnormalities due to randomized left-right body asymmetry. PCD is mostly caused by mutations affecting the core axoneme structure of motile cilia that is essential for movement. Genes that cause PCD when mutated include a group that encode proteins essential for the assembly of the ciliary dynein motors and the active transport process that delivers them from their cytoplasmic assembly site into the axoneme...
May 3, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
H Lee Sweeney, Erika L F Holzbaur
SUMMARYMyosin motors power movements on actin filaments, whereas dynein and kinesin motors power movements on microtubules. The mechanisms of these motor proteins differ, but, in all cases, ATP hydrolysis and subsequent release of the hydrolysis products drives a cycle of interactions with the track (either an actin filament or a microtubule), resulting in force generation and directed movement.
May 1, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Guadalupe Sepulveda, Mark Antkowiak, Ingrid Brust-Mascher, Karan Mahe, Tingyoung Ou, Noemi M Castro, Lana N Christensen, Lee Cheung, Xueer Jiang, Daniel Yoon, Bo Huang, Li-En Jao
As microtubule-organizing centers of animal cells, centrosomes guide the formation of the bipolar spindle that segregates chromosomes during mitosis. At mitosis onset, centrosomes maximize microtubule-organizing activity by rapidly expanding the pericentriolar material (PCM). This process is in part driven by the large PCM protein pericentrin (PCNT), as its level increases at the PCM and helps recruit additional PCM components. However, the mechanism underlying the timely centrosomal enrichment of PCNT remains unclear...
April 30, 2018: ELife
Zhuang-Gui Chen, Ying-Ying Li, Zhao-Ni Wang, Ming Li, Hui-Fang Lim, Yu-Qi Zhou, Liang-Ming Cai, Ya-Ting Li, Li-Fen Yang, Tian-Tuo Zhang, De-Yun Wang
Background: Aberrant epithelial remodeling and/or abnormalities in mucociliary apparatus in airway epithelium contribute to infection and inflammation. It is uncertain if these changes occur in both large and small airways in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (non-CF bronchiectasis). In this study, we aim to investigate the histopathology and inflammatory profile in the epithelium of bronchi and bronchioles in bronchiectasis. Methods: Excised lung tissue sections from 52 patients with non-CF bronchiectasis were stained with specific cellular markers and analyzed by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence to assess the epithelial structures, including ciliated cells and goblet cells morphology...
March 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Paulomi Sanghavi, Ashwin D'Souza, Ashim Rai, Arpan Rai, Ranjith Padinhatheeri, Roop Mallik
How the opposing activity of kinesin and dynein motors generates polarized distribution of organelles inside cells is poorly understood and hotly debated [1, 2]. Possible explanations include stochastic mechanical competition [3, 4], coordinated regulation by motor-associated proteins [5-7], mechanical activation of motors [8], and lipid-induced organization [9]. Here, we address this question by using phagocytosed latex beads to generate early phagosomes (EPs) that move bidirectionally along microtubules (MTs) in an in vitro assay [9]...
April 13, 2018: Current Biology: CB
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