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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228218/nonhuman-primate-models-and-understanding-the-pathogenesis-of-hiv-infection-and-aids
#1
Ronald S Veazey, Andrew A Lackner
Research using nonhuman primates (NHPs) as models for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has resulted in tremendous achievements not only in the prevention and treatment of HIV, but also in biomedical research more broadly. Once considered a death sentence, HIV infection is now fairly well controlled with combination antiretroviral treatments, almost all of which were first tested for efficacy and safety in nonhuman primates or other laboratory animals...
December 8, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227887/-there-is-not-a-safe-space-where-they-can-find-themselves-to-be-free-un-safe-spaces-and-the-promotion-of-queer-visibilities-among-township-males-who-have-sex-with-males-msm-in-cape-town-south-africa
#2
N R Hassan, L Swartz, A Kagee, A De Wet, A Lesch, Z Kafaar, P A Newman
Males who have sex with males (MSM) are prioritised in the global fight against HIV/AIDS, as a key affected population to receive HIV prevention, treatment, and HIV-related care and support (WHO, 2016). There is, however, limited empirical research conducted on how to engage communities of South African MSM in clinical HIV prevention research programs. The development of LGBTIQ safe spaces may potentially be a viable option to promote community-based engagement by bridging the divides between HIV-prevention researchers, marginalised queer populations, and other HIV-prevention stakeholders located in heteronormative spaces (Molyneux et al...
December 8, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227881/experiences-with-compulsory-drug-detention-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-bangkok-thailand-a-qualitative-study
#3
Thomas Kerr, Will Small, Prempreeda Pramoj Na Ayutthaya, Kanna Hayashi
BACKGROUND: Thailand has employed a system of compulsory drug detention centres (CDDCs) where drug users are confined following arrest. Although concerns regarding CDDCs persist, research focused on CDDCs in Thailand is limited. We undertook this study to explore experiences with CDDCs among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Thailand. METHODS: Data were derived from the Mitsampan Community Research Project, a mixed- methods study involving PWID in Bangkok. Between July 2011 and June 2012, semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with PWID who had been exposed to CDDCs...
December 8, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227443/associations-between-medicare-part-d-and-out-of-pocket-spending-hiv-viral-load-adherence-and-adap-use-in-dual-eligibles-with-hiv
#4
Nadya Belenky, Brian W Pence, Stephen R Cole, Stacie B Dusetzina, Andrew Edmonds, Jonathan Oberlander, Michael W Plankey, Adebola Adedimeji, Tracey E Wilson, Jennifer Cohen, Mardge H Cohen, Joel E Milam, Elizabeth T Golub, Adaora A Adimora
BACKGROUND: The implementation of Medicare part D on January 1, 2006 required all adults who were dually enrolled in Medicaid and Medicare (dual eligibles) to transition prescription drug coverage from Medicaid to Medicare part D. Changes in payment systems and utilization management along with the loss of Medicaid protections had the potential to disrupt medication access, with uncertain consequences for dual eligibles with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who rely on consistent prescription coverage to suppress their HIV viral load (VL)...
January 2018: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226706/natural-products-and-hiv-aids
#5
Daniele C Cary, B Matija Peterlin
The study of natural products in biomedical research is not a modern conceit. Many of the most successful medical therapeutics are derived from natural products, including those studied in the field of HIV/AIDS. Biomedical research has a rich history of discovery based on screens of medicinal herbs and traditional medicine practices. Compounds derived from natural products which repress HIV and those that activate latent HIV have been reported. It is important to remember the tradition in medical research to derive therapies based on these natural products and to overcome the negative perception of natural products as as an "alternative medicine"...
December 10, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226632/novel-bovine-associated-pvapn-plasmid-type-in-rhodococcus-equi-identified-from-lymph-nodes-of-slaughtered-cattle-and-lungs-of-people-living-with-hiv-aids
#6
M G Ribeiro, G H B Lara, P da Silva, M M J Franco, A L de Mattos-Guaraldi, A P C de Vargas, R I Sakate, F R Pavan, B S Colhado, F V R Portilho, R G Motta, T Kakuda, S Takai
Rhodococcus equi is a well-recognized Gram-positive intracellular facultative bacterium that is opportunistic in nature, which causes pyogranulomatous infections in humans and multiple host animals. The pathogenicity of the microorganism has been attributed to the presence of plasmid-encoded virulence-associated proteins (Vap). To date, three host-associated virulence plasmid types of R. equi have been identified as follows: the circular pVAPA and pVAPB, related, respectively, to equine and porcine isolates, and a recently described linear pVAPN plasmid associated with bovine strains, although these three types are found in human isolates...
December 10, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226015/conserved-hiv-epitopes-for-an-effective-hiv-vaccine
#7
Bikash Sahay, Cuong Q Nguyen, Janet K Yamamoto
Despite major advances in antiretroviral therapy against HIV-1, an effective HIV vaccine is urgently required to reduce the number of new cases of HIV infections in the world. Vaccines are the ultimate tool in the medical arsenal to control and prevent the spread of infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS. Several failed phase-IIb to -III clinical vaccine trials against HIV-1 in the past generated a plethora of information that could be used for better designing of an effective HIV vaccine in the future. Most of the tested vaccine candidates produced strong humoral responses against the HIV proteins; however, failed to protect due to: 1) the low levels and the narrow breadth of the HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies and the HIV-specific antibody-dependent Fc-mediated effector activities, 2) the low levels and the poor quality of the anti-HIV T-cell responses, and 3) the excessive responses to immunodominant non-protective HIV epitopes, which in some cases blocked the protective immunity and/or enhanced HIV infection...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224754/prevalence-of-chronic-ear-disease-among-hiv-children-in-sub-saharan-africa
#8
David C Ianacone, Alden F Smith, Margaretha L Casselbrant, Robbert J H Ensink, Farrel Buchinsky, Abebe Melaku, Glenn Isaacson
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of chronic ear disease in HIV+, highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART)-treated children and compare this to the prevalence in healthy children of similar age living in a similar setting. INTRODUCTION: From previous clinical work in Ethiopia, we suspected that chronic middle ear disease was common both in the general pediatric population and especially among children with HIV/AIDS. Few studies have examined the prevalence of chronic ear disease in HIV + children, particularly in those treated with HAART...
December 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224242/dermoscopic-observations-in-disseminated-cryptococcosis-with-cutaneous-involvement
#9
M Sławińska, M Hlebowicz, E Iżycka-Świeszewska, M Sikorska, M Sokołowska-Wojdyło, T Smiatacz, R Nowicki, M Sobjanek
A 26-year-old female patient with a history of intravenous drug abuse, diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) 6 months before. AIDS defining disease was Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia. The patient presented with severely decreased CD4 cell count of 7 cells/mm3 and relatively low HIV viral load of 281 copies/mL. Shortly after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART), was diagnosed with disseminated cryptococcosis with central nervous system and skin involvement. This article is protected by copyright...
December 10, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222081/media-consumption-and-creation-in-attitudes-toward-and-knowledge-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-web-based-survey
#10
Jacob Groshek, Miles Basil, Ling Guo, Sarah Parker Ward, Francis A Farraye, Jason Reich
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic gastrointestinal condition affecting over 5 million people globally and 1.6 million in the United States but currently lacks a precisely determined cause or cure. The range of symptoms IBD patients experience are often debilitating, and the societal stigmas associated with some such symptoms can further degrade their quality of life. Better understanding the nature of this public reproach then is a critical component for improving awareness campaigns and, ultimately, the experiences of IBD patients...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221798/association-of-heterozygous-ccr5%C3%AE-32-deletion-with-survival-in-hiv-infection-a-cohort-study
#11
Ezequiel Ruiz-Mateos, Laura Tarancon-Diez, A I Alvarez-Rios, Beatriz Dominguez-Molina, Miguel Genebat, Ildefonso Pulido, Maria Antonia Abad, Maria Angeles Muñoz-Fernandez, Manuel Leal
The role of a 32 base pair deletion in the CCR5 gene (CCR5Δ32) in HIV-disease progression and response to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) is well established. However, the impact of CCR5Δ32 in the long-term survival pre-cART and after cART introduction in a large cohort of HIV-infected patients is unknown. We analyzed the association of CCR5Δ32 deletion in the long-term survival of HIV-infected patients recruited between June 1981 and October 2016 (n = 1006). Clinical and epidemiological variables were recorded and CCR5Δ32 deletion was assessed by PCR and electrophoretic analysis...
December 5, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221753/pura-the-gene-encoding-pur-alpha-member-of-an-ancient-nucleic-acid-binding-protein-family-with-mammalian-neurological-functions
#12
REVIEW
Dianne C Daniel, Edward M Johnson
The PURA gene encodes Pur-alpha, a 322 amino acid protein with repeated nucleic acid binding domains that are highly conserved from bacteria through humans. PUR genes with a single copy of this domain have been detected so far in spirochetes and bacteroides. Lower eukaryotes possess one copy of the PUR gene, whereas chordates possess 1-4 PUR family members. Human PUR genes encode Pur-alpha (Pura), Pur-beta (Purb) and two forms of Pur-gamma (Purg). Pur-alpha is a protein that binds specific DNA and RNA sequence elements...
December 5, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220683/psychological-pathway-to-suicidal-ideation-among-people-living-with-hiv-aids-in-china-a-structural-equation-model
#13
Wei Wang, Yuanyuan Wang, Chenchang Xiao, Xing Yao, Yinmei Yang, Hong Yan, Shiyue Li
People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) have higher rates of suicide than does the general population. It is critical to interpret the intricate relationships among various psychological variables that increase the risk of suicidal ideation among PLWHA in China. An institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted from Jul to Aug 2016 in Nanjing, China, using a self-reporting questionnaire. A total of 465 PLWHA participated. Sociodemographic, psychological variables and suicide information about the participants were collected...
November 29, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220350/deep-sequencing-of-near-full-length-hiv-1-genomes-from-plasma-identifies-circulating-subtype-c-and-infrequent-occurrence-of-ac-recombinant-form-in-southern-india
#14
Shuba Varshini Alampalli, Michael M Thomson, Raghavan Sampathkumar, Karthi Sivaraman, Anto Jesuraj U K J, Chirag Dhar, George D Souza, Neil Berry, Annapurna Vyakarnam
India has the third largest number of HIV-1-infected individuals accounting for approximately 2.1 million people, with a predominance of circulating subtype C strains and a low prevalence of subtype A and A1C and BC recombinant forms, identified over the past two decades. Recovery of near full-length HIV-1 genomes from a plasma source coupled with advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies and development of universal methods for amplifying whole genomes of HIV-1 circulating in a target geography or population provides the opportunity for a detailed analysis of HIV-1 strain identification, evolution and dynamics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217957/evaluation-of-parasitological-methods-for-the-detection-of-strongyloides-stercoralis-among-individuals-in-selected-health-institutions-in-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#15
Tamirat Hailegebriel, Beyene Petros, Tekola Endeshaw
Background: Strongyloides stercoralis causes chronic intestinal infection that may lead to disseminated disease during immunosuppression. Therefore, efficient diagnostic methods are essential to detect silent and latent infections. The present study was aimed to compare the efficacy of parasitological methods for the detection of S. stercoralis infection. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 351 subjects (226 HIV positive and 125 HIV negative) from October 2005 to May 2006...
September 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217956/utilization-status-of-electronic-information-sources-eis-for-hiv-aids-care-and-treatment-in-specialized-teaching-hospitals-of-ethiopia-2016
#16
Senait Samuel Bramo, Tesfamichael Alaro Agago
Background: According to the World Health Organization, the use of Electronic Information Sources (EIS) in healthcare is not merely about application of technology, but it is also a foundation to provide higher quality clinical care. This study was aimed to assess Utilization Status of EIS for HIV/AIDS Care and Treatment in specialized teaching hospitals of Ethiopia, 2016. Materials and Methods: A facility based cross-sectional study design was used. The study populations were 352 healthcare professionals selected by using simple random sampling technique from three randomly selected specialized teaching hospitals of Ethiopia...
September 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217943/intestinal-parasitosis-and-their-associated-factors-among-people-living-with-hiv-at-university-of-gondar-hospital-northwest-ethiopia
#17
Tegegne Eshetu, Getinet Sibhatu, Mohammed Megiso, Abrham Abere, Habtamu Wondifraw Baynes, Belete Biadgo, Ayalew Jejaw Zeleke
Background: Most HIV clients die of AIDS related intestinal parasitic infections rather than due to the HIV infection itself. Therefore, this study was aimed at determining the prevalence of intestinal parasite and their associated factors among HIV/AIDS clients at the University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: Institution based cross sectional study was conducted using systematic random sampling technique from March to May 2016. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data...
July 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217938/sociodemographic-correlates-of-hiv-discordant-and-concordant-couples-in-anambra-state-nigeria
#18
Chinomnso Nnebue, Adaeze Anaekwe, Chidebe Anaekwe
Background: The contribution of discordant partnerships to the burden of HIV/AIDS is significant. An understanding of the characteristics of HIV-affected couples will help modify preventive strategies. The aim of this study was to compare the HIV discordant and concordant partnerships for sociodemographic determinants in comprehensive health centers in Anambra State, Nigeria. Methods: This was an institution based case-control study of 289 (148 HIV-concordant and 141 HIV-discordant) couples, selected using multistage sampling technique...
July 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216569/a-randomized-controlled-pilot-study-of-warm-handoff-versus-fax-referral-for-hospital-initiated-smoking-cessation-among-people-living-with-hiv-aids
#19
Laura M Mussulman, Babalola Faseru, Sharon Fitzgerald, Niaman Nazir, Vivek Patel, Kimber P Richter
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of smoking among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) remains higher than the general population. Life expectancy among PLWHA has increased over the past decade, however, PLWHA who smoke will die younger than their non-smoking peers. The primary aim of this pilot study was to examine the effects of warm handoff versus fax referral to the quitline for smoking cessation among hospitalized smokers living with HIV/AIDS. METHODS: 25 smokers with a diagnosis of HIV/AIDS hospitalized at a Midwestern academic medical center in 2012-2013 (19 male; mean age=47...
November 26, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216405/the-human-immunodeficiency-virus-care-continuum-in-china-1985-2015
#20
Ye Ma, Zhihui Dou, Wei Guo, Yurong Mao, Fujie Zhang, Jennifer M McGoogan, Yan Zhao, Decai Zhao, Yasong Wu, Zhongfu Liu, Zunyou Wu
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care continuum attrition is a major global public health challenge. Few studies have examined this problem in resource-limited settings. We aimed to assess cumulative, current, and historical achievement along China's HIV continuum of care. Methods: A nationwide, serial cross-sectional study of all individuals with HIV infection diagnosed in China between 1 January 1985 and 31 December 2015 was conducted using data from China's HIV/AIDS information systems...
December 5, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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