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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915018/design-and-surface-immobilization-of-short-anti-biofilm-peptides
#1
Biswajit Mishra, Tamara Lushnikova, Radha M Golla, Xiuqing Wang, Guangshun Wang
: Short antimicrobial peptides are essential to keep us healthy and their lasting potency can inspire the design of new types of antibiotics. This study reports the design of a family of eight-residue tryptophan-rich peptides (TetraF2W) obtained by converting the four phenylalanines in temporin-SHf to tryptophans. The temporin-SHf template was identified from the antimicrobial peptide database (http://aps.unmc.edu/AP). Remarkably, the double arginine variant (TetraF2W-RR) was more effective in killing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) USA300, but less cytotoxic to human skin HaCat and kidney HEK293 cells, than the lysine-containing dibasic combinations (KR, RK and KK)...
November 30, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914874/transmission-networks-and-risk-of-hiv-infection-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa-a-community-wide-phylogenetic-study
#2
Tulio de Oliveira, Ayesha B M Kharsany, Tiago Gräf, Cherie Cawood, David Khanyile, Anneke Grobler, Adrian Puren, Savathree Madurai, Cheryl Baxter, Quarraisha Abdool Karim, Salim S Abdool Karim
BACKGROUND: The incidence of HIV infection in young women in Africa is very high. We did a large-scale community-wide phylogenetic study to examine the underlying HIV transmission dynamics and the source and consequences of high rates of HIV infection in young women in South Africa. METHODS: We did a cross-sectional household survey of randomly selected individuals aged 15-49 years in two neighbouring subdistricts (one urban and one rural) with a high burden of HIV infection in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa...
November 30, 2016: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914221/prevalence-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-hiv-coinfection-in-southern-brazil
#3
Dulce Stauffert, Mariangela Freitas da Silveira, Marília Arndt Mesenburg, Adriane Brod Manta, Alessandra da Silva Dutra, Guilherme Lucas de Oliveira Bicca, Marcos Marreiro Villela
Chagas disease reactivation has been a defining condition for acquired immune deficiency syndrome in Brazil for individuals coinfected with Trypanosoma cruzi and HIV since 2004. Although the first coinfection case was reported in the 1980s, its prevalence has not been firmly established. In order to know coinfection prevalence, a cross-sectional study of 200 HIV patients was performed between January and July 2013 in the city of Pelotas, in southern Rio Grande do Sul, an endemic area for Chagas disease. Ten subjects were found positive for T...
November 30, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912079/a-humanized-mouse-model-for-hiv-2-infection-and-efficacy-testing-of-a-single-pill-triple-drug-combination-anti-retroviral-therapy
#4
Shuang Hu, Charles Preston Neff, Dipu Mohan Kumar, Yuichiro Habu, Sarah R Akkina, Takahiro Seki, Ramesh Akkina
While HIV-2 is a causative agent for AIDS in addition to the better studied HIV-1, there is currently no suitable animal model for experimental studies for HIV-2 infection and evaluating promising drugs in vivo. Here we evaluated humanized mice for their susceptibility to HIV-2 infection and tested a single-pill three drug formulation of anti-retrovirals (NRTIs abacavir and lamivudine, integrase inhibitor dolutegravir) (trade name, Triumeq(R)). Our results showed that hu-mice are susceptible to HIV-2 infection showing persistent viremia and CD4 T cell loss, key hallmarks of AIDS pathogenesis...
November 29, 2016: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912071/classical-and-alternative-macrophages-have-impaired-function-during-acute-and-chronic-hiv-1-infection
#5
Leonardo J Galvão-Lima, Milena S Espíndola, Luana S Soares, Fabiana A Zambuzi, Maira Cacemiro, Caroline Fontanari, Valdes R Bollela, Fabiani G Frantz
OBJECTIVES: Three decades after HIV recognition and its association with AIDS development, many advances have emerged - especially related to prevention and treatment. Undoubtedly, the development of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) dramatically changed the future of the syndrome that we know today. In the present study, we evaluate the impact of HAART on macrophage function and its relevance to HIV pathogenesis. METHODS: PBMCs were isolated from blood samples and monocytes (CD14+ cells) were purified...
November 29, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911921/what-is-the-economic-burden-of-subsidized-hiv-aids-treatment-services-on-patients-in-nigeria-and-is-this-burden-catastrophic-to-households
#6
Enyi Etiaba, Obinna Onwujekwe, Kwasi Torpey, Benjamin Uzochukwu, Robert Chiegil
BACKGROUND: A gap in knowledge exists regarding the economic burden on households of subsidized anti-retroviral treatment (ART) programs in Nigeria. This is because patients also incur non-ART drug costs, which may constrain the delivery and utilisation of subsidized services. METHODS: An exit survey of adults (18+years) attending health facilities for HIV/AIDS treatment was conducted in three states in Nigeria (Adamawa, Akwa Ibom and Anambra). In the states, ART was fully subsidized but there were different payment modalities for other costs of treatment...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911140/effect-of-secondary-preventive-therapy-on-recurrence-of-tuberculosis-in-hiv-infected-individuals-a-systematic-review
#7
Wassilis Sc Bruins, Frank van Leth
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals successfully treated for tuberculosis (TB) remain at risk of recurrence of the disease, especially in high TB incidence settings. We performed a systematic review, investigating whether secondary preventive therapy (sPT) with anti-TB drugs (preventive therapy in former TB patients with treatment success) is an effective strategy to prevent recurrence of TB in this patient group. We searched the databases PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Web of Science and Google Scholar using the keywords HIV-infections, HIV, human immunodeficiency virus, AIDS, isoniazid, isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT), tuberculosis, TB, recurrence and recurrent disease, resulting in 253 potential publications...
December 2, 2016: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910703/co-calibration-of-two-self-reported-measures-of-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy
#8
Robin M Nance, J A Chris Delaney, Carol E Golin, Wendee M Wechsberg, Chinazo Cunningham, Frederick Altice, Katerina Christopoulos, Kevin Knight, Vu Quan, Michael S Gordon, Sandra Springer, Jeremy Young, Paul K Crane, Kenneth H Mayer, Michael J Mugavero, Carlos Del Rio, Richard A Kronmal, Heidi M Crane
Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is an important determinant of clinical success assessed in many HIV studies. Harmonizing adherence data from studies that use different measures is difficult without a co-calibration equation to convert between validated instruments. Our purpose was to co-calibrate two commonly used adherence measures: the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) questionnaire and the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). We used robust linear regression to develop a co-calibration equation in a clinical care cohort...
December 2, 2016: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909828/the-dopamine-related-polymorphisms-bdnf-comt-drd2-drd3-and-drd4-are-not-linked-with-changes-in-csf-dopamine-levels-and-frequency-of-hiv-infection
#9
Anne Horn, C Scheller, S du Plessis, R Burger, G Arendt, J Joska, S Sopper, C M Maschke, M Obermann, I W Husstedt, J Hain, P Riederer, E Koutsilieri
We showed previously that higher levels in CSF dopamine in HIV patients are associated with the presence of the dopamine transporter (DAT) 10/10-repeat allele which was also detected more frequently in HIV-infected individuals compared to uninfected subjects. In the current study, we investigated further whether other genetic dopamine (DA)-related polymorphisms may be related with changes in CSF DA levels and frequency of HIV infection in HIV-infected subjects. Specifically, we studied genetic polymorphisms of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, catechol-O-methyltransferase, and dopamine receptors DRD2, DRD3, and DRD4 genetic polymorphisms in uninfected and HIV-infected people in two different ethnical groups, a German cohort (Caucasian, 72 individuals with HIV infection and 22 individuals without HIV infection) and a South African cohort (Xhosan, 54 individuals with HIV infection and 19 individuals without HIV infection)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909641/a-case-series-of-complex-recalcitrant-wounds-treated-with-epidermal-grafts-harvested-from-an-automated-device
#10
Stephen S Cai, Arvind U Gowda, Karan Chopra, Rachel Waldman, Ronald P Silverman, Yvonne M Rasko
INTRODUCTION: Epidermal grafting has several advantages over full-thickness or split-thickness grafts in the treatment of complex non-healing wounds. These include the low risk of donor site complications, minimal patient discomfort, and abstention from the operating room. Traditionally, the lack of reliable epidermal harvesting techniques has limited its clinical utilization. The development of an automated suction blister epidermal graft (SBEG) harvesting device may facilitate clinical utilization of this technique...
October 30, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908225/regen-med-california-institute-for-regenerative-medicine-profile-cirm-2-0
#11
Kevin McCormack
The California Institute for Regenerative Medicine was created by the voters of California in 2004 to accelerate stem cell treatments to patients with unmet medical needs. By the end of its first 10 years, the agency was funding ten projects in clinical trials, including work in heart disease and cancer, HIV/AIDS and Type 1 diabetes. The goal now is to significantly increase that number, adding another 50 clinical trial projects funded by California Institute for Regenerative Medicine over the next 5 years...
December 2, 2016: Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907928/cytomorphological-analysis-of-lymph-node-lesions-in-hiv-positive-patients-with-cd4-count-correlation-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Sadia Siddiqa Nasser, Rashmi K Patil, Shreekanth K Kittur
OBJECTIVES: To study the cytomorphological spectrum of lymph node lesions in HIV-positive patients and correlate the cytological findings with the CD4 count. STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study of 23 months' duration which included 110 HIV-positive cases proved according to the guidelines of the National AIDS Control Organisation. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was done on clinically palpable lymph nodes. Special stains and culture were done wherever necessary...
December 2, 2016: Acta Cytologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907848/fatal-and-non-fatal-overdose-after-narcology-hospital-discharge-among-russians-living-with-hiv-aids-who-inject-drugs
#13
Alexander Y Walley, Debbie M Cheng, Emily K Quinn, Elena Blokhina, Natalia Gnatienko, Christine E Chaisson, Evgeny Krupitsky, Philip O Coffin, Jeffrey H Samet
OBJECTIVES: Among Russians living with HIV/AIDS who inject drugs, we examined the incidence of fatal and non-fatal overdoses following discharge from a narcology hospital and the associations with more advanced HIV infection. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of data collected at baseline, 3 and 6 months from HIV-infected patients with a history of injection drug use who were not treated with anti-retroviral therapy. Participants were recruited between 2012-2014 from a narcology (addiction) hospital in St...
November 28, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907230/reverse-geroscience-how-does-exposure-to-early-diseases-accelerate-the-age-related-decline-in-health
#14
Ronald A Kohanski, Steven G Deeks, Claudia Gravekamp, Jeffrey B Halter, Kevin High, Arti Hurria, Rebecca Fuldner, Paige Green, Robin Huebner, Francesca Macchiarini, Felipe Sierra
Aging is the major risk factor for both the development of chronic diseases and loss of functional capacity. Geroscience provides links among the biology of aging, the biology of disease, and the physiology of frailty, three fields where enormous progress has been made in the last few decades. While, previously, the focus was on the role of aging in susceptibility to disease and disability, the other side of this relationship, which is the contribution of disease to aging, has been less explored at the molecular/cellular level...
December 1, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907114/rates-and-predictors-of-non-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-among-hiv-positive-individuals-in-kenya-results-from-the-second-kenya-aids-indicator-survey-2012
#15
Irene N Mukui, Lucy Ng'ang'a, John Williamson, Joyce N Wamicwe, Shobha Vakil, Abraham Katana, Andrea A Kim
INTRODUCTION: Understanding the levels and associated factors of non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is crucial in designing interventions to improve adherence and health outcomes of ART. We assessed non-adherence to ART among HIV-infected persons reporting ART use in a nationally representative survey in Kenya. METHODS: The Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2012 was a population-based, household survey of persons aged 18 months-64 years conducted in 2012-2013...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907076/clinical-determinants-of-hiv-1b-between-host-evolution-and-their-association-with-drug-resistance-in-pediatric-patients
#16
Israel Pagán, Patricia Rojas, José Tomás Ramos, África Holguín
Understanding the factors that modulate the evolution of virus populations is essential to design efficient control strategies. Mathematical models predict that factors affecting viral within-host evolution may also determine that at the between-host level. Although HIV-1 within-host evolution has been associated with clinical factors used to monitor AIDS progression, such as patient age, CD4 cells count, viral load, and antiretroviral experience, little is known about the role of these clinical factors in determining between-host HIV-1 evolution...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906980/patterns-of-sexual-behavior-in-lowland-thai-youth-and-ethnic-minorities-attending-high-school-in-rural-chiang-mai-thailand
#17
Linda Aurpibul, Arunrat Tangmunkongvorakul, Patou Masika Musumari, Kriengkrai Srithanaviboonchai, Surapee Tarnkehard
INTRODUCTION: The rural areas of Northern Thailand are home to a large cultural diversity of ethnic minority groups. Previous studies have shown that young people in rural Thailand have low levels of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and high sexual risks. We compared sexual behaviors between the lowland Thai youth and the youth from ethnic minority groups. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This is a cross-sectional quantitative study conducted among high-school Thai and ethnic students in Chiang Mai...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906027/antiretroviral-treatment-regardless-of-cd4-count-the-universal-answer-to-a-contextual-question
#18
REVIEW
Serge P Eholié, Anani Badje, Gérard M Kouame, Jean-Baptiste N'takpe, Raoul Moh, Christine Danel, Xavier Anglaret
After a period where it was recommended to start antiretroviral therapy (ART) early, the CD4 threshold for treating asymptomatic adults dropped to 200/mm(3) at the beginning of the 2000s. This was mostly due to a great prudence with regards to drug toxicity. The ART-start CD4 threshold in most international guidelines was then raised to 350/mm(3) in 2006-2009 and to 500/mm(3) in 2009-2013. Between 2012 and 2015, international guidelines went the last step further and recommended treating all HIV-infected adults regardless of their CD4 count...
July 26, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906025/nutritional-status-and-its-effect-on-treatment-outcome-among-hiv-infected-clients-receiving-haart-in-ethiopia-a-cohort-study
#19
Sadikalmahdi Hussen, Tefera Belachew, Nezif Hussien
PURPOSES: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of nutritional status at the start of highly active anti-retroviral therapy on treatment outcomes among HIV/AIDS patients taking HAART at Jimma University Specialized Hospital. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study involving 340 adults who started highly active anti-retroviral therapy. The patients have been clinically followed for 2 years. Data were extracted from paper based medical charts by trained data collectors from January 30 to February 28, 2014 using data collection format...
September 22, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906015/validation-of-a-self-reported-hiv-symptoms-list-the-iss-hiv-symptoms-scale
#20
Raffaella Bucciardini, Katherina Pugliese, Daniela Francisci, Andrea Costantini, Elisabetta Schiaroli, Miriam Cognigni, Chiara Tontini, Stefano Lucattini, Luca Fucili, Massimiliano Di Gregorio, Marco Mirra, Vincenzo Fragola, Sara Pompili, Rita Murri, Stefano Vella
BACKGROUND: To describe the development and the psychometric properties of the Istituto Superiore di Sanità-HIV symptoms scale (lSS-HIV symptoms scale). METHODS: The ISS-HIV symptom scale was developed by an Italian working team including researchers, physicians and people living with HIV. The development process went through the following steps: (1) review of HIV/AIDS literature; (2) focus group; (3) pre-test analysis; (4) scale validation. RESULTS: The 22 symptoms of HIV-ISS symptoms scale were clustered in five factors: pain/general discomfort (7 items); depression/anxiety (4 items); emotional reaction/psychological distress (5 items); gastrointestinal discomfort (4 items); sexual discomfort (2 items)...
April 9, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
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