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Hiv and aids

Cristina Giménez-García, Estefanía Ruiz-Palomino, María Dolores Gil-Llario, Rafael Ballester-Arnal, Claudia Castañeiras
Young Hispanic women have been particularly affected by HIV. For this reason, we analyzed the influence of cognitive factors, dispositional variables, and gender culture on the HIV risks of two groups of Hispanic women. Young Argentinian and Spanish women (N = 342) completed the AIDS Prevention Questionnaire, the Spanish version of the Sexual Compulsivity Scale, and the Spanish version of the Sexual Sensation Seeking Scale in order to evaluate knowledge of HIV transmission, HIV, and condom use; self-efficacy; safe-sex intention and safe sex; as well as Sexual Sensation Seeking and Sexual Compulsivity traits...
June 4, 2018: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
Mary DeGrezia, Dorcas Baker, Ingrid McDowell
Testing for Turkeys (TFT) HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing initiative is a joint effort between Older Women Embracing Life (OWEL), Inc., a nonprofit faith-based community HIV support and advocacy organization; the Johns Hopkins University Regional Partner MidAtlantic AIDS Education and Training Center (MAAETC); and the University of Maryland, Baltimore JACQUES Initiative (JI), and is now in its 11th year of providing HIV outreach, testing, and linkage to care. Since 2008, the annual TFT daylong community HIV testing and linkage to care initiative has been held 2 weeks before Thanksgiving at a faith-based center in Baltimore, Maryland, in a zip code where one in 26 adults and adolescents ages 13 years and older are living with HIV (Maryland Department of Health, Center for HIV Surveillance, Epidemiology, and Evaluation, 2017)...
June 4, 2018: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
Thomas P Giordano
Retention of HIV-infected patients in care is crucial to optimizing individual patient outcomes and reducing transmission of HIV. A number of strategies are available to improve linkage to care; among them, the AntiRetroviral Treatment and Access Services intervention should be considered standard of care at the clinic level. With regard to retention in care, the Retention Through Enhanced Personal Contact intervention has been shown to improve retention rates and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Data to Care program has been successful in assisting public health authorities to locate and return to treatment patients presumed to be lost to follow-up...
June 2018: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
Susan Swindells
People with HIV infection with latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) are at a 10-fold greater risk of developing active disease. Interferon gamma release assays and tuberculin skin testing have approximately 65% to 70% specificity for diagnosing LTBI in HIV-infected patients. LTBI can be successfully treated with isoniazid preventive therapy and early antiretroviral therapy (ART). Rapid molecular diagnostics have approximately 88% sensitivity and 98% specificity for identifying active TB. ART should be started early in patients with TB...
June 2018: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
Ekaterine Karkashadze, Natia Dvali, Natalia Bolokadze, Lali Sharvadze, Pati Gabunia, Marine Karchava, Tamar Tchelidze, Tengiz Tsertsvadze, Jack DeHovitz, Carlos Del Rio, Nikoloz Chkhartishvili
BACKGROUND: HIV drug resistance is a major threat to sustained impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART). We studied epidemiology of drug resistance in the country of Georgia. METHODS: Study included all adult patients who experienced virologic failure on first line ART and received HIV drug resistance testing between 2005-2016. Stanford HIV Sequence Database was used for interpretation of resistance data. Patient-level data were extracted from the national AIDS health information system...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Jace D Pierce, Kelly R Ylitalo, Beth A Lanning, Christine C Limbers
BACKGROUND: Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are disproportionally affected by HIV and exhibit low levels of HIV testing. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between sex education and subsequent HIV testing among YMSM. METHODS: Data from sexually active men aged 15-24 years at interview in the 2006-2010 or 2011-2015 National Survey of Family Growth. Sex education included three contexts (formal institutions [e.g., schools], parents, and healthcare providers) and specific topics...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Ryan K Dean, Rogin Subedi, Ashraya Karkee
Chylous ascites is an uncommon finding of triglyceride-rich lymph in the peritoneal cavity. There are a variety of reported etiologies for chylous ascites; however, the reporting of chylous ascites among AIDS/HIV-positive patients is quite uncommon. This finding as a complication of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome is even more unusual. Here we report a case of an HIV-positive man with a history of colonic Mycobacterium avium complex who developed chylous ascites in the setting of increasing CD4 counts and decreasing viral load, suggestive of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome...
July 2018: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
Daniel J Ruzicka, Kentaro Imai, Kenichi Takahashi, Toshio Naito
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of chronic comorbidities and the use of comedications in people living with HIV (PLWH) and on antiretrovirals in Japan, by using a hospital claims database. DESIGN: Observational, retrospective, cross-sectional study. SETTING: A hospital claims database of Japanese hospitals that have advanced medical treatment capabilities (ie, advanced treatment hospitals, general hospitals, acute care hospitals), which include those providing acute and chronic care (excluding nursing homes or hospices)...
June 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Débora Alves Guariglia, Rafael Evangelista Pedro, Rafael Deminice, Flávia Troncon Rosa, Sidney Barnabé Peres, Solange Marta Franzói De Moraes
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to conduct a randomized clinical trial to assess the effects of 16 weeks of combined training on body composition, lipid profile, adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and leptin levels in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). METHODS: Fifty-eight HIV-infected individuals were randomized into a training group (T) or a control group (C). Combined training consisted of aerobic and resistance exercises performed at the same training session, applied at a frequency of three times a week for a total of 16 weeks...
June 11, 2018: Cytokine
Ilaria Scurci, Elsa Martins, Oliver Hartley
Because of the level of attention it received due to its role as the principal HIV coreceptor, CCR5 has been described as a 'celebrity' chemokine receptor. Here we describe the development of CCR5 inhibitory strategies that have been developed for HIV therapy and which are now additionally being considered for use in HIV prevention and cure. The wealth of CCR5-related tools that have been developed during the intensive investigation of CCR5 as an HIV drug target can now be turned towards the study of CCR5 as a model chemokine receptor...
September 2018: Cytokine
Zhen Li, Jamie P Morano, Kaveh Khoshnood, Evelyn Hsieh, Yu Sheng
BACKGROUND: HIV-related stigma among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) has been associated with many negative consequences, including poor adherence to therapy and undue psychological stress. However, the relative influence of specific demographic and situational factors contributing to HIV-related stigma among rural PLWHA in central China remains unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the level of HIV-related stigma among rural PLWHA across specific demographic and situational factors in central China...
June 15, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Xiaomei Dong, Jianwei Yang, Lin Peng, Minhui Pang, Jiayi Zhang, Zhan Zhang, Jiaming Rao, Haiqing Wang, Xiongfei Chen
BACKGROUND: HIV-related discrimination amongst healthcare providers is one of the strongest obstacles to effectively responding to HIV. This study was conducted to explore the occurrence of and other factors related to discrimination against people living with HIV/AIDS amongst healthcare providers in Guangzhou, China. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study, conducted between July and October 2016, that enrolled healthcare providers from 9 healthcare institutions in Guangzhou, China...
June 15, 2018: BMC Public Health
DongYan Xia, Xia Feng, XiaoXia He, GuoWu Liu, Yi Lyu, Huanyi Cheng, Yan Jiang, HongYan Lu
A large proportion of people who are HIV positive do not know their serostatus because facility-based provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling, and voluntary counseling and testing, have not been efficiently implemented in China. Therefore, a new HIV testing strategy must be developed to improve testing services so that more HIV infections can be detected earlier. In this study, we established an anonymous internet-aided urine-based HIV testing service for men who have sex with men (MSM) from 1 April 2016 to 20 January 2017...
June 14, 2018: AIDS Care
Duncan MacKellar, Daniel Williams, Bonsile Bhembe, Makhosazana Dlamini, Johnita Byrd, Lenhle Dube, Sikhathele Mazibuko, Trong Ao, Ishani Pathmanathan, Andrew F Auld, Pamela Faura, Nomthandazo Lukhele, Caroline Ryan
To achieve epidemic control of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, sub-Saharan African countries are striving to diagnose 90% of HIV infections, initiate and retain 90% of HIV-diagnosed persons on antiretroviral therapy (ART), and achieve viral load suppression* for 90% of ART recipients (90-90-90) (1). In Eswatini (formerly Swaziland), the country with the world's highest estimated HIV prevalence (27.2%), achieving 90-90-90 depends upon improving access to early ART for men and young adults with HIV infection, two groups with low ART coverage (1-3)...
June 15, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
A Provoost, M Dramé, L Cotte, L Cuzin, R Garraffo, D Rey, F Raffi, I Poizot-Martin, P Pugliese, F Bani-Sadr
BACKGROUND: Both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections have been reportedly associated with a higher risk of diabetes mellitus (DM) but results are conflicting. AIMS: To determine whether there is an association between chronic HCV and the incidence of DM, and to study the role of factors such as cirrhosis, IFN-based HCV therapy, sustained virologic response (SVR) and chronic HBV infection among patients living with HIV (PLHIV) followed in a large French multicentre cohort in the combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) era...
June 14, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Angela M Bengtson, Brian W Pence, Matthew J Mimiaga, Bradley N Gaynes, Richard Moore, Katerina Christopoulos, Conall O'Cleirigh, David Grelotti, Sonia Napravnik, Heidi Crane, Michael Mugavero
Background: The effect of depressive symptoms over time on progression through the HIV treatment cascade is complex and poorly characterized. Methods: We included participants from the Centers for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinic Systems Cohort who were ART-naïve, had at least one viral load and HIV appointment measure after ART initiation, and had a depressive symptom measure within 6 months of ART initiation. Recent depressive symptoms were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and categorized using a validated cut-point (PHQ-9 > 10)...
June 12, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Angie Pinto, Patricia Grey, Ansari Shaik, David A Cooper, Anthony D Kelleher, Kathy Petoumenos
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to understand factors associated with increased mortality in a cohort of primary HIV infection (PHI) in New South Wales over three decades. METHODS: 602 patients with PHI were enrolled from 1984 to 2009. Probabilistic data linkage was performed to NSW Registry of births deaths and marriages, and Australian Bureau of Statistics mortality database. Mortality was measured by crude death rate. Pre highly active antiretroviral therapy (pre-HAART) era was defined as prior to 1 January 1997...
June 14, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Jennifer Beard, Anne Skalicky, Busisiwe Nkosi, Tom Zhuwau, Mandisa Cakwe, Jonathon Simon, Mary Bachman DeSilva
The Amajuba Child Health and Wellbeing Research Project measured the impact of orphaning due to HIV/AIDS on South African households between 2004 and 2007. Community engagement was a central component of the project and extended through 2010. We describe researcher engagement with the community to recruit participants, build local buy-in, stimulate interest in study findings, and promote integration of government social welfare services for families and children affected by HIV/AIDS. This narrative documents the experience of researchers, drawing also on project reports, public documents, and published articles, with the objective of documenting lessons learned in this collaboration between researchers from two universities and a community in South Africa during a period that spanned seven years...
June 1, 2018: Global Health Promotion
Amy L Slogrove, Renaud Becquet, Ellen G Chadwick, Hélène C F Côté, Shaffiq Essajee, Rohan Hazra, Valériane Leroy, Mary Mahy, Maurine Murenga, Jacqueline Wambui Mwangi, Laura Oyiengo, Nigel Rollins, Martina Penazzato, George R Seage, Lena Serghides, Marissa Vicari, Kathleen M Powis
Great gains were achieved with the introduction of the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals, including improved child survival. Transition to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) focused on surviving, thriving, and transforming, representing an important shift to a broader public health goal, the achievement of which holds the promise of longer-term individual and societal benefits. A similar shift is needed with respect to outcomes for infants born to women living with HIV (WLHIV). Programming to prevent vertical HIV transmission has been successful in increasingly achieving a goal of HIV-free survival for infants born to WLHIV...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Barbara Kabai Burmen, Joseph Mogunde, Pamela Olilo
Background: Postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) with antiretroviral therapy (ART) and vaccination against hepatitis B virus (HBV) aides in preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and HBV, respectively, from accidental or occupational exposure. We assessed compliance to guidelines for HIV and HBV prevention after occupational exposure among hospital staff at a referral Kenyan hospital. Methods: We reviewed PEP registers for hospital staff reporting an occupational injury at a referral hospital in Western Kenya between January 2011 and December 2012...
2018: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
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