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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774544/functional-molecules-in-mesothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-revealed-by-transcriptome-analyses
#1
Sara Namvar, Adrian S Woolf, Leo A H Zeef, Thomas Wilm, Bettina Wilm, Sarah E Herrick
Peritoneal fibrosis is a common complication of abdominal and pelvic surgery, and can also be triggered by peritoneal dialysis, resulting in treatment failure. In these settings, fibrosis is driven by activated myofibroblasts that are considered to be partly derived by mesothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (MMT). We hypothesised that if the molecular signature of MMT could be better defined, these insights could be exploited to block this pathological cellular transition. Rat peritoneal mesothelial cells were purified, using an antibody to HBME1, a protein present on mesothelial cell microvilli, and streptavidin nanobead technology...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760215/specific-binding-to-differentially-expressed-human-ceacams-determines-the-outcome-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-infections-along-the-female-reproductive-tract
#2
Epshita A Islam, Varun C Anipindi, Ian Francis, Yazdan Shaik-Dasthagirisaheb, Stacey Xu, Nelly Leung, Anna Sintsova, Mohsen Amin, Charu Kaushic, Lee M Wetzler, Scott D Gray-Owen
The gonococcal Opa proteins are an antigenically variable family of surface adhesins that bind human CEACAM1, CEACAM3, CEACAM5 and/or CEACAM6, cell surface glycoproteins that are differentially expressed on a broad spectrum of human cells and tissues. While presumed to be important for infection, the significance of various Opa-CEACAM mediated cellular interactions in the context of the genital tract has remained unclear. Here, we observe that CEACAM1 and CEACAM5 are differentially expressed on epithelia lining the upper and lower portions of the human female genital tract, respectively...
May 14, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730432/a-case-of-unusual-clitoromegaly
#3
Tong Wooi Ch'ng, Vatcharapan Umpaichitra
BACKGROUND: Mild degree of clitoromegaly can be associated with patient with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). We describe an unusually significant clitoromegaly in a patient with PCOS. CLINICAL CASE: An 18-year old non-obese female referred for clitoromegaly. Her genitalia exam showed significant clitoral enlargement with a well-formed glans, clitoris measured at 35 mm for length and 10 mm for width. Pelvic ultrasound showed left ovarian cyst. Testosterone level ranged from 28...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706284/ulipristal-acetate-for-the-management-of-large-uterine-fibroids-associated-with-heavy-bleeding-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Jacques Donnez, Guillaume E Courtoy, Olivier Donnez, Marie-Madeleine Dolmans
Ulipristal acetate (UPA), a selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRM), offers new therapeutic options for the clinical management of large uterine fibroids associated with heavy menstrual bleeding or with other moderate or severe symptoms (bulk symptoms, pelvic pain, decreased quality of life). SPRM are synthetic compounds that exert an agonist or antagonist effect on target tissues by their binding to progesterone receptors. UPA reduces fibroid size, controls bleeding in a high percentage of women and significantly improves quality of life...
April 21, 2018: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483122/aminomethyl-spectinomycins-as-therapeutics-for-drug-resistant-gonorrhea-and-chlamydia-coinfections
#5
Michelle M Butler, Samanthi L Waidyarachchi, Kristie L Connolly, Ann E Jerse, Weirui Chai, Richard E Lee, Stephan A Kohlhoff, Dean L Shinabarger, Terry L Bowlin
Bacterial sexually transmitted infections are widespread and common, with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrhea) and Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) being the two most frequent causes. If left untreated, both infections can cause pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and other sequelae. The recommended treatment for gonorrhea is ceftriaxone plus azithromycin (to empirically treat chlamydial coinfections). Antibiotic resistance to all existing therapies has developed in gonorrheal infections...
May 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250192/creb5-promotes-tumor-cell-invasion-and-correlates-with-poor-prognosis-in-epithelial-ovarian-cancer
#6
Shanyang He, Yalan Deng, Yanbin Liao, Xiaojin Li, Jun Liu, Shuzhong Yao
CAMP responsive element binding protein 5 (CREB5) has crucial roles in regulating cell growth, proliferation, differentiation and cell cycle regulation. CREB5 has been identified to be overexpressed in several types of human cancer. However, the expression characteristics of CREB5 in epithelial ovarian cancer remains unknown, and its potential clinical prognostic significance has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blot analysis were performed to detect CREB5 mRNA and protein expression levels in 10 fresh tissue and cell lines epithelial ovarian cancer...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212232/the-effects-of-fk1706-on-nerve-regeneration-and-bladder-function-recovery-following-an-end-to-side-neurorrhaphy-in-rats
#7
Wansheng Gao, Xiangfei He, Yunlong Li, Jianguo Wen
Background: Immunophilin ligands are neuroregenerative agents binding to FK506 binding proteins, by which stimulate recovery of neurons in a variety of injury nerves. FK1706 is a novel immunophilin ligand which has neuroprotective and neuroregenerative effects but without immunosuppressive activity. At present, most reports about FK1706 in ameliorating nerve injury and functional recovery are limited to cavernous nerve injury and erectile function recovery. This study aimed to demonstrate the effects of FK1706 on nerve regeneration and bladder function recovery following an end-to-side neurorrhaphy in rat models...
November 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181097/stomatin-like-protein-2-is-overexpressed-in-cervical-cancer-and-involved-in-tumor-cell-apoptosis
#8
Huan Deng, Yongjian Deng, Feiye Liu, Jie Chen, Zheng Li, Kelei Zhao, Xiaoqian Guan, Weijiang Liang
Stomatin-like protein 2 (SLP-2) is overexpressed in numerous types of human cancer and previous studies revealed that SLP-2 may function in mitochondria. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the expression of SLP-2 in cervical cancer and the association between SLP-2 expression and clinical features, in addition to investigating the role of SLP-2 in the apoptosis of cervical cancer cells. The expression profile of SLP-2 was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and immunohistochemical staining...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109775/the-bidirectional-regulation-between-myl5-and-hif-1%C3%AE-promotes-cervical-carcinoma-metastasis
#9
Lan Zhang, Shu-Ting Huang, Yan-Ling Feng, Ting Wan, Hai-Feng Gu, Jing Xu, Lin-Jing Yuan, Yun Zhou, Xing-Juan Yu, Long Huang, Rong-Zhen Luo, Wei-Hua Jia, Min Zheng
Myosin light chains (MLC) serve important regulatory functions in a wide range of cellular and physiological processes. Recent research found that MLC are also chromatin-associated nuclear proteins which regulate gene transcription. In this study, the MLC member myosin regulatory light chain 5 (MYL5) expression was upregulated in late stage cervical cancer patients, positively correlated with pelvic lymph node metastasis, and identified as a poor survival indicator. MYL5 overexpression promoted metastasis in cervical cancer in vitro and in vivo models, whereas MYL5 silencing had the converse effect...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104741/lymph-node-imaging-in-initial-staging-of-prostate-cancer-an-overview-and-update
#10
REVIEW
Jessica G Zarzour, Sam Galgano, Jonathan McConathy, John V Thomas, Soroush Rais-Bahrami
Accurate nodal staging at the time of diagnosis of prostate cancer is crucial in determining a treatment plan for the patient. Pelvic lymph node dissection is the most reliable method, but is less than perfect and has increased morbidity. Cross sectional imaging with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are non-invasive tools that rely on morphologic characteristics such as shape and size of the lymph nodes. However, lymph nodes harboring metastatic disease may be normal sized and non-metastatic lymph nodes may be enlarged due to reactive hyperplasia...
October 28, 2017: World Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099111/subtle-metabolic-alterations-in-adolescents-with-obesity-and-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome
#11
Víctor Saúl Vital-Reyes, Mardia Guadalupe Lopez-Alarcón, Patricia Inda-Icaza, Concepción Márquez-Maldonado
Objective: To evaluate the frequency of some subtle metabolic alterations in a group of adolescents with obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, comparative study was conducted in a group of adolescents with obesity, and characterized as with or without PCOS according with the Rotterdam Consensus. Medical history, anthropometry, gynecologic pelvic ultrasound (to evaluate ovarian volumes, number of antral follicles and endometrial width), as well as serum glucose, insulin, lipoproteins, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, total testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, sexual hormones binding globulin, leptin, adiponectin and insulin-like growth factor 1, the free-androgen index, free and available testosterone, and homeostatic model assessment index were calculated...
2017: Gaceta Médica de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910465/combat-trousers-as-effective-improvised-pelvic-binders-a-comparative-cadaveric-study
#12
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Andrew Loftus, Rhys Morris, Yasmin Friedmann, Ian Pallister, Paul Parker
BACKGROUND: Improvised explosive devices and landmines can cause pelvic fractures, which, in turn, can produce catastrophic hemorrhage. This cadaveric study compared the intrapelvic pressure changes that occurred with the application of an improvised pelvic binder adapted from the combat trousers worn by British military personnel with the commercially available trauma pelvic orthotic device (TPOD). METHODS: Six unembalmed cadavers (three male, three female) were used to simulate an unstable pelvic fracture with complete disruption of the posterior arch (AO/OTA 61-C1) by dividing the pelvic ring anteriorly and posteriorly...
December 0: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791464/a-computed-tomographic-anatomical-study-of-the-upper-sacrum-application-for-a-user-guide-of-pelvic-fixation-with-iliosacral-screws-in-adult-spinal-deformity
#13
Arnaud Dubory, Houssam Bouloussa, Guillaume Riouallon, Stéphane Wolff
PURPOSE: Widely used in traumatic pelvic ring fractures, the iliosacral (IS) screw technique for spino-pelvic fixation remains anecdotal in adult spinal deformity. The objective of this study was to assess anatomical variability of the adult upper sacrum and to provide a user guide of spino-pelvic fixation with IS screws in adult spinal deformity. METHODS: Anatomical variability of the upper sacrum according to age, gender, height and weight was sought on 30 consecutive pelvic CT-scans...
December 2017: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782252/camp-dependent-post-translational-modification-of-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-neuroprotects-penile-erection-in-rats
#14
Serkan Karakus, Biljana Musicki, Justin D La Favor, Arthur L Burnett
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate neuronal nitric oxide (NO) synthase (nNOS) phosphorylation, nNOS uncoupling, and oxidative stress in the penis and major pelvic ganglia (MPG), before and after the administration of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) agonist colforsin in a rat model of bilateral cavernous nerve injury (BCNI),which mimics nerve injury after prostatectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into BCNI and sham-operated groups...
December 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624501/new-biomarkers-for-diagnosis-and-management-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#15
REVIEW
Sidika E Karakas
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder affecting young women. Even though the definition of PCOS has changed over the years, all diagnostic criteria include two or more of the following: oligomenorrhea/oligoovulation/anovulation, androgen excess and polycystic ovaries (PCO). Traditional method of assessing the ovarian morphology has been transvaginal pelvic ultrasound. Recent studies support that serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) levels correlate with the number of ovarian follicles and cysts...
August 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597496/elevated-anti-mullerian-hormone-in-lean-women-may-not-indicate-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome
#16
Rachel A Bradbury, Paul Lee, Howard C Smith
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder with clinical features shared with functional hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (FHH). AIM: To investigate the usefulness of an elevated (>40 pmol/L) anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) in identifying PCOS and distinguishing PCOS from FHH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 141 patients with an elevated AMH and body mass index either <20 kg/m(2) (lean) or >30 kg/m(2) (obese) were selected and three subgroups analysed - obese, lean, lean with suspected FHH...
October 2017: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587302/the-functions-of-microrna-200-family-in-ovarian-cancer-beyond-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#17
REVIEW
Pui-Wah Choi, Shu-Wing Ng
The majority of studies on microRNA-200 family members (miR-200s) in human cancers are based on the premise that miR-200s maintain epithelial cell integrity by suppressing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through direct inhibition of mesenchymal transcription factors zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1/2 (ZEB1/ZEB2) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), a potent inducer of EMT. Hence, downregulation of miR-200 in cancer cells promotes EMT and cancer metastasis. Yet, miR-200s are highly expressed in ovarian cancer, and ovarian cancer metastasizes primarily by dissemination within the pelvic cavity...
June 6, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575052/myogenic-differentiation-of-vcp-disease-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-a-novel-platform-for-drug-discovery
#18
Katrina J Llewellyn, Angèle Nalbandian, Lan N Weiss, Isabela Chang, Howard Yu, Bibo Khatib, Baichang Tan, Vanessa Scarfone, Virginia E Kimonis
Valosin Containing Protein (VCP) disease is an autosomal dominant multisystem proteinopathy caused by mutations in the VCP gene, and is primarily associated with progressive muscle weakness, including atrophy of the pelvic and shoulder girdle muscles. Currently, no treatments are available and cardiac and respiratory failures can lead to mortality at an early age. VCP is an AAA ATPase multifunction complex protein and mutations in the VCP gene resulting in disrupted autophagic clearance. Due to the rarity of the disease, the myopathic nature of the disorder, ethical and practical considerations, VCP disease muscle biopsies are difficult to obtain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384968/paraneoplastic-hypoglycaemia-a-rare-manifestation-of-pelvic-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumour
#19
Ashish Singhal, Rahat Hadi, Kiranpreet Mehrotra, Shivani Rastogi, Shakeel Masood
Non-Islet Cell Tumour Induced Hypoglycaemia (NICTH), presenting with recurrent fasting hypoglycaemia is a very rare paraneoplastic syndrome. It usually presents with large metastatic mesenchymal tumours. NICTH secondary to Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumour (GIST) is even rarer. Diagnosis of NICTH is based on the low serum insulin level, low serum concentrations of Insulin Like Growth Factor (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein- III (IGFBP-III) in combination with elevated concentrations of pro-IGF-II. Various Immunohistochemical (IHC) markers are integral to diagnosis of GIST namely 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate phosphatase -1(DOG-1), Cluster Differentiation 34 (CD 34), Cluster Differentiation 117 (CD117)...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340228/dual-immunostain-with-satb2-and-ck20-differentiates-appendiceal-mucinous-neoplasms-from-ovarian-mucinous-neoplasms
#20
Zaibo Li, Rachel Roth, Jonathan B Rock, Amy Lehman, William L Marsh, Adrian Suarez, Wendy L Frankel
Objectives: Determination of the primary site of origin for mucinous neoplasms identified in the peritoneal and/or pelvic cavities may be challenging, with major differential diagnoses including appendiceal mucinous neoplasm (AMN) and ovarian mucinous neoplasm (OMN). Special AT-rich sequence binding protein 2 (SATB2) has been shown to be highly selectively expressed in the lower gastrointestinal tract, including the appendix. Methods: We investigated the utility of a dual stain (DS) with SATB2 or caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX2) and cytokeratin 20 (CK20) or villin in distinguishing AMNs from OMNs...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
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