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Sarah R Dennison, Frederick Harris, Manuela Mura, David A Phoenix
Anionic antimicrobial peptides (AAMPs) with net charges ranging from -1 to -8 have been identified in frogs, toads, newts and salamanders across Africa, South America and China. Most of these peptides show antibacterial activity and a number of them are multifunctional, variously showing antifungal activity, anticancer action, neuropeptide function and the ability to potentiate conventional antibiotics. Antimicrobial mechanisms proposed for these AAMPs, include toroidal pore formation and the Shai-Huang-Matsazuki model of membrane interaction along with pH dependent amyloidogenesis and membranolysis via tilted peptide formation...
February 26, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Xue Cai, Ines Seitl, Wanmeng Mu, Tao Zhang, Timo Stressler, Lutz Fischer, Bo Jiang
Trehalose (α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 1)-α-D-glucopyranoside) is a non-reducing disaccharide composed of two glucose molecules linked by an α,α-1,1-glycosidic bond. It possesses physicochemical properties, which account for its biological roles in a variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms and invertebrates. Intensive studies of trehalose gradually uncovered its functions, and its applications in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals have increased every year. Currently, trehalose is industrially produced by the two-enzyme method, which was first developed in 1995 using maltooligosyltrehalose synthase (EC 5...
February 19, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Fehmida Bibi, Gary A Strobel, Muhammad I Naseer, Muhammad Yasir, Ahmed A Khalaf Al-Ghamdi, Esam I Azhar
Halophytes are associated with the intertidal forest ecosystem of Saudi Arabia and seemingly have an immense potential for yielding useful and important natural products. In this study we have aimed to isolate and characterize the endophytic and rhizospheric bacterial communities from the halophyte, Salsola imbricata , In addition these bacterial strains were identified and selected strains were further studied for bioactive secondary metabolites. At least 168 rhizspheric and endophytic bacteria were isolated and of these 22 were active antagonists against the oomycetous fungal plant pathogens, Phytophthora capsici and Pythium ultimum ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Christina Meinert, Marc Schürmann, Jan-Eike Domeyer, Anja Poehlein, Rolf Daniel, Alexander Steinbüchel
3,3'-Thiodipropionic acid (TDP) is used as an additive in food and cosmetic industry and as precursor substrate for biotechnical polythioester production. Its catabolism was investigated in Variovorax paradoxus TBEA6 previous to this study. It was reported that the insertion of the transposon Tn5::mob into a gene showing high homology to flavin-dependent oxidoreductases (fox) resulted in impaired growth with TDP. Therefore, it was assumed that the initial cleavage of TDP is catalyzed by an FAD-dependent oxidoreductase (Fox, VPARA_05580)...
January 17, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Agnès Condat, Nicolas Mendes, Véronique Drouineaud, Nouria Gründler, Chrystelle Lagrange, Colette Chiland, Jean-Philippe Wolf, François Ansermet, David Cohen
Today, thanks to biomedical technologies advances, some persons with fertility issues can conceive. Transgender persons benefit also from these advances and can not only actualize their self-identified sexual identities but also experience parenthood. Based on clinical multidisciplinary seminars that gathered child psychiatrists and psychoanalysts interested in the fields of assisted reproduction technology (ART) and gender dysphoria, philosophers interested in bioethics, biologists interested in ART, and endocrinologists interested in pubertal suppression, we explore how new biotechnical advances, whether in gender transition or procreation, could create new ways to conceive a child possible...
January 17, 2018: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
Patricia Schwerdtle, Coretta-Kings Onekon, Katrina Recoche
Introduction The efficacy of oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) in laboratory conditions has been established, and the World Health Organization (WHO; Geneva, Switzerland) has recommended their preventative use in high-risk settings. The WHO recommendation has not been fully operationalized, nor has it been extended to apply to the reactive use of OCVs in real field epidemic conditions due to concerns about potential resource diversion, feasibility, cost, and acceptability. The purpose of this study is to assess and synthesize existing evidence of OCV effectiveness when used reactively in real field conditions...
January 10, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Lei Hu, Bin Zhao, Songlin Wang
Stem cell therapy is a promising method for the treatment of patients with a wide range of diseases and injuries. With increasing government funds for scientific research in China, stem cell research in China has developed rapidly. The number and quality of publications have increased substantially in the past 5 years. Extensive, high-quality studies have been performed in China in the areas of cell reprograming, stem cell homeostasis, gene modifications, and immunomodulation. Translation studies, including basic and preclinical investigations, have also increased...
December 28, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
Matthias Raberg, Elena Volodina, Kaichien Lin, Alexander Steinbüchel
Ralstonia eutropha strain H16 is a Gram-negative non-pathogenic betaproteobacterium ubiquitously found in soils and has been the subject of intensive research for more than 50 years. Due to its remarkable metabolically versatility, it utilizes a broad range of renewable heterotrophic resources. The substrate utilization range can be further extended by metabolic engineering as genetic tools are available. It has become the best studied "Knallgas" bacterium capable of chemolithoautotrophic growth with hydrogen as the electron donor and carbon dioxide as the carbon source...
December 12, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Silvia Boschi Bazan, Barbara Walch-Rückheim, Manfred J Schmitt, Frank Breinig
Activated dendritic cells (DC) induce and polarize T-cell responses by expression of distinct maturation markers and cytokines. This study systematically investigated the capacity of different biotechnically relevant yeast species and strains including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Kluyveromyces lactis, Pichia pastoris, Hansenula polymorpha, Yarrowia lipolytica, and Candida glabrata to initiate maturation of human DC. As important prerequisite for T-cell activation, all yeasts were shown to effectively induce, though to a different extent, the expression of the activation marker CD83, the co-stimulatory molecules CD80, CD86, CD54, CD58, and CD40, as well as the antigen-presenting molecules MHCs I and II...
November 21, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Marie C Lemfack, Bjoern-Oliver Gohlke, Serge M T Toguem, Saskia Preissner, Birgit Piechulla, Robert Preissner
Metabolic capabilities of microorganisms include the production of secondary metabolites (e.g. antibiotics). The analysis of microbial volatile organic compounds (mVOCs) is an emerging research field with huge impact on medical, agricultural and biotechnical applied and basic science. The mVOC database (v1) has grown with microbiome research and integrated species information with data on emitted volatiles. Here, we present the mVOC 2.0 database with about 2000 compounds from almost 1000 species and new features to work with the database...
November 2, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
Daniel Heinrich, Matthias Raberg, Alexander Steinbüchel
The biotechnical platform strain Ralstonia eutropha H16 was genetically engineered to express a cox subcluster of the carboxydotrophic Oligotropha carboxidovoransOM5, including (i) the structural genes coxM, -S and -L, coding for an aerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) and (ii) the genes coxD, -E, -F and -G, essential for the maturation of CODH. The coxOc genes expressed under control of the CO2 -inducible promoter PL enabled R. eutropha to oxidize CO to CO2 for the use as carbon source, as demonstrated by (13) CO experiments, but the recombinant strains remained dependent on H2 as external energy supply...
October 13, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Yaman Musdal, Sridhar Govindarajan, Bengt Mannervik
Exploring the vicinity around a locus of a protein in sequence space may identify homologs with enhanced properties, which could become valuable in biotechnical and other applications. A rational approach to this pursuit is the use of 'infologs', i.e. synthetic sequences with specific substitutions capturing maximal sequence information derived from the evolutionary history of the protein family. Ninety-five such infolog genes of poplar glutathione transferase were synthesized and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the catalytic activities of the proteins determined with alternative substrates...
August 1, 2017: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
Wenwen Yu, Wei Zou, Sushil Dhital, Peng Wu, Michael J Gidley, Glen P Fox, Robert G Gilbert
The conversion of barley starch to sugars is a complex enzymic process. Most previous work concerned the biotechnical aspect of in situ barley enzymes. However, the interactions among the macromolecular substrates and their effects on enzymic catalysis has been little examined. Here, we explore the mechanisms whereby interactions of protein and starch in barley flour affect the kinetics of enzymatic hydrolysis of starch in an in vitro system, using digestion rate data and structural analysis by confocal microscopy...
February 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Giulia Tedeschi, Marco Mangiagalli, Sara Chmielewska, Marina Lotti, Antonino Natalello, Stefania Brocca
Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) possess a peculiar amino acid composition that makes them very soluble. Nevertheless, they can encounter aggregation in physiological and pathological contexts. In this work, we addressed the issue of how electrostatic charges can influence aggregation propensity by using the N-terminus moiety of the measles virus phosphoprotein, PNT, as a model IDP. Taking advantage of the high sequence designability of IDPs, we have produced an array of PNT variants sharing the same hydrophobicity, but differing in net charges per residue and isoelectric points (pI)...
November 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Alequis Pavón, Paz Orellana, Lorena Salazar, Sandra Céspedes, Laura Muiño, Ana Gutiérrez, Daniel Castillo, Gino Corsini
We present here the draft genome sequence of Bacillus sp. strain K2I17, which was isolated from the rhizosphere of Deschampsia antarctica Desv. The genomic sequence contained 6,113,341 bp. This genome provides insights into the possible new biomedical and biotechnical applications of this specific Antarctic bacterium.
August 17, 2017: Genome Announcements
Robert L Allison
INTRODUCTION: The increase in obesity rates in the U.S. and other less developed industrial countries have led to a worldwide epidemic of chronic disease states. Increased obesity rates are implicated in the treatment failures for illnesses such as coronary artery disease, diabetes, heart failure, hypertension and cancer. Effective prevention of obesity through diet and exercise contributes to the successful medical management of multiple chronic disease states. OBJECTIVE: Review the last 10 years of literature (2006-2016) on the effects of diet and exercise as they relate to the prevention of chronic disease...
2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
Chelsea Cormier McSwiggin
In the United States, HIV is rendered a chronic condition, and viral transmission is minimized through strict adherence to pharmaceutical treatment. Treatment reduces viral loads to untraceable levels in the blood, a status known as "undetectable," as determined by laboratory testing. For Haitians living with HIV in South Florida, "undetectable" has become more than a viral status; it is a means to know and govern themselves as moral actors and to survey and stigmatize others who remain "detectable...
November 2017: Medical Anthropology
Himel N Khaleque, Joshua P Ramsay, Riley J T Murphy, Anna H Kaksonen, Naomi J Boxall, Elizabeth L J Watkin
The use of halotolerant acidophiles for bioleaching provides a biotechnical approach for the extraction of metals from regions where high salinity exists in the ores and source water. Here, we describe the first draft genome of a new species of a halotolerant and iron- and sulfur-oxidizing acidophile, Acidihalobacter ferrooxidans DSM 14175 (strain V8).
May 25, 2017: Genome Announcements
Xinping Lin, Sasa Liu, Ruiqi Bao, Ning Gao, Sufang Zhang, Rongqian Zhu, Zongbao Kent Zhao
Oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi, a promising strain of great biotechnical importance, is able to accumulate over 60% of its cell biomass as triacylglycerols (TAGs). It is promising to directly produce the derivatives of TAGs, such as long-chain fatty acid methyl esters and alkanes, in L. starkeyi. However, techniques for genetic modification of this oleaginous yeast are lacking, thus, further research is needed to develop genetic tools and functional elements. Here, we used two exogenous promoters (pGPD and pPGK) from oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides to establish a simpler Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (AMT) method for L...
November 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Hanne Wikberg, Stina Grönqvist, Piritta Niemi, Atte Mikkelson, Matti Siika-Aho, Heimo Kanerva, Andres Käsper, Tarja Tamminen
The suitability of several abundant but underutilized agro and forest based biomass residues for hydrothermal treatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis as well as for hydrothermal carbonization was studied. The selected approaches represent simple biotechnical and thermochemical treatment routes suitable for wet biomass. Based on the results, the hydrothermal pre-treatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis seemed to be most suitable for processing of carbohydrate rich corn leaves, corn stover, wheat straw and willow...
July 2017: Bioresource Technology
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