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Clemens Kunz, Christina Meyer, Maria Carmen Collado, Lena Geiger, Izaskun García-Mantrana, Bibiana Bertua-Ríos, Cecilia Martínez-Costa, Christian Borsch, Silvia Rudloff
OBJECTIVES: Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are considered to play an important role for the infant. As the biotechnical production of some HMOs is feasible today and clinical studies are being designed, the individual variation of the total amount of HMOs and of single components is of particular importance. Our objectives were to investigate whether differences exist between (i) term and preterm milk, (ii) milk from mothers with secretor or non-secretor status and (iii) a Lewis-blood group (a+b-), (a-b+) or (a-b-) pattern...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Anu Paul, Sudhir Babji, Rajiv Sarkar, Robin Penugula Lazarus, Gagandeep Kang
OBJECTIVE: To compare serum, salivary and fecal IgA responses in infants and adults following rotavirus vaccination. STUDY DESIGN: Laboratory testing of samples from clinical trials. SETTING: Medical College Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: 13 healthy adult volunteers not given vaccine, 20 healthy adult volunteers given one dose of bovine rotavirus tetravalent vaccine (Shantha Biotechnics), and 88 infants given 3 or 5 doses of Rotarix...
July 8, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
Shi-Lin Chen, Hua Yu, Hong-Mei Luo, Qiong Wu, Chun-Fang Li, André Steinmetz
Medicinal plants are globally valuable sources of herbal products, and they are disappearing at a high speed. This article reviews global trends, developments and prospects for the strategies and methodologies concerning the conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plant resources to provide a reliable reference for the conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants. We emphasized that both conservation strategies (e.g. in situ and ex situ conservation and cultivation practices) and resource management (e...
2016: Chinese Medicine
Murat Kaya, Bahar Akyuz, Esra Bulut, Idris Sargin, Fatma Eroglu, Gamze Tan
Drosophila melanogaster is one of the important test organisms in genetics thanks to its fast growth rate in a culture. This study demonstrates that the fly D. melanogaster can also be exploited as a source for nanofiber production in biotechnical applications. First, its chitin content was determined (7.85%) and then high molecular weight chitosan (141.4kDa) was synthesized through deacetylation of chitin isolates. Chitosan nanofibers with the diameter of 40.0073±12.347nm were produced by electrospinning of Drosophila chitosan...
July 5, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Sarah R Dennison, Leslie Hg Morton, Frederick Harris, David A Phoenix
Maximin H5 (MH5) is an amphibian antimicrobial peptide specifically targeting Staphylococcus aureus. At pH 6, the peptide showed an improved ability to penetrate (ΔΠ = 6.2 mN m(-1)) and lyse (lysis = 48%) Staphylococcus aureus membrane mimics, which incorporated physiological levels of lysylated phosphatidylglycerol (Lys-PG, 60%), compared to that at pH 7 (ΔΠ = 5.6 mN m(-1) and lysis = 40% at pH 7) where levels of Lys-PG are lower (40%). The peptide therefore appears to have optimal function at pH levels known to be optimal for the organism's growth...
July 12, 2016: Biochemistry
Seongtae Bae, Jin Wook Jeoung, Minhong Jeun, Jung-Tak Jang, Joo Hyun Park, Yu Jeong Kim, Kwan Lee, Minkyu Kim, Jooyoung Lee, Hey Min Hwang, Sun Ha Paek, Ki Ho Park
Magnetically softened iron oxide (MSIO) nanofluid, PEGylated (Mn0.5Zn0.5)Fe2O4, was successfully developed for local induction of heat shock proteins (HSPs) 72 in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) for ocular neuroprotection. The MSIO nanofluid showed significantly enhanced alternating current (AC) magnetic heat induction characteristics including exceptionally high SLP (Specific Loss Power, > 2000 W/g). This phenomenon was resulted from the dramatically improved AC magnetic softness of MSIO caused by the magnetically tailored Mn(2+) and Zn(2+) distributions in Fe3O4...
September 2016: Biomaterials
Heiko Babel, Ilka B Bischofs
BACKGROUND: Rap proteins from Bacilli directly target response regulators of bacterial two-component systems and modulate their activity. Their effects are controlled by binding of signaling peptides to an allosteric site. Hence Raps exemplify a class of monomeric signaling receptors, which we call switchable allosteric modulator proteins (SAMPs). These proteins have potential applications in diverse biomedical and biotechnical settings, but a quantitative understanding of the impact of molecular and cellular factors on signal transduction is lacking...
2016: BMC Systems Biology
Sonia Ganassi, Pasqualina Grazioso, Antonio De Cristofaro, Fabio Fiorentini, Maria Agnese Sabatini, Antonio Evidente, Claudio Altomare
In this study we report the effects of fungal metabolites isolated from cultures of the fungus Trichoderma citrinoviride ITEM 4484 on the feeding preference of the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi, a major pest of cereal crops. Different phagodeterrent metabolites were purified by a combination of direct and reverse phase column chromatography and thin-layer chromatography. Chemical investigations, by spectroscopic and chemical methods, led to the identification of different long chain primary alcohols (LCOHs) of the general formula R-OH, wherein R is a long, unbranched, unsubstituted, linear aliphatic group...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Lee H Bergstrand, Erick Cardenas, Johannes Holert, Jonathan D Van Hamme, William W Mohn
UNLABELLED: Steroids are ubiquitous in natural environments and are a significant growth substrate for microorganisms. Microbial steroid metabolism is also important for some pathogens and for biotechnical applications. This study delineated the distribution of aerobic steroid catabolism pathways among over 8,000 microorganisms whose genomes are available in the NCBI RefSeq database. Combined analysis of bacterial, archaeal, and fungal genomes with both hidden Markov models and reciprocal BLAST identified 265 putative steroid degraders within only Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, which mainly originated from soil, eukaryotic host, and aquatic environments...
2016: MBio
Eduardo M Razza, Rafael A Satrapa, Isabele P Emanuelli, Ciro M Barros, Marcelo F G Nogueira
The aggregation of a tetraploid zebu embryo (Bos indicus, a thermotolerant breed) with a diploid taurine embryo (Bos taurus, a thermosensitive breed) should create a complete taurine fetus, whose extra-embryonic components, e.g., the chorion, is derived mainly from the zebu embryo. These zebu-derived extra-embryonic components may interact positively with the taurine embryo/fetus during pregnancy in a tropical environment. We tested different parameters for the production of tetraploid Nelore (Bos indicus) embryos to be combined via aggregation with crossbred Bos taurus (diploid) embryos in order to produce viable chimeric blastocysts...
March 2016: Reproductive Biology
Dong Xue, Guozhen Zhao, Qing Yao, Haiquan Zhao, Honghui Zhu
OBJECTIVE: To study the diversity of cultivable actinobacteria in Xinghu wetland and screen actinobacteria with a pharmaceutical potential for producing biologically active secondary metabolites. METHODS: We studied the diversity of actinobacteria isolated from Xinghu wetland by using different selective isolation media and methods. The high bioactive actinobacteria were identified and further investigated for the presence of polyketide synthases (PKS-I, PKS-II), nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS), 3-amino-5-hydroxybenzoic acid synthases (AHBA) and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A (HMG CoA) sequences by specific amplification...
November 4, 2015: Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao, Acta Microbiologica Sinica
Jeroen De Smet, Michael Zimmermann, Maria Kogadeeva, Pieter-Jan Ceyssens, Wesley Vermaelen, Bob Blasdel, Ho Bin Jang, Uwe Sauer, Rob Lavigne
Phage-mediated metabolic changes in bacteria are hypothesized to markedly alter global nutrient and biogeochemical cycles. Despite their theoretic importance, experimental data on the net metabolic impact of phage infection on the bacterial metabolism remains scarce. In this study, we tracked the dynamics of intracellular metabolites using untargeted high coverage metabolomics in Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells infected with lytic bacteriophages from six distinct phage genera. Analysis of the metabolomics data indicates an active interference in the host metabolism...
August 2016: ISME Journal
Matthias Suhr, Johannes Raff, Katrin Pollmann
In this publication the gold sorption behavior of surface layer (S-layer) proteins (Slp1) of Lysinibacillus sphaericus JG-B53 is described. These biomolecules arrange in paracrystalline two-dimensional arrays on surfaces, bind metals, and are thus interesting for several biotechnical applications, such as biosorptive materials for the removal or recovery of different elements from the environment and industrial processes. The deposition of Au(0) nanoparticles on S-layers, either by S-layer directed synthesis or adsorption of nanoparticles, opens new possibilities for diverse sensory applications...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Michael B Braun, Bjoern Traenkle, Philipp A Koch, Felix Emele, Frederik Weiss, Oliver Poetz, Thilo Stehle, Ulrich Rothbauer
Nanobodies are highly valuable tools for numerous bioanalytical and biotechnical applications. Here, we report the characterization of a nanobody that binds a short peptide epitope with extraordinary affinity. Structural analysis reveals an unusual binding mode where the extended peptide becomes part of a β-sheet structure in the nanobody. This interaction relies on sequence-independent backbone interactions augmented by a small number of specificity-determining side chain contacts. Once bound, the peptide is fastened by two nanobody side chains that clamp it in a headlock fashion...
2016: Scientific Reports
Yi Wang, Yan Wang, Aijing Ma, Dongxun Li, Lijuan Luo, Dongxin Liu, Shoukui Hu, Dong Jin, Kai Liu, Changyun Ye
Here, a novel model of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), termed multiple inner primers-LAMP (MIP-LAMP), was devised and successfully applied to detect Listeria monocytogenes. A set of 10 specific MIP-LAMP primers, which recognized 14 different regions of target gene, was designed to target a sequence in the hlyA gene. The MIP-LAMP assay efficiently amplified the target element within 35 min at 63 °C and was evaluated for sensitivity and specificity. The templates were specially amplified in the presence of the genomic DNA from L...
2015: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
P Wecker, X Moppert, C Simon-Colin, B Costa, V Berteaux-Lecellier
A library of microorganisms originating from various marine environments in French Polynesia was screened for polyhydroxyalkanoate producing bacteria. No significant connection was found between the geo-ecological source of bacteria and their ability to produce polyhydroxyalkanoate. A bacterial strain designated as Enterobacter FAK 1384 was isolated from a shark jaw. When grown on coprah oil, this bacterium produces a PHA constituting of 62 mol % 3-hydroxydecanoate and lower amount of 12 mol % 3-hydroxydodecenoate and of 7...
December 2015: AMB Express
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
Therese Burkhardt, Thomas Letzel, Jörg E Drewes, Johanna Grassmann
BACKGROUND: The detailed analysis of Cytochrome P450 (CYP) catalyzed reactions is of great interest, since those are of importance for biotechnical applications, drug interaction studies and environmental research. Often cocktail approaches are carried out in order to monitor several CYP activities in a single experiment. Commonly in these approaches product formation is detected and IC50 values are determined. METHODS: In the present work, the reactions of two different CYP isoforms were monitored using real-time electrospray ionization mass spectrometry...
December 2015: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Pengfei Liu, Yetong Feng, Yi Wang, Yulai Zhou, Lei Zhao
It has been well-known for many years now that vitamin E is an essential nutrient; however, some of the physiological functions of this vitamin are still far from being understood. In recent years, a series of preclinical and clinical studies proposed a protective role of vitamin E on acute kidney injury (AKI), which has a high morbidity rate and mortality rate in clinical investigations. Based on the benefits associated with vitamin E, such as strong antioxidant function, low toxicity, rare side-effects, and low cost, this therapy strategy has garnered an extensive amount of interest in the scientific community for the development of new therapy modes against AKI...
2015: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Nicolai Kallscheuer, Michael Bott, Jan van Ooyen, Tino Polen
Peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerases (PPIases) catalyze the rate-limiting protein folding step at peptidyl bonds preceding proline residues and were found to be involved in several biological processes, including gene expression, signal transduction, and protein secretion. Representative enzymes were found in almost all sequenced genomes, including Corynebacterium glutamicum, a facultative anaerobic Gram-positive and industrial workhorse for the production of amino acids. In C. glutamicum, a predicted single-domain FK-506 (tacrolimus) binding protein (FKBP)-type PPIase (FkpA) is encoded directly downstream of gltA, which encodes citrate synthase (CS)...
November 2015: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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