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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106611/mvoc-2-0-a-database-of-microbial-volatiles
#1
Marie C Lemfack, Bjoern-Oliver Gohlke, Serge M T Toguem, Saskia Preissner, Birgit Piechulla, Robert Preissner
Metabolic capabilities of microorganisms include the production of secondary metabolites (e.g. antibiotics). The analysis of microbial volatile organic compounds (mVOCs) is an emerging research field with huge impact on medical, agricultural and biotechnical applied and basic science. The mVOC database (v1) has grown with microbiome research and integrated species information with data on emitted volatiles. Here, we present the mVOC 2.0 database with about 2000 compounds from almost 1000 species and new features to work with the database...
November 2, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027357/studies-on-the-aerobic-utilization-of-synthesis-gas-syngas-by-wild-type-and-recombinant-strains-of-ralstonia-eutropha-h16
#2
Daniel Heinrich, Matthias Raberg, Alexander Steinbüchel
The biotechnical platform strain Ralstonia eutropha H16 was genetically engineered to express a cox subcluster of the carboxydotrophic Oligotropha carboxidovoransOM5, including (i) the structural genes coxM, -S and -L, coding for an aerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) and (ii) the genes coxD, -E, -F and -G, essential for the maturation of CODH. The coxOc genes expressed under control of the CO2 -inducible promoter PL enabled R. eutropha to oxidize CO to CO2 for the use as carbon source, as demonstrated by (13) CO experiments, but the recombinant strains remained dependent on H2 as external energy supply...
October 13, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967959/exploring-sequence-function-space-of-a-poplar-glutathione-transferase-using-designed-information-rich-gene-variants
#3
Yaman Musdal, Sridhar Govindarajan, Bengt Mannervik
Exploring the vicinity around a locus of a protein in sequence space may identify homologs with enhanced properties, which could become valuable in biotechnical and other applications. A rational approach to this pursuit is the use of 'infologs', i.e. synthetic sequences with specific substitutions capturing maximal sequence information derived from the evolutionary history of the protein family. Ninety-five such infolog genes of poplar glutathione transferase were synthesized and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the catalytic activities of the proteins determined with alternative substrates...
August 1, 2017: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958557/the-adsorption-of-%C3%AE-amylase-on-barley-proteins-affects-the-in-vitro-digestion-of-starch-in-barley-flour
#4
Wenwen Yu, Wei Zou, Sushil Dhital, Peng Wu, Michael J Gidley, Glen P Fox, Robert G Gilbert
The conversion of barley starch to sugars is a complex enzymic process. Most previous work concerned the biotechnical aspect of in situ barley enzymes. However, the interactions among the macromolecular substrates and their effects on enzymic catalysis has been little examined. Here, we explore the mechanisms whereby interactions of protein and starch in barley flour affect the kinetics of enzymatic hydrolysis of starch in an in vitro system, using digestion rate data and structural analysis by confocal microscopy...
February 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890401/aggregation-properties-of-a-disordered-protein-are-tunable-by-ph-and-depend-on-its-net-charge-per-residue
#5
Giulia Tedeschi, Marco Mangiagalli, Sara Chmielewska, Marina Lotti, Antonino Natalello, Stefania Brocca
Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) possess a peculiar amino acid composition that makes them very soluble. Nevertheless, they can encounter aggregation in physiological and pathological contexts. In this work, we addressed the issue of how electrostatic charges can influence aggregation propensity by using the N-terminus moiety of the measles virus phosphoprotein, PNT, as a model IDP. Taking advantage of the high sequence designability of IDPs, we have produced an array of PNT variants sharing the same hydrophobicity, but differing in net charges per residue and isoelectric points (pI)...
November 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818897/draft-genome-sequence-of-bacillus-sp-strain-k2i17-isolated-from-the-rhizosphere-of-deschampsia-antarctica-desv
#6
Alequis Pavón, Paz Orellana, Lorena Salazar, Sandra Céspedes, Laura Muiño, Ana Gutiérrez, Daniel Castillo, Gino Corsini
We present here the draft genome sequence of Bacillus sp. strain K2I17, which was isolated from the rhizosphere of Deschampsia antarctica Desv. The genomic sequence contained 6,113,341 bp. This genome provides insights into the possible new biomedical and biotechnical applications of this specific Antarctic bacterium.
August 17, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817856/back-to-basics-the-effect-of-healthy-diet-and-exercise-on-chronic-disease-management
#7
Robert L Allison
INTRODUCTION: The increase in obesity rates in the U.S. and other less developed industrial countries have led to a worldwide epidemic of chronic disease states. Increased obesity rates are implicated in the treatment failures for illnesses such as coronary artery disease, diabetes, heart failure, hypertension and cancer. Effective prevention of obesity through diet and exercise contributes to the successful medical management of multiple chronic disease states. OBJECTIVE: Review the last 10 years of literature (2006-2016) on the effects of diet and exercise as they relate to the prevention of chronic disease...
2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777660/moral-adherence-hiv-treatment-undetectability-and-stigmatized-viral-loads-among-haitians-in-south-florida
#8
Chelsea Cormier McSwiggin
In the United States, HIV is rendered a chronic condition, and viral transmission is minimized through strict adherence to pharmaceutical treatment. Treatment reduces viral loads to untraceable levels in the blood, a status known as "undetectable," as determined by laboratory testing. For Haitians living with HIV in South Florida, "undetectable" has become more than a viral status; it is a means to know and govern themselves as moral actors and to survey and stigmatize others who remain "detectable." The ethnographic evidence I present here suggests that Haitians adopt novel forms of subjectivity based on undetectability, producing identities entangled in biotechnical categorizations and dominant narratives of responsibility, morality, and health...
August 4, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546494/draft-genome-sequence-of-acidihalobacter-ferrooxidans-dsm-14175-strain-v8-a-new-iron-and-sulfur-oxidizing-halotolerant-acidophilic-species
#9
Himel N Khaleque, Joshua P Ramsay, Riley J T Murphy, Anna H Kaksonen, Naomi J Boxall, Elizabeth L J Watkin
The use of halotolerant acidophiles for bioleaching provides a biotechnical approach for the extraction of metals from regions where high salinity exists in the ores and source water. Here, we describe the first draft genome of a new species of a halotolerant and iron- and sulfur-oxidizing acidophile, Acidihalobacter ferrooxidans DSM 14175 (strain V8).
May 25, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386673/development-of-an-agrobacterium-mediated-transformation-method-and-evaluation-of-two-exogenous-constitutive-promoters-in-oleaginous-yeast-lipomyces-starkeyi
#10
Xinping Lin, Sasa Liu, Ruiqi Bao, Ning Gao, Sufang Zhang, Rongqian Zhu, Zongbao Kent Zhao
Oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi, a promising strain of great biotechnical importance, is able to accumulate over 60% of its cell biomass as triacylglycerols (TAGs). It is promising to directly produce the derivatives of TAGs, such as long-chain fatty acid methyl esters and alkanes, in L. starkeyi. However, techniques for genetic modification of this oleaginous yeast are lacking, thus, further research is needed to develop genetic tools and functional elements. Here, we used two exogenous promoters (pGPD and pPGK) from oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides to establish a simpler Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (AMT) method for L...
April 6, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364635/hydrothermal-treatment-followed-by-enzymatic-hydrolysis-and-hydrothermal-carbonization-as-means-to-valorise-agro-and-forest-based-biomass-residues
#11
Hanne Wikberg, Stina Grönqvist, Piritta Niemi, Atte Mikkelson, Matti Siika-Aho, Heimo Kanerva, Andres Käsper, Tarja Tamminen
The suitability of several abundant but underutilized agro and forest based biomass residues for hydrothermal treatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis as well as for hydrothermal carbonization was studied. The selected approaches represent simple biotechnical and thermochemical treatment routes suitable for wet biomass. Based on the results, the hydrothermal pre-treatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis seemed to be most suitable for processing of carbohydrate rich corn leaves, corn stover, wheat straw and willow...
July 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336852/amorphous-silica-particles-relevant-in-food-industry-influence-cellular-growth-and-associated-signaling-pathways-in-human-gastric-carcinoma-cells
#12
Anja Wittig, Helge Gehrke, Giorgia Del Favero, Eva-Maria Fritz, Marco Al-Rawi, Silvia Diabaté, Carsten Weiss, Haider Sami, Manfred Ogris, Doris Marko
Nanostructured silica particles are commonly used in biomedical and biotechnical fields, as well as, in cosmetics and food industry. Thus, their environmental and health impacts are of great interest and effects after oral uptake are only rarely investigated. In the present study, the toxicological effects of commercially available nano-scaled silica with a nominal primary diameter of 12 nm were investigated on the human gastric carcinoma cell line GXF251L. Besides the analysis of cytotoxic and proliferative effects and the comparison with effects of particles with a nominal primary diameter of 200 nm, emphasis was also given to their influence on the cellular epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathways-both of them deeply involved in the regulation of cellular processes like cell cycle progression, differentiation or proliferation...
January 13, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332831/layer-by-layer-assembly-of-amine-reactive-multilayers-using-an-azlactone-functionalized-polymer-and-small-molecule-diamine-linkers
#13
Yashira M Zayas-Gonzalez, Benjamín J Ortiz, David M Lynn
We report the reactive layer-by-layer assembly of amine-reactive polymer multilayers using an azlactone-functionalized polymer and small-molecule diamine linkers. This approach yields cross-linked polymer/linker-type films that can be further functionalized, after fabrication, by treatment with functional primary amines, and provides opportunities to incorporate other useful functionality that can be difficult to introduce using other polyamine building blocks. Films fabricated using poly(2-vinyl-4,4-dimethylazlactone) (PVDMA) and three model nondegradable aliphatic diamine linkers yielded reactive thin films that were stable upon incubation in physiologically relevant media...
May 8, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330071/unexpected-formation-of-n-phenyl-thiophosphorohydrazidic-acid-o-s-dimethyl-ester-from-acephate-chemical-biotechnical-and-computational-study
#14
Vijay Kumar, Sukhmanpreet Kaur, Simranjeet Singh, Niraj Upadhyay
By the nucleophilic attack of phenylhydrazine on acephate in aqueous medium, a stable product N'-phenyl-thiophosphorohydrazidic acid O,S-dimethyl ester (1) was obtained and characterized by elemental, spectral and thermal analysis. Thermodynamic parameters, Ea, ΔH°, ΔS° and ΔG°, have found to be 62.15, -67.95, -0.068 and -20.05 kJ mol(-1) according to the Coats-Redfern equation. Analysis of interaction of 1 with BSA protein was done by using the UV-Vis and FTIR spectroscopic methods. The observed binding constants was 1...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323242/investigation-of-the-indigenous-fungal-community-populating-barley-grains-secretomes-and-xylanolytic-potential
#15
Abida Sultan, Jens C Frisvad, Birgit Andersen, Birte Svensson, Christine Finnie
The indigenous fungal species populating cereal grains produce numerous plant cell wall-degrading enzymes including xylanases, which could play important role in plant-pathogen interactions and in adaptation of the fungi to varying carbon sources. To gain more insight into the grain surface-associated enzyme activity, members of the populating fungal community were isolated, and their secretomes and xylanolytic activities assessed. Twenty-seven different fungal species were isolated from grains of six barley cultivars over different harvest years and growing sites...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290585/size-and-property-bimodality-in-magnetic-nanoparticle-dispersions-single-domain-particles-vs-strongly-coupled-nanoclusters
#16
E Wetterskog, A Castro, L Zeng, S Petronis, D Heinke, E Olsson, L Nilsson, N Gehrke, P Svedlindh
The widespread use of magnetic nanoparticles in the biotechnical sector puts new demands on fast and quantitative characterization techniques for nanoparticle dispersions. In this work, we report the use of asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) to study the properties of a commercial magnetic nanoparticle dispersion. We demonstrate the effectiveness of both techniques when subjected to a dispersion with a bimodal size/magnetic property distribution: i.e., a small superparamagnetic fraction, and a larger blocked fraction of strongly coupled colloidal nanoclusters...
March 14, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219288/the-human-figure-and-urban-ground-cyborgs-and-the-city
#17
Aaron Parkhurst
Recent years have seen developments in cyborgian movements in which people play and experiment with the boundaries of human flesh and aesthetic realities. Some individuals develop novel intimate relationships with devices that, each in their own way, interfere with human subjectivity. Public dissemination of these movements often proposes notions of transcendence, therapy, post-humanism and trans-humanism, but often fails to outline the lived-experience of those who explore cyborgian identity as an alternative mode of being in the world...
July 2016: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188331/urnula-sp-an-endophyte-of-dicksonia-antarctica-making-a-fragrant-mixture-of-biologically-active-volatile-organic-compounds
#18
Gary Strobel, Amy Ericksen, Joe Sears, Jie Xie, Brad Geary, Bryan Blatt
Urnula sp. was isolated as an endophyte of Dicksonia antarctica and identified primarily on the basis of its ITS sequence and morphological features. The anamorphic state of the fungus appeared as a hyphomyceteous-like fungus as based on its features in culture and scanning electron microscopy examination of its spores. On potato dextrose agar (PDA), the organism makes a characteristic fragrance resembling peach pie with vanilla overtones. A GC/MS analysis done on the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of this organism, trapped by carbotrap methodology, revealed over 150 compounds with high MS matching quality being noted for 44 of these...
August 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161570/safety-of-a-killed-oral-cholera-vaccine-shanchol-in-pregnant-women-in-malawi-an-observational-cohort-study
#19
MULTICENTER STUDY
Mohammad Ali, Allyson Nelson, Francisco J Luquero, Andrew S Azman, Amanda K Debes, Maurice Mwesawina M'bang'ombe, Linly Seyama, Evans Kachale, Kingsley Zuze, Desire Malichi, Fatima Zulu, Kelias Phiri Msyamboza, Storn Kabuluzi, David A Sack
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy increases the risk of harmful effects from cholera for both mothers and their fetuses. A killed oral cholera vaccine, Shanchol (Shantha Biotechnics, Hydrabad, India), can protect against the disease for up to 5 years. However, cholera vaccination campaigns have often excluded pregnant women because of insufficient safety data for use during pregnancy. We did an observational cohort study to assess the safety of Shanchol during pregnancy. METHODS: This observational cohort study was done in two adjacent districts (Nsanje and Chikwawa) in Malawi...
May 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144899/problematising-the-discourse-of-post-aids
#20
Liz Walker
This paper reflects on the meanings of 'post-AIDS' in the Global North and South. I bring together contemporary arguments to suggest that the notion of 'post-AIDS' is, at best, misplaced, not least because its starting point remains a biotechnical one. Drawing on aspects of the sub-Saharan African experience, this essay suggests that, despite significant shifts in access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV continues to be fundamentally shaped by economic determinants and social and cultural practices. In this essay, I question the certainty of the discourse of (Western biomedical) 'positive progress' (Johnson et al...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Humanities
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