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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927025/repurposing-itraconazole-for-the-treatment-of-cancer
#1
Rachel Pounds, Sarah Leonard, Christopher Dawson, Sean Kehoe
The repurposing of drugs is becoming increasingly attractive as it avoids the lengthy process and cost implications associated with bringing a novel drug to market. Itraconazole is a broad-spectrum anti-fungal agent. An emerging body of in vivo, in vitro and clinical evidence have confirmed that it also possesses antineoplastic activities and has a synergistic action when combined with other chemotherapeutic agents. It acts via several mechanisms to prevent tumour growth, including inhibition of the Hedgehog pathway, prevention of angiogenesis, decreased endothelial cell proliferation, cell cycle arrest and induction of auto-phagocytosis...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927020/stable-carbon-isotope-composition-of-the-lipids-in-natural-ophiocordyceps-sinensis-from-major-habitats-in-china-and-its-substitutes
#2
Lian-Xian Guo, Xiao-Ming Xu, Yue-Hui Hong, Yan Li, Jiang-Hai Wang
Ophiocordyceps sinensis is one rare medicinal fungus produced in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Its quality and price varies hugely with different habitat, and its numerous substitutes have sprung up in functional food markets. This paper aims to discriminate the geographic origin of wild O. sinensis and its substitutes via element analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The δ(13)C values of major fatty acids in the lipids of O. sinensis are characterized unanimously by the variation relation C18:0 < C18:2 ≈ C16:0 < C18:1, while their fluctuation intervals are notably different between those of neutral and polar lipids...
September 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926863/evaluation-of-cannabinoid-and-terpenoid-content-cannabis-flower-compared-to-supercritical-co2-concentrate
#3
Michelle Sexton, Kyle Shelton, Pam Haley, Mike West
A recent cannabis use survey revealed that 60% of cannabis users rely on smelling the flower to select their cannabis. Olfactory indicators in plants include volatile compounds, principally represented by the terpenoid fraction. Currently, medicinal- and adult-use cannabis is marketed in the United States with relatively little differentiation between products other than by a common name, association with a species type, and Δ-9 tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol potency. Because of this practice, how terpenoid compositions may change during an extraction process is widely overlooked...
September 19, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926828/are-all-amplitude-integrated-electroencephalogram-systems-equal
#4
Tobias Werther, Monika Olischar, Gunnar Naulaers, Philipp Deindl, Katrin Klebermass-Schrehof, Nathan Stevenson
BACKGROUND: Filter and peak detection algorithms implemented in amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram (aEEG) systems are not standardized. New aEEG systems are continuously enriching the market and clinicians are faced with different aEEG devices whose tracings may vary. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work was to determine the role of different aEEG systems on quantitative measurements of the aEEG. METHODS: In this observational study, a single-channel aEEG recording (Olympic CFM 6000) with corresponding EEG signal was obtained from 32 infants at a gestational age of 36-44 weeks...
September 20, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926737/people-planet-and-profit-unintended-consequences-of-legacy-building-materials
#5
REVIEW
Anthony T Zimmer, HakSoo Ha
Although an explosion of new building materials are being introduced into today's market, adequate up-front research into their chemical and physical properties as well as their potential health and environmental consequences is lacking. History has provided us with several examples where building materials were broadly deployed into society only to find that health and environmental problems resulted in unintended sustainability consequences. In the following paper, we use lead and asbestos as legacy building materials to show their similar historical trends and sustainability consequences...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926594/history-of-nonnative-monk-parakeets-in-mexico
#6
Elizabeth A Hobson, Grace Smith-Vidaurre, Alejandro Salinas-Melgoza
Nonnative Monk Parakeets have been reported in increasing numbers across many cities in Mexico, and were formally classified as an invasive species in Mexico in late 2016. However, there has not been a large-scale attempt to determine how international pet trade and national and international governmental regulations have played a part in colonization, and when the species appeared in different areas. We describe the changes in regulations that led the international pet trade market to shift to Mexico, then used international trade data to determine how many parakeets were commercially imported each year and where those individuals originated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926281/e-learning-to-improve-healthcare-professionals-attitudes-and-practices-on-breastfeeding
#7
Sofia Colaceci, Angela Giusti, Elise M Chapin, Maria Enrica Bettinelli, Alessia De Angelis, Francesca Zambri, Ercole Vellone, Rosaria Alvaro, Barbara De Mei
INTRODUCTION: Breastfeeding training has a crucial role in increasing healthcare professionals' attitudes and in improving professional support for breastfeeding. The collaboration between the Italian National Institute of Health, UNICEF, and the Local Health Authority of Milan has led to the development of an online course on lactation and infant feeding practices. AIM: To assess if the course was effective in improving healthcare professionals' attitudes and practices (APs)...
September 19, 2017: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926030/the-allocation-of-resources-for-animal-health
#8
K S Howe
Economics is too important to be left to the experts. This paper is therefore mainly for animal health policy-makers who are not economists but want a better appreciation of how economics can contribute to resource allocation decisions. First, the methodology of economic analysis is outlined with the objective of dispelling criticisms of its simplifying assumption of rationality. Then, unusual in economics but more familiar to biological and veterinary scientists, the technical aspects of transforming resources into products are discussed...
April 2017: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926029/the-importance-of-fixed-costs-in-animal-health-systems
#9
C A Tisdell, D Adamson
In this paper, the authors detail the structure and optimal management of health systems as influenced by the presence and level of fixed costs. Unlike variable costs, fixed costs cannot be altered, and are thus independent of the level of veterinary activity in the short run. Their importance is illustrated by using both single-period and multi-period models. It is shown that multi-stage veterinary decision-making can often be envisaged as a sequence of fixed-cost problems. In general, it becomes clear that, the higher the fixed costs, the greater the net benefit of veterinary activity must be, if such activity is to be economic...
April 2017: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926026/conceptual-models-underlying-economic-analysis-of-animal-health-and-welfare-with-the-inclusion-of-three-components-people-products-and-resources
#10
D A Hennessy
Infectious animal diseases can spill across farm boundaries, so effective management requires coordinated responses. Costs and benefits from the management of infectious diseases are such that those who make the decisions have weak incentives to act, the levels of goods and services produced from animal agriculture are probably smaller than is socially optimal and resources are likely wasted. This work provides an overview of the existing literature on conceptual economic models in animal disease management, paying particular attention to inadequate incentives to make the required biosecurity efforts...
April 2017: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926025/animal-health-and-price-transmission-along-livestock-supply-chains
#11
M Aragrande, M Canali
Animal health diseases can severely affect the food supply chain by causing variations in prices and market demand. Price transmission analysis reveals in what ways price variations are transmitted along the supply chain, and how supply chains of substitute products and different regional markets are also affected. In perfect markets, a price variation would be completely and instantaneously transmitted across the different levels of the supply chain: producers, the processing industry, retailers and consumers...
April 2017: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926009/improving-the-delivery-of-veterinary-services-in-africa-insights-from-the-empirical-application-of-transaction-costs-theory-in-uganda-and-kenya
#12
J Ilukor
This paper presents a summary of findings from a research project that examined institutional arrangements for providing animal health services in Uganda and Kenya. Given the need to find solutions to the pervasive governance challenges encountered in the delivery of veterinary services in Africa, the study applied transaction economics theory to generate recommendations on how to improve the delivery of these services and minimise livestock production risks, including those that pose a risk to human health, e...
April 2017: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925883/novel-therapeutics-in-glaucoma-management
#13
Claudio Bucolo, Chiara Bianca Maria Platania, Filippo Drago, Michele Reibaldi, Vincenza Bonfiglio, Teresio Avitabile, Maurizio Uva
Glaucoma is a progressive optic neuropathy characterized by retinal ganglion cell death and alterations of visual field. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is considered the main risk factor of glaucoma, even though other factors cannot be ruled out, such as epigenetic mechanisms. An overview of the ultimate promising experimental drugs to manage glaucoma has been provided. In particular, we have focused on purinergic ligands, KATP channel activators, gases (nitric oxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide), non-glucocorticoid steroidal compounds, neurotrophic factors, PI3K/Akt activators, citicoline, histone deacetylase inhibitors, cannabinoids, dopamine and serotonin receptors ligands, small interference RNA, and Rho kinase inhibitors...
September 15, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925882/why-are-antidepressant-drugs-effective-smoking-cessation-aids
#14
Mohammed Shoaib, Yazead Buhidma
Before the advent of varenicline, antidepressant drugs were reported to exhibit better clinical efficacy than nicotine replacement therapy as smoking cessation aids. The most studied is bupropion, a clinically-effective antidepressant, the first to be marketed throughout Europe for smoking cessation. The mechanisms behind bupropion's efficacy as a smoking cessation compound remains unclear. Since depression and tobacco smoking have a high incidence of co-occurrence, this would implicate an underlying link between these two conditions...
September 15, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925868/design-and-discovery-of-new-antibacterial-agents-advances-perspectives-challenges
#15
Josef Jampilek
Emerging resistance of bacterial pathogens to clinically used drugs, including not only first-choice but also second- and third-choice drugs, is alarming, but since the 1990s only a modest number of new, first in class, drugs for systemic administration have been marketed for the treatment of bacterial infections. This article provides a review of recently reported new antibacterial chemotherapeutics approved for clinical practice, antibacterial chemotherapeutics in clinical trials and antibacterial agents under development...
September 18, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925813/what-patients-think-about-choice-in-healthcare-a-study-on-primary-care-services-in-finland
#16
Anna-Mari Aalto, Marko Elovainio, Liina-Kaisa Tynkkynen, Eeva Reissell, Tuulikki Vehko, Miisa Chydenius, Timo Sinervo
BACKGROUND: The ongoing Finnish health and social service reform will expand choice by opening the market for competition between public and private service providers. This study examined the attitudes of primary care patients towards choice and which patient-related factors are associated with these attitudes. METHODS: A sample of attenders during one week in health centres of 12 big cities and municipal consortiums (including seven outsourced local units) and in primary care units of one private company providing outsourced services for municipalities (aged 18-95, n=8128) was used...
September 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925156/-plant-metabolomics-approach-for-age-discrimination-of-mountain-cultivated-ginseng-using-uplc-q-tof-ms
#17
Xiang-Wei Chang, Bo-Ran Wang, Tong Wang, De-Kun Li, Ying Zhao, Yu-Ling Zhang, Da-Zheng Zhou, Zheng-Liang Ye
Growth year is one of the important factors for the quality of mountain cultivated ginseng (MCG). For age differentiation of MCG, rhizome extracts of ginseng aged from 11 to 15 years were analyzed using a non-targeted approach with ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS)-based on plant metabolomics technique. Multivariate statistical methods such as principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squared discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA) were used to compare the derived patterns among the samples...
October 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925075/understanding-the-catalytic-mechanism-and-the-nature-of-transition-state-of-an-attractive-drug-target-enzyme-shikimate-kinase-by-qm-mm-studies
#18
Jianzhuang Yao, Xia Wang, Haixia Luo, Pengfei Gu
Shikimate kinase (SK), is the fifth bacterial enzyme involved in the shikimate pathway for biosynthesis of life indispensable components, such as aromatic amino acids. Absence of shikimate pathway in human makes SK an attractive target for rational design of drug toward pathogenesis bacteria, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Helicobacter pylori. However, effective inhibitor of SK (e.g., transition state analogue) is still not available in the market due to (at least partly) the lack of knowledge on the catalytic mechanism and the nature of the rate-limiting transition state...
September 18, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925060/current-food-allergenic-risk-assessment-is-it-fit-for-novel-foods-status-quo-and-identification-of-gaps
#19
REVIEW
Gabriel Mazzucchelli, Thomas Holzhauser, Tanja Cirkovic-Velickovic, Araceli Diaz-Perales, Elena Molina, Paola Roncada, Pedro Rodrigues, Kitty Verhoeckx, Karin Hoffmann-Sommergruber
Food allergies are recognised as a global health concern. In order to protect allergic consumers from severe symptoms, allergenic risk assessment for well known foods and foods containing genetically modified ingredients was installed. However, population is steadily growing and there is a rising need to provide adequate protein-based foods, including novel sources, not yet used for human consumption. In this context safety issues such as a potential increased allergenic risk need to be assessed before marketing novel food sources...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924972/targeting-nociceptive-trp-channels-to-treat-chronic-pain-current-state-of-the-field
#20
REVIEW
Magdalene M Moran, Arpad Szallasi
Control of chronic pain is frequently inadequate and/or associated with intolerable adverse effects, prompting a frantic search for new therapeutics and new therapeutic targets. Nearly two decades of preclinical and clinical research supports the involvement of Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels in temperature perception, nociception and sensitization. Although there has been considerable excitement around the therapeutic potential of this channel family since the cloning and identification of TRPV1 as the capsaicin receptor more than 20 years ago, only modulators of a few channels have been tested clinically...
September 19, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
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