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Anxiety Disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445899/evidence-based-guidelines-for-the-pharmacologic-management-of-methamphetamine-dependence-relapse-prevention-chronic-methamphetamine-related-and-comorbid-psychiatric-disorders-in-post-acute-settings
#1
Roland Härtel-Petri, Anne Krampe-Scheidler, Wolf-Dietrich Braunwarth, Ursula Havemann-Reinecke, Peter Jeschke, Winfried Looser, Stephan Mühlig, Ingo Schäfer, Norbert Scherbaum, Lydia Bothe, Corinna Schaefer, Willem Hamdorf
The increasing abuse of the street drug crystal meth (methamphetamine) in many countries worldwide has resulted in a growing demand to treat patients who have acquired a methamphetamine-related disorder. The results of a systematic literature search which led to the consensus-based recommendations by the Working Group of the German Agency for Quality in Medicine (Ärztliches Zentrum für Qualität in der Medizin - ÄZQ) are presented. Pharmacological treatments were reviewed in 58 out of the 103 publications included...
April 26, 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445740/right-brain-left-brain-in-depressive-disorders-clinical-and-theoretical-implications-of-behavioral-electrophysiological-and-neuroimaging-findings
#2
REVIEW
Gerard E Bruder, Jonathan W Stewart, Patrick J McGrath
The right and left side of the brain are asymmetric in anatomy and function. We review electrophysiological (EEG and event-related potential), behavioral (dichotic and visual perceptual asymmetry), and neuroimaging (PET, MRI, NIRS) evidence of right-left asymmetry in depressive disorders. Recent electrophysiological and fMRI studies of emotional processing have provided new evidence of altered laterality in depressive disorders. EEG alpha asymmetry and neuroimaging findings at rest and during cognitive or emotional tasks are consistent with reduced left prefrontal activity in depressed patients, which may impair downregulation of amygdala response to negative emotional information...
April 23, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445653/describing-the-mental-health-profile-of-first-respondersa-systematic-review-formula-see-text
#3
Sara Jones
BACKGROUND: First responders (FRs) are responsible for providing multiple services during various critical events. Considering the frequency, nature, and intensity of duty-related traumatic exposures, the cumulative impact on FRs' mental health is of paramount importance. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this systematic review was to describe how duty-related trauma exposure can affect the comprehensive mental health profile of FRs, including firefighters, emergency medical technicians, and paramedics...
February 1, 2017: Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445436/irritable-bowel-syndrome-clinical-manifestations-dietary-influences-and-management
#4
REVIEW
Ronald Ikechi, Bradford D Fischer, Joshua DeSipio, Sangita Phadtare
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder that is characterized by symptoms of chronic abdominal pain and altered bowel habits in the absence of an overtly identifiable cause. It is the most commonly diagnosed functional gastrointestinal disorder, accounting for about one third of gastroenterology visits. It generally presents as a complex of symptoms, including psychological dysfunction. Hypersensitivity to certain foods, especially foods that contain high amounts of fructose, plays a role in the pathophysiology of IBS...
April 26, 2017: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445433/determinants-of-work-performance-in-workers-with-depression-and-anxiety-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Ivana Ivandic, Kaloyan Kamenov, Diego Rojas, Gloria Cerón, Dennis Nowak, Carla Sabariego
Depression and anxiety are highly prevalent disorders with an impact on existential aspects of person's life, including employment i.e., work performance (WP). In order to develop appropriate strategies, it is essential to identify determinants of WP. The objective of this study was to identify the built, social, attitudinal and health system-related environmental determinants of WP in workers with anxiety or depression in total (N = 1211) and regarding the level of disability. Hierarchical binary logistic regression was performed on data obtained from implementation of the WHO Model Disability Survey (MDS) in Chile in 2015...
April 26, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445426/the-effects-of-magnesium-supplementation-on-subjective-anxiety-and-stress-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Neil Bernard Boyle, Clare Lawton, Louise Dye
BACKGROUND: Anxiety related conditions are the most common affective disorders present in the general population with a lifetime prevalence of over 15%. Magnesium (Mg) status is associated with subjective anxiety, leading to the proposition that Mg supplementation may attenuate anxiety symptoms. This systematic review examines the available evidence for the efficacy of Mg supplementation in the alleviation of subjective measures of anxiety and stress. METHODS: A systematic search of interventions with Mg alone or in combination (up to 5 additional ingredients) was performed in May 2016...
April 26, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444963/the-influence-of-frontal-alpha-asymmetry-on-the-processing-of-approach-and-withdrawal-related-stimuli-a-multichannel-psychophysiology-study
#7
Dirk Adolph, Michael von Glischinski, André Wannemüller, Jürgen Margraf
The approach-withdrawal model of hemispheric activation suggests that left frontal cortical areas mediate approach, while right frontal cortical areas mediate withdrawal motivation. Within this framework, the present study investigates the association of frontal cortical asymmetry with attentional and emotional responses toward approach- and withdrawal-related emotional stimuli. Resting frontal asymmetry was measured from 43 students before they passively viewed negative, neutral, and positive emotional pictures...
April 26, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444850/emotion-dysregulation-in-hypochondriasis-and-depression
#8
Josef Bailer, Michael Witthöft, Maja Erkic, Daniela Mier
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to explore whether certain aspects of emotion dysregulation (i.e., facets of alexithymia and rumination) are more closely linked to hypochondriasis than to depression and vice versa. METHODS: Nineteen patients with hypochondriasis (HYP), 33 patients with depression, and 52 healthy control participants completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Response Styles Questionnaire, and additional symptom and illness behaviour scales...
April 26, 2017: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444848/biologically-meaningful-scents-a-framework-for-understanding-predator-prey-research-across-disciplines
#9
Michael H Parsons, Raimund Apfelbach, Peter B Banks, Elissa Z Cameron, Chris R Dickman, Anke S K Frank, Menna E Jones, Ian S McGregor, Stuart McLean, Dietland Müller-Schwarze, Elisa E Sparrow, Daniel T Blumstein
Fear of predation is a universal motivator. Because predators hunt using stealth and surprise, there is a widespread ability among prey to assess risk from chemical information - scents - in their environment. Consequently, scents often act as particularly strong modulators of memory and emotions. Recent advances in ecological research and analytical technology are leading to novel ways to use this chemical information to create effective attractants, repellents and anti-anxiolytic compounds for wildlife managers, conservation biologists and health practitioners...
April 26, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444476/assessing-the-dim-light-melatonin-onset-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-no-comorbid-intellectual-disability
#10
Emma K Baker, Amanda L Richdale, Agnes Hazi, Luke A Prendergast
This study assessed melatonin levels and the dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) in adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and also investigated the relationships between melatonin and objectively measured sleep parameters. Sixteen adults with ASD (ASD-Only), 12 adults with ASD medicated for comorbid diagnoses of anxiety and/or depression (ASD-Med) and 32 controls participated in the study. Although, the timing of the DLMO did not differ between the two groups, advances and delays of the melatonin rhythm were observed in individual profiles...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443533/childhood-adversity-adult-stress-and-the-risk-of-major-depression-or-generalized-anxiety-disorder-in-us-soldiers-a-test-of-the-stress-sensitization-hypothesis
#11
G Bandoli, L Campbell-Sills, R C Kessler, S G Heeringa, M K Nock, A J Rosellini, N A Sampson, M Schoenbaum, R J Ursano, M B Stein
BACKGROUND: The stress sensitization theory hypothesizes that individuals exposed to childhood adversity will be more vulnerable to mental disorders from proximal stressors. We aimed to test this theory with respect to risk of 30-day major depressive episode (MDE) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) among new US Army soldiers. METHODS: The sample consisted of 30 436 new soldier recruits in the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience (Army STARRS). Generalized linear models were constructed, and additive interactions between childhood maltreatment profiles and level of 12-month stressful experiences on the risk of 30-day MDE and GAD were analyzed...
April 26, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443504/potential-use-of-modulators-of-oxidative-stress-as-add-on-therapy-in-patients-with-anxiety-disorders
#12
Paolo Boldrini, Antonella Fusco, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Aldo Badiani, Luciano Saso
It is known that an increased oxidative stress is present in a wide range of diseases and, given the vulnerability of the central nervous system, its involvement has been in particular investigated in neurological and psychiatric diseases, including anxiety disorders. In this review we analyse the studies that have been conducted on the effects of oxidative stress modulators in anxiety, focusing on their possible clinical use. While preclinical studies have shown a clear anxiolytic-like effect of different oxidative stress modulators, less significant results have been obtained from clinical studies...
April 25, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442424/thioredoxin-is-not-a-marker-for-treatment-resistance-depression-but-associated-with-cognitive-function-an-rtms-study
#13
Efruz Pirdogan Aydın, Abdullah Genc, Mihriban Dalkıran, Ece Türkyilmaz Uyar, Ömer Akil Özer, Kayıhan Oğuz Karamustafalıoğlu
Elevated oxidative stress is known to play an important role in development of depression and cognitive dysfunction. To date, thioredoxin (TRX), an antioxidant protein, has been investigated as a marker for psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and autism but its relationship with depression is yet to be unknown. The aim of this study is to detect the TRX levels in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD), analyse the effect of rTMS (repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation) application on TRX levels and display the relationship of TRX with cognitive areas...
April 22, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442248/social-environments-and-interpersonal-distance-regulation-in-psychosis-a-virtual-reality-study
#14
Chris N W Geraets, Marije van Beilen, Roos Pot-Kolder, Jacqueline Counotte, Mark van der Gaag, Wim Veling
BACKGROUND: Experimentally studying the influence of social environments on mental health and behavior is challenging, as social context is difficult to standardize in laboratory settings. Virtual Reality (VR) enables studying social interaction in terms of interpersonal distance in a more ecologically valid manner. Regulation of interpersonal distance may be abnormal in patients with psychotic disorders and influenced by environmental stress, symptoms or distress. AIMS: To investigate interpersonal distance in people with a psychotic disorder and at ultrahigh risk for psychosis (UHR) compared to siblings and controls in virtual social environments, and explore the relationship between clinical characteristics and interpersonal distance...
April 22, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441974/evaluating-effectiveness-and-cost-effectiveness-of-a-group-psychological-intervention-using-cognitive-behavioural-strategies-for-women-with-common-mental-disorders-in-conflict-affected-rural-pakistan-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#15
Anna Chiumento, Syed Usman Hamdani, Muhammad Naseem Khan, Katie Dawson, Richard A Bryant, Marit Sijbrandij, Huma Nazir, Parveen Akhtar, Aqsa Masood, Duolao Wang, Mark van Ommeren, Atif Rahman
BACKGROUND: The impact of humanitarian disasters upon mental health is well recognised. The evidence for psychological interventions for mental health is mounting, but few interventions have been rigorously tested in humanitarian settings. To be sustainable in humanitarian settings interventions need to be short, simple, deliverable by nonspecialists under supervision, and adopt a transdiagnostic approach where an array of mental health outcomes are addressed simultaneously. These elements have been incorporated into the newly developed WHO Problem Management Plus (PM+) Group intervention...
April 26, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441895/ketamine-s-dose-related-effects-on-anxiety-symptoms-in-patients-with-treatment-refractory-anxiety-disorders
#16
Paul Glue, Natalie J Medlicott, Sarah Harland, Shona Neehoff, Bridie Anderson-Fahey, Martin Le Nedelec, Andrew Gray, Neil McNaughton
The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist ketamine has rapid onset activity in treatment-resistant depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder. Due to similarities in brain network activity in depression and anxiety disorders, we hypothesized that ketamine might also be active in other refractory anxiety disorders. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of ketamine in 12 patients with refractory generalized anxiety disorder and/or social anxiety disorder who were not currently depressed, using an ascending single dose study design (0...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441636/psychological-features-and-quality-of-life-in-50-adult-patients-with-epilepsy-and-their-caregivers-from-the-lecco-epilepsy-center-italy
#17
Alessandra Petruzzi, Andrea Rigamonti, Claudia Yvonne Finocchiaro, Paolo Borelli, Elena Lamperti, Antonio Silvani, Rossana Regazzoni, Lorenzo Stanzani, Andrea Salmaggi
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders. To the best of our knowledge, in Italy, the relationship between patients' and caregivers' psychological state has rarely been analyzed. Thus, we sought to evaluate both the psychological state of patients with epilepsy and that of their caregivers and the interrelationship between them. We also assessed the existing relation between psychological features and some clinical and demographic information, such as number of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), epilepsy duration and education level of patients and their caregivers...
April 22, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441622/social-anxiety-and-disordered-eating-the-influence-of-stress-reactivity-and-self-esteem
#18
Jessica Lyn Ciarma, Jaya Miriam Mathew
While previous research indicates a strong link between social anxiety and disordered eating, more research is needed in order to understand the mechanisms that underlie this relationship. Given that stress is often implicated in disordered eating, it was hypothesised that ones reaction to stress (i.e. stress reactivity) would mediate the relationship between social anxiety and disordered eating. Similarly, given that low self-esteem is commonly reported in both those with social anxiety and eating disorders, it was hypothesised that self-esteem would also mediate the relationship between social anxiety and disordered eating...
April 8, 2017: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441619/the-influence-of-attention-biases-and-adult-attachment-style-on-treatment-outcome-for-adults-with-social-anxiety-disorder
#19
Yulisha Byrow, Lorna Peters
BACKGROUND: Attention biases figure prominently in CBT models of social anxiety and are thought to maintain symptoms of social anxiety disorder (SAD). Studies have shown that individual differences in pre-treatment attention biases predict cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) outcome. However, these findings have been inconsistent as to whether vigilance towards threat predicts better or poorer treatment outcome. Adult attachment style is an individual characteristic that may influence the relationship between attention bias and SAD...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441585/assessing-the-latent-structure-of-dsm-5-ptsd-among-chinese-adolescents-after-the-ya-an-earthquake
#20
Xiao Zhou, Xinchun Wu, Rui Zhen
To examine the underlying substructure of DSM-5 PTSD in an adolescent sample, this study used a confirmatory factor analysis alternative model approach to assess 813 adolescents two and a half years after the Ya'an earthquake. Participants completed the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children, and the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders. The results found that the seven-factor hybrid PTSD model entailing intrusion, avoidance, negative affect, anhedonia, externalizing behaviors, anxious arousal, and dysphoric arousal had significantly better fit indices than other alternative models...
April 19, 2017: Psychiatry Research
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