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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542309/predictors-of-loss-to-follow-up-among-patients-on-art-at-a-rural-hospital-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#1
Rachel Arnesen, Anthony P Moll, Sheela V Shenoi
INTRODUCTION: Improved HIV outcomes as a result of expanded antiretroviral therapy (ART) access is threatened by increasing rates of loss to follow up (LTFU) among those on ART, largely reported in urban populations. Some reports suggest that LTFU rates are overestimated due to patient movement to other facilities and inadequate medical records. STUDY OBJECTIVE: To define the proportion disengaging from HIV care as well as the characteristics of those LTFU in order to design and implement appropriate interventions to increase retention...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540990/change-in-renal-function-among-hiv-infected-koreans-receiving-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-backbone-antiretroviral-therapy-a-3-year-follow-up-study
#2
Kyoung Hwa Lee, Ji Un Lee, Nam Su Ku, Su Jin Jeong, Sang Hoon Han, Jun Yong Choi, Young Goo Song, June Myung Kim
PURPOSE: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is commonly prescribed as a fixed-dose, co-formulated antiretroviral drug for HIV-1 infection. The major concern of long-term TDF use is renal dysfunction. However, little is known about the long-term patterns of changes in renal function in HIV-infected Koreans receiving TDF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively followed 50 HIV-infected Koreans, performing laboratory tests every 3 months during the first year and every 6 months for the next 2 years...
July 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540084/body-composition-and-metabolic-syndrome-components-on-lipodystrophy-different-subtypes-associated-with-hiv
#3
Livia Bertazzo Sacilotto, Paulo Câmara Marques Pereira, João Paulo Vieira Manechini, Sílvia Justina Papini
HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS) is characterized by body fat redistribution as a consequence of the antiretroviral therapy (ART) introduction, associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease development. Subjective diagnosis, classified between three subtypes according to the body region on which fat is lost and/or accumulated, named lipoatrophy, lipohypertrophy, and mixed lipodystrophy, is possibly accompanied with metabolic alterations. Forty people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA), with clinical diagnosis of HALS and from both genders, were assessed...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539254/prevalence-of-primary-resistance-among-acutely-recently-hiv-infected-patients-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#4
Ana Cristina G Ferreira, Lara E Coelho, Eduarda Grinsztejn, Carlos S de Jesus, Monick L Guimarães, Valdilea G Veloso, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Sandra W Cardoso
INTRODUCTION: The widespread use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) increased the transmission of antiretroviral resistant HIV strains. ART initiation during acute/recent HIV infection limits HIV reservoirs and improves immune response in HIV infected individuals. Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) may jeopardize the early goals of early ART among acute/recent HIV infected patients. METHODS: Patients with acute/recent HIV infection who underwent resistance test before ART initiation were included in this analysis...
May 21, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537936/zidovudine-use-in-pregnancy-and-congenital-malformations-meta-analysis-and-bayesian-incorporation-of-medicaid-data
#5
Kathryn Rough, Jenny W Sun, George R Seage, Paige L Williams, Krista F Huybrechts, Brian T Bateman, Sonia Hernandez-Diaz
OBJECTIVE: There is inconsistent evidence that zidovudine use during pregnancy increases overall, cardiac, and male genital malformations. DESIGN: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of zidovudine use and malformations and, using Bayesian methods, combined it with data from a cohort study of mother-infant pairs in the nationwide Medicaid Analytic eXtract (MAX). METHODS: Using MAX data (2000-2010), we identified pregnant women with HIV treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
May 23, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531553/hiv-1-viral-load-measurement-in-venous-blood-and-fingerprick-blood-using-abbott-realtime-hiv-1-dbs-assay
#6
Ning Tang, Vihanga Pahalawatta, Andrea Frank, Zowie Bagley, Raquel Viana, John Lampinen, Gregor Leckie, Shihai Huang, Klara Abravaya, Carole L Wallis
BACKGROUND: HIV RNA suppression is a key indicator for monitoring success of antiretroviral therapy. From a logistical perspective, viral load (VL) testing using Dried Blood Spots (DBS) is a promising alternative to plasma based VL testing in resource-limited settings. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the analytical and clinical performance of the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay using a fully automated one-spot DBS sample protocol. STUDY DESIGN: Limit of detection (LOD), linearity, lower limit of quantitation (LLQ), upper limit of quantitation (ULQ), and precision were determined using serial dilutions of HIV-1 Virology Quality Assurance stock (VQA Rush University), or HIV-1-containing armored RNA, made in venous blood...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522145/wnt-signaling-a-novel-pathway-regulating-blood-pressure-state-of-the-art-review
#7
REVIEW
Maen D Abou Ziki, Arya Mani
Recent antihypertensive trials show conflicting results on blood pressure (BP) targets in patient populations with different metabolic profiles, with lowest benefit from tight BP control observed in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This paradox could arise from the heterogeneity of study populations and underscores the importance of precision medicine initiatives towards understanding and treating hypertension. Wnt signaling pathways and genetic variations in its signaling peptides have been recently associated with metabolic syndrome, hypertension and diabetes, generating a breakthrough for advancement of precision medicine in the field of hypertension...
May 4, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518221/micronutrient-supplementation-in-adults-with-hiv-infection
#8
REVIEW
Marianne E Visser, Solange Durao, David Sinclair, James H Irlam, Nandi Siegfried
BACKGROUND: Micronutrient deficiencies are common among adults living with HIV disease, particularly in low-income settings where the diet may be low in essential vitamins and minerals. Some micronutrients play critical roles in maintenance of the immune system, and routine supplementation could therefore be beneficial. This is an update of a Cochrane Review previously published in 2010. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether micronutrient supplements are effective and safe in reducing mortality and HIV-related morbidity of HIV-positive adults (excluding pregnant women)...
May 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513417/carriage-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-hiv-infected-children-in-zimbabwe
#9
S M S Wilmore, K Kranzer, A Williams, B Makamure, A F Nhidza, J Mayini, T Bandason, J Metcalfe, M P Nicol, I Balakrishnan, M J Ellington, N Woodford, S Hopkins, T D McHugh, R A Ferrand
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is an emerging global health issue. Data on the epidemiology of multidrug-resistant organisms are scarce for Africa, especially in HIV-infected individuals who often have frequent contact with healthcare. We investigated the prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) carriage in stool among HIV-infected children attending an HIV outpatient department in Harare, Zimbabwe. METHODS: We recruited children who were stable on antiretroviral therapy (ART) attending a HIV clinic from August 2014 to June 2015...
May 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505328/advanced-hiv-disease-in-botswana-following-successful-antiretroviral-therapy-rollout-incidence-of-and-temporal-trends-in-cryptococcal-meningitis
#10
Mark W Tenforde, Margaret Mokomane, Tshepo Leeme, Raju K K Patel, Nametso Lekwape, Chandapiwa Ramodimoosi, Bonno Dube, Elizabeth A Williams, Kelebeletse O Mokobela, Ephraim Tawanana, Tlhagiso Pilatwe, William J Hurt, Hannah Mitchell, Doreen L Banda, Hunter Stone, Mooketsi Molefi, Kabelo Mokgacha, Heston Phillips, Paul C Mullan, Andrew P Steenhoff, Yohana Mashalla, Madisa Mine, Joseph N Jarvis
Background: Botswana has a well-developed antiretroviral therapy (ART) program which serves as a regional model. With wide ART availability, the burden of advanced HIV and associated opportunistic infections would be expected to decline. We performed a nationwide surveillance study to determine the national incidence of cryptococcal meningitis, and describe characteristics of cases 2000-2014 and temporal trends at two national referral hospitals. Methods: Cerebrospinal fluid data from all 37 laboratories performing meningitis diagnostics in Botswana were collected 2000-2014 to identify cases of cryptococcal meningitis...
May 13, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505100/preclinical-evaluation-of-the-efficacy-of-antivenoms-for-snakebite-envenoming-state-of-the-art-and-challenges-ahead
#11
REVIEW
José María Gutiérrez, Gabriela Solano, Davinia Pla, María Herrera, Álvaro Segura, Mariángela Vargas, Mauren Villalta, Andrés Sánchez, Libia Sanz, Bruno Lomonte, Guillermo León, Juan J Calvete
Animal-derived antivenoms constitute the mainstay in the therapy of snakebite envenoming. The efficacy of antivenoms to neutralize toxicity of medically-relevant snake venoms has to be demonstrated through meticulous preclinical testing before their introduction into the clinical setting. The gold standard in the preclinical assessment and quality control of antivenoms is the neutralization of venom-induced lethality. In addition, depending on the pathophysiological profile of snake venoms, the neutralization of other toxic activities has to be evaluated, such as hemorrhagic, myotoxic, edema-forming, dermonecrotic, in vitro coagulant, and defibrinogenating effects...
May 13, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505015/virologic-response-to-first-line-efavirenz-or-nevirapine-based-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv-infected-african-children
#12
Adeodata Kekitiinwa, Alexander J Szubert, Moira Spyer, Richard Katuramu, Victor Musiime, Tawanda Mhute, Sabrina Bakeera-Kitaka, Oscar Senfuma, Ann Sarah Walker, Diana M Gibb
BACKGROUND: Poorer virologic response to nevirapine- versus efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been reported in adult systematic reviews and pediatric studies. METHODS: We compared drug discontinuation and viral load (VL) response in ART-naïve Ugandan/Zimbabwean children ≥3 years of age initiating ART with clinician-chosen nevirapine versus efavirenz in the ARROW trial. Predictors of suppression <80, <400 and <1000 copies/mL at 36, 48 and 144 weeks were identified using multivariable logistic regression with backwards elimination (P = 0...
June 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499298/-cochlear-implant-state-of-the-art
#13
Thomas Lenarz
Cochlear implants are the treatment of choice for the auditory rehabilitation of patients with sensory deafness. They restore the missing function of inner hair cells by transforming the acoustic signal into electrical stimuli for activation of auditory nerve fibers. Due to the very fast technology development cochlear implants provide open-set speech understanding in the majority of patients including the use of the telephone. Children can achieve a near to normal speech and language development provided their deafness is detected early after onset and implantation is performed quickly thereafter...
April 2017: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498257/the-addition-of-adjuvant-chemotherapy-to-radiation-in-early-stage-high-risk-endometrial-cancer-survival-outcomes-and-patterns-of-care
#14
Dustin Boothe, Ned Williams, Bismarck Odei, Matthew M Poppe, Theresa L Werner, Gita Suneja, David K Gaffney
OBJECTIVE: Early-stage high-risk endometrial cancer (HREC) treated with adjuvant radiotherapy (aRT) alone has been associated with an increased risk of distant relapse. The addition of chemotherapy to radiotherapy (aCRT) may benefit overall survival (OS). We investigated the patterns-of-care and OS benefit of aCRT in HREC by analyzing a large national registry. METHODS: Our query was limited to patients with the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IB and II HREC with either papillary serous, clear cell, or grade 3 adenocarcinoma, diagnosed between 2004 and 2012...
June 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490196/effectiveness-of-second-line-antiretroviral-therapy-the-impact-of-drug-switches
#15
Letícia Penna Braga, Cássia Cristina Pinto Mendicino, Edna Afonso Reis, Ricardo Andrade Carmo, Cristiane Aparecida Menezes de Pádua
Including antiretroviral drug switches as a measure of ART failure could be more suitable than conventional measures to evaluate health outcomes in "real-world" settings. This is part of a historical cohort of HIV-infected adults who initiated ART from 2001-2005, and were followed up for a maximum of five years in three HIV/AIDS centers in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Follow-up information included data from 2001-2010. All patients switched from first-line ART were included. Second-line ART effectiveness was measured as the time-to-ART failure...
May 10, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481785/cyp2b6-516g-t-minor-allele-protective-of-late-virologic-failure-in-efavirenz-treated-hiv-infected-patients-in-botswana
#16
Marijana Vujkovic, Scarlett L Bellamy, Athena F Zuppa, Marc Gastonguay, Ganesh S Moorthy, Bakgaki R Ratshaa, Xiaoyan Han, Andrew P Steenhoff, Mosepele Mosepele, Brian L Strom, Richard Aplenc, Gregory P Bisson, Robert Gross
BACKGROUND: CYPB2B6 polymorphisms that affect efavirenz (EFV) concentrations are common, but the effect of this polymorphism on HIV virologic failure in clinical practice settings has not fully been elucidated. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between the CYPB2B6 516G>T genotype and late virologic failure in patients treated with EFV in Gaborone, Botswana. SETTING: We performed a case-control study that included 1,338 HIV-infected black Batswana on EFV-based antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480244/improving-tuberculosis-tb-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-treatment-monitoring-in-south-africa-evaluation-of-an-advanced-tb-hiv-course-for-healthcare-workers
#17
Sean Galagan, Suzanne Jed, Jeri Sumitani, Jennifer M Gilvydis, Albert Bakor, Richard Cooke, Evasen Naidoo, Debra Winters, Marcia R Weaver
BACKGROUND: South Africa has dual epidemics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB). Nurse-focused training was combined with onsite mentoring for nurses to improve HIV and TB care. A pre-/postevaluation was conducted in 3 districts in South Africa to assess the effects of the course on clinical patient monitoring and integration of TB and HIV care. METHODS: Two cross-sectional, unmatched samples of patient charts at 76 primary healthcare facilities were collected retrospectively in 2014 to evaluate the impact of training on treatment monitoring...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477212/efficacy-and-tolerability-of-switching-to-a-dual-therapy-with-darunavir-ritonavir-plus-raltegravir-in-hiv-infected-patients-with-hiv-1-rna-%C3%A2-50%C3%A2-cp-ml
#18
Giordano Madeddu, Stefano Rusconi, Alessandro Cozzi-Lepri, Simona Di Giambenedetto, Stefano Bonora, Alessia Carbone, Andrea De Luca, Nicola Gianotti, Antonio Di Biagio, Andrea Antinori
BACKGROUND: Nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) toxicity may represent a threat for long-term success of combined antiretroviral therapy. Some studies have suggested a possible improvement of NRTI-related toxicity after switching to NRTI-sparing regimens. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to explore the efficacy and tolerability of switching to darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) plus raltegravir (RAL) while having a viral load (VL) ≤50 copies/mL in the clinical setting...
May 5, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472928/using-the-multiphase-optimization-strategy-most-to-optimize-an-hiv-care-continuum-intervention-for-vulnerable-populations-a-study-protocol
#19
Marya Viorst Gwadz, Linda M Collins, Charles M Cleland, Noelle R Leonard, Leo Wilton, Monica Gandhi, R Scott Braithwaite, David C Perlman, Alexandra Kutnick, Amanda S Ritchie
BACKGROUND: More than half of persons living with HIV (PLWH) in the United States are insufficiently engaged in HIV primary care and not taking antiretroviral therapy (ART), mainly African Americans/Blacks and Hispanics. In the proposed project, a potent and innovative research methodology, the multiphase optimization strategy (MOST), will be employed to develop a highly efficacious, efficient, scalable, and cost-effective intervention to increase engagement along the HIV care continuum...
May 4, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472448/markers-of-gut-dysfunction-do-not-explain-low-rifampicin-bioavailability-in-hiv-associated-tb
#20
Christopher Vinnard, Shruthi Ravimohan, Neo Tamuhla, Jotam Pasipanodya, Shashikant Srivastava, Chawangwa Modongo, Nicola M Zetola, Drew Weissman, Tawanda Gumbo, Gregory P Bisson
Background: Rifampicin is the key drug responsible for sterilizing activities in the first-line TB treatment regimen. Damage to the gut during acute and chronic HIV infection may inhibit drug absorptive capacity. We sought to test the hypothesis that markers of intestinal damage, bacterial translocation and systemic immune activation would relate to rifampicin bioavailability among HIV/TB patients. Patients and methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of rifampicin pharmacokinetics in HIV/TB patients in Gaborone, Botswana...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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