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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453893/cbct-guided-evolutive-library-for-cervical-adaptive-imrt
#1
Bastien Rigaud, Antoine Simon, Maxime Gobeli, Caroline Lafond, Julie Leseur, Anais Barateau, Nicolas Jaksic, Joël Castelli, Danièle Williaume, Pascal Haigron, Renaud De Crevoisier
PURPOSE: In the context of adaptive radiation therapy (ART) for locally advanced cervical carcinoma (LACC), this study proposed an original cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)-guided "Evolutive library" and evaluated it against four other known radiotherapy (RT) strategies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For 20 patients who underwent intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for LACC, three planning CTs (with empty [EB], intermediate [IB], and full [FB] bladder volumes), a CT scan at 20 Gy and bi-weekly CBCTs for 5 weeks were performed...
February 17, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438196/antiretroviral-drug-concentrations-in-hair-are-associated-with-virologic-outcomes-among-young-people-living-with-hiv-in-tanzania
#2
Zachary J Tabb, Blandina T Mmbaga, Monica Gandhi, Alexander Louie, Karen Kuncze, Hideaki Okochi, Aisa M Shayo, Elizabeth L Turner, Coleen K Cunningham, Dorothy E Dow
OBJECTIVE: We assessed the relationship of self-reported adherence versus antiretroviral therapy (ART) concentrations in hair with virologic outcomes among young people living with HIV. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study that enrolled young people living with HIV age 11-24 years, who attended a youth HIV clinic in Moshi, Tanzania. METHODS: ART adherence was assessed by self-report, drug concentration in hair samples, and plasma HIV-1 RNA measurements...
February 12, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435471/hiv-1-drug-resistance-and-third-line-therapy-outcomes-in-patients-failing-second-line-therapy-in-zimbabwe
#3
Cleophas Chimbetete, David Katzenstein, Tinei Shamu, Adrian Spoerri, Janne Estill, Matthias Egger, Olivia Keiser
Objectives: To analyze the patterns and risk factors of HIV drug resistance mutations among patients failing second-line treatment and to describe early treatment responses to recommended third-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a national referral HIV clinic in Zimbabwe. Methods: Patients on boosted protease inhibitor (PI) regimens for more than 6 months with treatment failure confirmed by 2 viral load (VL) tests >1000 copies/mL were genotyped, and susceptibility to available antiretroviral drugs was estimated by the Stanford HIVdb program...
February 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431149/antiretroviral-therapy-suppresses-rectal-hiv-rna-shedding-despite-inflammation-in-msm-with-rectal-c-trachomatis-and-n-gonorrhoeae-infections-a-cross-sectional-single-center-study
#4
Julian Storim, Jens Verheyen, Eva Wolff, Jeremias Wohlschlaeger, Evelyn Heintschel von Heinegg, Dirk Schadendorf, Stefan Esser
OBJECTIVES: Rectal infections with Chlamydia trachomatis and/or Neisseria gonorrhoeae (CT/NG) are common in men who have sex with men (MSM) and are linked to HIV transmission. However, rectal CT/NG infections are often asymptomatic and it is not known how they contribute to HIV transmission. We assessed clinical and cytological signs of inflammation as well as rectal HIV-RNA in HIV-infected MSM with and without CT/NG infection. METHODS: 112 HIV-positive MSM with or without rectal symptoms and with or without antiretroviral therapy who underwent high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) at the proctological outpatient centre of the University Hospital Essen, Germany, between November 2013 and February 2014 were included in this cross-sectional study...
February 3, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419684/phylogenetic-and-temporal-dynamics-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-crf01_ae-and-crf07_bc-among-recently-infected-antiretroviral-therapy-na%C3%A3-ve-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-jiangsu-province-china-2012-to-2015-a-molecular-epidemiology-based-study
#5
Yue Yang, Xiu-Ping Zhao, Hua-Chun Zou, Min-Jie Chu, Ping Zhong, Xiao-Shan Li, Xiao-Yan Li, Yu-Hui Yu, Ke-Xin Zhu, Yu-Jia Chen, Fei Xia, Bo-Wen Zhu, Luan-Qi Ruan, Yi-Ning Bao, Xun Zhuang
The prevalence and incidence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) among men who have sex with men (MSM) are on the rise throughout China. With a large population of MSM, Jiangsu Province is facing an escalating HIV-1 epidemic.The aim of this study was to explore the phylogenetic and temporal dynamics of HIV-1 CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC among antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve MSM recently infected with HIV-1 in Jiangsu Province.We recruited MSM in Jiangsu Province (Suzhou, Wuxi, Nantong, Taizhou and Yancheng) 2012 to 2015...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29418062/2d-nanostructured-metal-hydroxides-with-gene-delivery-and-theranostic-functions-a-comprehensive-review
#6
REVIEW
Goeun Choi, Sairan Eom, Ajayan Vinu, Jin-Ho Choy
Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with two dimensional structure have been attracted considerable interest in exploring new intercalative nanohybrids, such as inorganic-LDHs, organic-LDHs and bio-LDHs ones, which often exhibit extraordinarily synergetic effects and complementary performances. More recently, bio-related nanotechnology becomes one of the most essential research field in the viewpoint of the health and safety of human being. In this regard, LDHs have been focused as an important inorganic material for gene and drug delivery carriers with imaging and targeting functions...
February 8, 2018: Chemical Record: An Official Publication of the Chemical Society of Japan ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390979/reduction-in-hiv-community-viral-loads-following-the-implementation-of-a-treatment-as-prevention-strategy-over-2%C3%A2-years-at-a-population-level-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-hangzhou-china
#7
Lin He, Jiezhe Yang, Qiaoqin Ma, Jiafeng Zhang, Yun Xu, Yan Xia, Wanjun Chen, Hui Wang, Jinlei Zheng, Jun Jiang, Yan Luo, Ke Xu, Xingliang Zhang, Shichang Xia, Xiaohong Pan
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that the increased coverage of antiretroviral therapy (ART) could reduce the community viral load (CVL) and reduce the occurrence of new HIV infections. However, the impact on the reduction of HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM) is much less certain. The frequency of HIV infections in MSM have been rapidly increasing in recent years in Hangzhou, China. The "Treatment as Prevention" strategy was implemented at a population-level for HIV-infected MSM from January 2014 to June 2016 in Hangzhou; it aimed to increase the ART coverage, reduce the CVL, and reduce HIV transmission...
February 1, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388732/long-term-effectiveness-of-recommended-boosted-protease-inhibitor-based-antiretroviral-therapy-in-europe
#8
J R Santos, A Cozzi-Lepri, A Phillips, S De Wit, C Pedersen, P Reiss, A Blaxhult, A Lazzarin, M Sluzhynska, C Orkin, C Duvivier, J Bogner, P Gargalianos-Kakolyris, P Schmid, G Hassoun, I Khromova, M Beniowski, V Hadziosmanovic, D Sedlacek, R Paredes, J D Lundgren
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate the long-term response to antiretroviral treatment (ART) based on atazanavir/ritonavir (ATZ/r)-, darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r)-, and lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r)-containing regimens. METHODS: Data were analysed for 5678 EuroSIDA-enrolled patients starting a DRV/r-, ATZ/r- or LPV/r-containing regimen between 1 January 2000 and 30 June 2013. Separate analyses were performed for the following subgroups of patients: (1) ART-naïve subjects (8%) at ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r) initiation; (2) ART-experienced individuals (44%) initiating the new PI/r with a viral load (VL) ≤500 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL; and (3) ART-experienced patients (48%) initiating the new PI/r with a VL >500 copies/mL...
February 1, 2018: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384862/plasma-soluble-factor-following-two-decades-prolonged-suppressive-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv-1-positive-males-a-cross-sectional-study
#9
Maike Sperk, Wang Zhang, Piotr Nowak, Ujjwal Neogi
Acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with a marked induction of several pathways that are linked to inflammation and CD4 T-cell depletion. Many of these processes do not fully resolve on short-term combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) (<5 years), despite complete and durable suppression of viremia. The effects of long-term (>15 years) successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) and the linkage between levels of biomarkers remain unclear. Therefore, the present study aims to assess the host plasma proteome in a well-defined clinical material from HIV-1-positive male patients on successful long-term ART (>15 years) and compared them with age-matched healthy controls and treatment-naïve male patients with viremia in a cross-sectional manner...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384717/false-positive-hiv-diagnoses-lessons-from-ugandan-and-russian-research-cohorts
#10
Sharon M Coleman, Natalia Gnatienko, Christine A Lloyd-Travaglini, Michael R Winter, Carly Bridden, Elena Blokhina, Dmitry Lioznov, Julian Adong, Jeffrey H Samet, Teri Liegler, Judith A Hahn
BACKGROUND: Research studies rely on accurate assessment of entry criteria in order to maintain study integrity and participant safety, however, challenges can exist with HIV studies in international settings. OBJECTIVE: Examine the unexpectedly high proportion of study participants with an undetectable HIV viral load found in Ugandan and Russian research cohorts meeting antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve entry criteria. METHODS: Russian participants with documented HIV and ART-naïve status were recruited between 2012 and 2015 from clinical and non-clinical sites in St...
January 31, 2018: HIV Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384493/iterative-reconstruction-with-boundary-detection-for-carbon-ion-computed-tomography
#11
Deepak Shrestha, Nan Qin, You Zhang, Faraz Kalantari, Shanzhou Niu, Xun Jia, Arnold Pompos, Steve B Jiang, Jing Wang
In heavy ion radiation therapy, improving the accuracy in range prediction of the ions inside the patient's body has become essential. Accurate localization of the Bragg peak provides greater conformity of the tumor while sparing healthy tissues. We investigated the use of carbon ions directly for computed tomography (carbon CT) to create the relative stopping power (RSP) map of a patient's body. The Geant4 toolkit was used to perform Monte Carlo simulation of the carbon ion trajectories, to study their lateral and angular deflections and the most likely paths (MLP), using a water phantom...
January 31, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384024/clinical-and-economic-effects-of-a-pharmacist-administered-antiretroviral-therapy-adherence-clinic-for-patients-living-with-hiv
#12
Thomas J Dilworth, Pamela W Klein, Renée-Claude Mercier, Matthew E Borrego, Bernadette Jakeman, Steven D Pinkerton
BACKGROUND: Pharmacists have demonstrated the ability to improve patient adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical and economic effects of a pharmacist-administered ART adherence clinic for patients living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS: This pilot study with a pretest-posttest design examined the effect of a pharmacy adherence clinic on patient HIV viral load and CD4 count over a 6-month period...
February 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381736/virologic-outcome-among-patients-receiving-antiretroviral-therapy-at-five-hospitals-in-haiti
#13
Frantz Jean Louis, Josiane Buteau, Kesner François, Erin Hulland, Jean Wysler Domerçant, Chunfu Yang, Jacques Boncy, Robert Burris, Valerie Pelletier, Nicholas Wagar, Varough Deyde, David W Lowrance, Macarthur Charles
INTRODUCTION: Viral load (VL) assessment is the preferred method for diagnosing and confirming virologic failure for patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study to evaluate the virologic suppression rate among patients on ART for ≥6 months in five hospitals around Port-au-Prince, Haiti. METHODS: Plasma VL was measured and patients with VL <1,000 copies/mL were defined as virologically suppressed. A second VL test was performed within at least six months of the first test...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377283/soluble-cd14-cd163-and-cd27-biomarkers-distinguish-art-suppressed-youth-living-with-hiv-from-healthy-controls
#14
Julie C Williams, Xinrui Zhang, Manju Karki, Yueh-Yun Chi, Shannon M Wallet, Bret J Rudy, Sharon L Nichols, Maureen M Goodenow, John W Sleasman
OBJECTIVE: To define inflammatory pathways in youth living with HIV infection (YLWH), assessments of biomarkers associated with lymphocyte and macrophage activation, vascular injury, or bone metabolism were performed in YLWH in comparison with healthy controls (HC). DESIGN:  Longitudinal multicenter study comparing biomarkers in YLWH suppressed on antiretroviral therapy (ART), those with ongoing viral replication, and HC were compared using single blood samples obtained at end of study...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372290/patient-positioning-in-head-and-neck-cancer-setup-variations-and-safety-margins-in-helical-tomotherapy
#15
Christina Leitzen, Timo Wilhelm-Buchstab, Thomas Müdder, Martina Heimann, David Koch, Christopher Schmeel, Birgit Simon, Sabina Stumpf, Susanne Vornholt, Stephan Garbe, Fred Röhner, Felix Schoroth, Hans Heinz Schild, Heinrich Schüller
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the interfractional variations of patient positioning during intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with helical tomotherapy in head and neck cancer and to calculate the required safety margins (sm) for bony landmarks resulting from the necessary table adjustments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In all, 15 patients with head and neck cancer were irradiated using the Hi-Art II tomotherapy system between April and September 2016. Before therapy sessions, patient position was frequently checked by megavolt computed tomography (MV-CT)...
January 25, 2018: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372000/highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-alters-sperm-parameters-and-testicular-antioxidant-status-in-diet-induced-obese-rats
#16
Ibukun P Oyeyipo, Bongekile T Skosana, Frans P Everson, Hans Strijdom, Stefan S du Plessis
The efficacy of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has led to an increase demand for therapeutic use, thereby necessitating investigation into drug toxicity. This study was designed to investigate the in vivo effects of HAART on sperm parameters and testicular oxidative stress in lean and obese rats. Wistar rats (males, n = 40, weighing 180~200 g) were assigned randomly into 4 groups and treated accordingly for 16 weeks as follows: Control (C): lean group fed with standard rat chow; Diet induced obesity (DIO): obese animals fed a high caloric diet; C + ART: lean animals treated with HAART; DIO + ART: obese animals treated with HAART...
January 2018: Toxicological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370816/prevalence-of-lower-limb-deep-venous-thrombosis-among-adult-hiv-positive-patients-attending-an-outpatient-clinic-at-mulago-hospital
#17
Sosthene Tsongo Vululi, Samuel Bugeza, Muyinda Zeridah, Henry Ddungu, Akello Betty Openy, Mubiru Frank, Rosalind Parkes-Ratanshi
BACKGROUND: Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and its major complication pulmonary embolism (PE) are collectively known as venous thromboembolism. In Uganda, the prevalence of DVT among HIV patients has not been previously published. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and sonographic features of lower limb deep venous thrombosis among HIV positive patients on anti-retroviral treatment (ART). METHODS: This was a cross sectional study in which HIV positive patients on ART were recruited from an out-patient HIV clinic at Mulago National Referral Hospital...
January 25, 2018: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29365279/hiv-gp120-in-lungs-of-art-treated-individuals-impairs-alveolar-macrophage-responses-to-pneumococci
#18
Paul J Collini, Martin A Bewley, Mohamed Mohasin, Helen M Marriott, Robert F Miller, Anna-Maria Geretti, Apostolos Beloukas, Athanasios Papadimitropoulos, Robert C Read, Mahdad Noursadeghi, David H Dockrell
Rationale People living with HIV (PLWH) are at significantly increased risk of invasive pneumococcal disease, despite long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART). The mechanism explaining this observation remains undefined. Objectives We hypothesized apoptosis-associated microbicidal mechanisms, required to clear intracellular pneumococci that survive initial phagolysosomal killing, are perturbed. Methods Alveolar macrophages (AM) were obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from healthy donors or HIV-1-seropositive donors on long-term ART with undetectable plasma viral load...
January 24, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360841/does-directly-administered-antiretroviral-therapy-represent-good-value-for-money-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-cost-utility-and-value-of-information-analysis
#19
Rashidah T Uthman, Andrew J Sutton, Louise J Jackson, Olalekan A Uthman
BACKGROUND: Successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) relies on the optimal level of ART adherence to achieve reliable viral suppression, avert HIV drug resistance, and prevent avoidable deaths. It has been shown that there are various groups of people living with HIV at high-risk of non-adherence to ART in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to examine the cost effectiveness and value-of-information of directly administered antiretroviral therapy (DAART) versus self-administered ART among people living with HIV, at high risk of non-adherence to ART in sub-Saharan Africa...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357671/the-management-of-young-people-who-self-harm-by-new-zealand-infant-child-and-adolescent-mental-health-services-cutting-edge-or-cutting-corners
#20
Hiran Thabrew, Ernest Gandeza, Giselle Bahr, David Bettany, Chris Bampton, Emily Cooney, Nikki Coleman, Jemaima Tiatia-Seath
OBJECTIVES: Self-harm is common in New Zealand (NZ) young people and can have short-term and long-term consequences, including suicide. This study was undertaken to examine the extent to which evidence-based approaches for addressing self-harm are offered by Infant, Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (ICAMHS). METHODS: A national survey of ICAMHS practitioners working with young people who self-harm was undertaken between May and July 2016. RESULTS: Responses from 23 out of 30 ICAMHS confirmed self-harm was a familiar presentation and most commonly associated with diagnoses of depression, anxiety and borderline personality disorder...
January 1, 2018: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
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