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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227379/parallel-generation-of-digitally-reconstructed-radiographs-on-heterogeneous-multi-gpu-workstations
#1
Marwan Abdellah, Asem Abdelaziz, E M B S Eslam Ali, Sherief Abdelaziz, Abdelrahman Sayed, Mohamed I Owis, Ayman Eldeib, Marwan Abdellah, Asem Abdelaziz, E M B S Eslam Ali, Sherief Abdelaziz, Abdelrahman Sayed, Mohamed I Owis, Ayman Eldeib, Sherief Abdelaziz, Mohamed I Owis, Abdelrahman Sayed, Marwan Abdellah, Asem Abdelaziz, Eslam Ali, Ayman Eldeib
The growing importance of three-dimensional radiotherapy treatment has been associated with the active presence of advanced computational workflows that can simulate conventional x-ray films from computed tomography (CT) volumetric data to create digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR). These simulated x-ray images are used to continuously verify the patient alignment in image-guided therapies with 2D-3D image registration. The present DRR rendering pipelines are quite limited to handle huge imaging stacks generated by recent state-of-the-art CT imaging modalities...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225830/ex-vivo-activation-of-cd4-t-cells-from-donors-on-suppressive-art-can-lead-to-sustained-production-of-infectious-hiv-1-from-a-subset-of-infected-cells
#2
John K Bui, Elias K Halvas, Elizabeth Fyne, Michele D Sobolewski, Dianna Koontz, Wei Shao, Brian Luke, Feiyu F Hong, Mary F Kearney, John W Mellors
The fate of HIV-infected cells after reversal of proviral latency is not well characterized. Simonetti, et al. recently showed that CD4+ T-cells containing intact proviruses can clonally expand in vivo and produce low-level infectious viremia. We hypothesized that reversal of HIV latency by activation of CD4+ T-cells can lead to the expansion of a subset of virus-producing cells rather than their elimination. We established an ex vivo cell culture system involving stimulation of CD4+ T-cells from donors on suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) with PMA/ionomycin (day 1-7), followed by rest (day 7-21), and then repeat stimulation (day 21-28), always in the presence of high concentrations of raltegravir and efavirenz to effectively block new cycles of viral replication...
February 22, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220254/hiv-1-persistent-viremia-is-frequently-followed-by-episodes-of-low-level-viremia
#3
Marek Widera, Miriam Dirks, Barbara Bleekmann, Robert Jablonka, Martin Däumer, Hauke Walter, Robert Ehret, Jens Verheyen, Stefan Esser
After the start of antiretroviral therapy (ART), plasma HIV-RNA levels should fall below the limit of detection (LOD) within 24 weeks. Hence, the prolonged decline of HIV-RNA after ART initiation is defined as persistent viremia (PV). In this retrospective study, we analyzed factors associated with PV. Next-generation sequencing of viral RNA/DNA was performed to study viral evolution and the emergence of drug-resistance mutations in HIV-infected patients with PV (n = 20). In addition, HIV-DNA species, immunological parameters, and clinical data of the patients were analyzed...
February 20, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217753/lymphadenectomy-state-of-the-art
#4
REVIEW
Daniele Marrelli, Lorenzo De Franco, Livio Iudici, Karol Polom, Franco Roviello
The extent of lymphadenectomy in gastric cancer (GC) surgery has been for long time a matter of debate. Randomized trials performed in the West reported worse results of D2 dissection, in terms of postoperative complications and long-term survival benefit, than Eastern series and observational studies from specialized Western centers. However, long-term re-evaluation of such trials and in depth-analysis of other experiences demonstrated the potential benefit of D2 in reducing the probability of cancer-related death and the safety of this procedure when avoiding unnecessary spleno-pancreatectomy and in centers with ad adequate surgical volume...
2017: Transl Gastroenterol Hepatol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213648/-state-of-the-art-in-fluid-and-volume-therapy-a%C3%A2-user-friendly-staged-concept
#5
M Rehm, N Hulde, T Kammerer, A S Meidert, K Hofmann-Kiefer
Adequate fluid therapy is highly important for the perioperative outcome of our patients. Both, hypovolemia and hypervolemia can lead to an increase in perioperative complications and can impair the outcome. Therefore, perioperative infusion therapy should be target-oriented. The main target is to maintain the patient's preoperative normovolemia by using a sophisticated, rational infusion strategy.Perioperative fluid losses should be discriminated from volume losses (surgical blood loss or interstitial volume losses containing protein)...
February 17, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212138/deep-learning-in-mammography-diagnostic-accuracy-of-a-multipurpose-image-analysis-software-in-the-detection-of-breast-cancer
#6
Anton S Becker, Magda Marcon, Soleen Ghafoor, Moritz C Wurnig, Thomas Frauenfelder, Andreas Boss
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a multipurpose image analysis software based on deep learning with artificial neural networks for the detection of breast cancer in an independent, dual-center mammography data set. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant study, all patients undergoing mammography in 2012 at our institution were reviewed (n = 3228). All of their prior and follow-up mammographies from a time span of 7 years (2008-2015) were considered as a reference for clinical diagnosis...
February 16, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210478/the-twin-epidemic-in-infertility-care-why-do-we-persist-in-transferring-too-many-embryos
#7
EDITORIAL
W Ombelet
The epidemic of iatrogenic multiple births as a result of infertility treatment are responsible for an unacceptable high incidence of maternal, perinatal and childhood morbidity and mortality. Healthcare costs due to infertility therapy are too high and this may lead to social and political concern. The introduction of single embryo transfer (SET) was a real breakthrough, but was only accepted in most European countries and Japan. The United States, Latin America and most developing countries still have high multiple pregnancy rates...
December 2016: Facts, Views & Vision in ObGyn
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205307/segmentation-of-organs-at-risks-in-head-and-neck-ct-images-using-convolutional-neural-networks
#8
Bulat Ibragimov, Lei Xing
PURPOSE: Accurate segmentation of organs-at-risks (OARs) is the key step for efficient planning of radiation therapy for head and neck (HaN) cancer treatment. In the work, we proposed the first deep learning-based algorithm, for segmentation of OARs in HaN CT images, and compared its performance against state-of-the-art automated segmentation algorithms, commercial software, and interobserver variability. METHODS: Convolutional neural networks (CNNs)-a concept from the field of deep learning-were used to study consistent intensity patterns of OARs from training CT images and to segment the OAR in a previously unseen test CT image...
February 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191592/what-is-the-clinical-evidence-on-regenerative-medicine-in-intervertebral-disc-degeneration
#9
REVIEW
M Basso, L Cavagnaro, A Zanirato, S Divano, C Formica, M Formica, L Felli
PURPOSE: This review aims to explore and summarize the current clinical evidence about the use of regenerative medicine such as mesenchymal stem cells or platelet-rich plasma in intervertebral disc regeneration, in order to clarify the state of art of these novel approaches. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a research of the available literature about regenerative medicine strategies aiming to prevent intervertebral disc degeneration. All preclinical trials and in vitro studies were excluded...
February 13, 2017: Musculoskeletal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187212/an-analysis-of-drug-resistance-among-people-living-with-hiv-aids-in-shanghai-china
#10
Fengdi Zhang, Li Liu, Meiyan Sun, Jianjun Sun, Hongzhou Lu
BACKGROUND: Understanding the mechanisms of drug resistance can facilitate better management of antiretroviral therapy, helping to prevent transmission and decrease the morbidity and mortality of people living with HIV/AIDS. However, there is little data about transmitted drug resistance and acquired drug resistance for HIV/AIDS patients in Shanghai. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected patients who visited the Department of Infectious Disease from June 2008 to June 2015 was conducted in Shanghai, China...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170305/impact-of-depression-and-anxiety-on-initiation-of-antiretroviral-therapy-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-with-newly-diagnosed-hiv-infections-in-china
#11
Jun Tao, Sten H Vermund, Hongyan Lu, Yuhua Ruan, Bryan E Shepherd, Aaron M Kipp, K Rivet Amico, Xiangjun Zhang, Yiming Shao, Han-Zhu Qian
Depression and anxiety are common among persons recently diagnosed with HIV infection. We examined whether depression or anxiety was associated with delayed initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) among a prospective cohort of Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM) who were newly diagnosed with HIV. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used for measuring depression and anxiety, with scores of 0-7, 8-10, and 11-21 representing normal, borderline, and likely, respectively. ART initiation information was extracted from the National ART Database...
February 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162034/persons-living-with-hiv-infection-on-antiretroviral-therapy-also-consulting-traditional-healers-a-study-in-three-african-countries
#12
Jane N Wanyama, Sharon Tsui, Cynthia Kwok, Rhoda K Wanyenze, Julie A Denison, Olivier Koole, Eric van Praag, Barbara Castelnuovo, Fred Wabwire-Mangen, Gideon P Kwesigabo, Robert Colebunders
Traditional healers provide healthcare to a substantial proportion of people living with HIV infection (PLHIV) in high HIV burden countries in sub-Saharan Africa. However, the impact on the health of retained patients visiting traditional healers is unknown. In 2011, a study to asses adherence to anti-retroviral therapy (ART) performed in 18 purposefully selected HIV treatment centers in Tanzania, Zambia and Uganda showed that 'consulting a traditional healer/herbalist because of HIV' was an independent risk factor for incomplete ART adherence...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160158/hypofractionated-whole-breast-radiotherapy-in-breast-conservation-for-early-stage-breast-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-trials
#13
REVIEW
Luca F Valle, Surbhi Agarwal, Kathleen E Bickel, Haley A Herchek, David C Nalepinski, Nirav S Kapadia
PURPOSE: Breast conservation therapy (BCT) for early-stage breast cancer involves lumpectomy followed by whole breast radiotherapy, which can involve either standard fractionation (SRT) or accelerated fractionation (ART). This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to determine whether any benefit exists for ART or SRT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched MEDLINE (1966-2014), all seven databases of the Cochrane Library (1968-2014), EMBASE (1974-2014), clinicaltrials...
February 3, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146591/high-levels-of-transmitted-hiv-drug-resistance-in-a-study-in-papua-new-guinea
#14
Evelyn Lavu, Ellan Kave, Euodia Mosoro, Jessica Markby, Eman Aleksic, Janet Gare, Imogen A Elsum, Gideon Nano, Petronia Kaima, Nick Dala, Anup Gurung, Silvia Bertagnolio, Suzanne M Crowe, Mark Myatt, Anna C Hearps, Michael R Jordan
INTRODUCTION: Papua New Guinea is a Pacific Island nation of 7.3 million people with an estimated HIV prevalence of 0.8%. ART initiation and monitoring are guided by clinical staging and CD4 cell counts, when available. Little is known about levels of transmitted HIV drug resistance in recently infected individuals in Papua New Guinea. METHODS: Surveillance of transmitted HIV drug resistance in a total of 123 individuals recently infected with HIV and aged less than 30 years was implemented in Port Moresby (n = 62) and Mount Hagen (n = 61) during the period May 2013-April 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146189/-young-women-with-hiv-infection-acquired-by-vertical-transmission-expectations-of-having-uninfected-children
#15
Julia Villarroel, Ana M Álvarez, Francisco Salvador, Ana Chávez, Elba Wu, Verónica Contardo
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART), changed the prognosis of the disease, allowing young women infected by vertical transmission (TV) to be pregnant without risk for their fetus of acquiring this infection. AIM: To describe the clinical-immune status in pregnant women that acquired HV by vertical transmission, treatments received, monitoring of pregnancy and newborn characteristics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A protocol was performed, evaluating clinical and immunological parameters during pregnancy, ART used, protocol preventing vertical transmission (PPTV), and follow up of children to 18 months of age...
December 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143756/real-world-persistence-with-antiretroviral-therapy-for-hiv-in-the-united-kingdom-a-multicentre-retrospective-cohort-study
#16
Joseph M Lewis, Colette Smith, Adele Torkington, Craig Davies, Shazaad Ahmad, Andrew Tomkins, Jonathan Shaw, Margaret Kingston, Ghadeer Muqbill, Philip Hay, Larissa Mulka, Deborah Williams, Laura Waters, Nataliya Brima, Neal Marshall, Margaret Johnson, Mas Chaponda, Mark Nelson
OBJECTIVES: Persistence with an antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen for HIV can be defined as the length of time a patient remains on therapy before stopping or switching. We aimed to describe ART persistence in treatment naïve patients starting therapy in the United Kingdom, and to describe differential persistence by treatment regimen. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study at eight UK centres of ART-naïve adults commencing ART between 2012 and 2015...
January 29, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137529/a-comparative-study-of-art-therapy-in-cancer-patients-receiving-chemotherapy-and-improvement-in-quality-of-life-by-watercolor-painting
#17
H Bozcuk, K Ozcan, C Erdogan, H Mutlu, M Demir, S Coskun
BACKGROUND: There is limited data on the role of art therapy used in cancer patients. We wanted to test the effect of painting art therapy provided by a dedicated professional painting artist on quality of life and anxiety and depression levels in patients having chemotherapy. METHODS: Cancer patients having chemotherapy in the day unit of a medical oncology department of a university hospital were offered to take part in a painting art therapy program (PATP). This program consisted of a professional painting artist facilitating and helping patients to perform painting during their chemotherapy sessions while they were in the day unit, as well as supplying them painting material for home practice...
February 2017: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126309/smart-radiation-therapy-biomaterials
#18
REVIEW
Wilfred Ngwa, Francis Boateng, Rajiv Kumar, Darrell J Irvine, Silvia Formenti, Twalib Ngoma, Carsten Herskind, Marlon R Veldwijk, Georg Lars Hildenbrand, Michael Hausmann, Frederik Wenz, Juergen Hesser
Radiation therapy (RT) is a crucial component of cancer care, used in the treatment of over 50% of cancer patients. Patients undergoing image guided RT or brachytherapy routinely have inert RT biomaterials implanted into their tumors. The single function of these RT biomaterials is to ensure geometric accuracy during treatment. Recent studies have proposed that the inert biomaterials could be upgraded to "smart" RT biomaterials, designed to do more than 1 function. Such smart biomaterials include next-generation fiducial markers, brachytherapy spacers, and balloon applicators, designed to respond to stimuli and perform additional desirable functions like controlled delivery of therapy-enhancing payloads directly into the tumor subvolume while minimizing normal tissue toxicities...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124959/-prevalence-of-human-leukocyte-antigen-hla-b-57-01-in-hiv-infected-patients
#19
Aydın Deveci, Ahmet Yılmaz Çoban, Belma Durupınar
Deaths related with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections have been decreased by the introduction of combined anti-retroviral therapy (ART) into the clinical practice. Combined ART usually consists of two nucleoside/nucleotide analogs reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) that is called backbone and a third drug that belongs to either non-nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI), protease inhibitors (PI), integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTI) or entry inhibitors. During abacavir therapy which is a member of NRTI, hypersensitivity reactions can occur approximately 4-9% of the patients that lead difficulties for the management of HIV infections...
October 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124435/current-applications-and-limitations-of-surgical-treatments-for-movement-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Paul Krack, Raul Martinez-Fernandez, Marta Del Alamo, Jose A Obeso
Functional neurosurgery for the treatment of both psychiatric and neurological disorders has been performed regularly since the 1940s. However, misuse in the early days and the appearance of effective medical treatments, such as levodopa and neuroleptic drugs, greatly reduced surgical approaches over several decades. The development of a comprehensive model of basal ganglia pathophysiology in the 1990s facilitated the resurgence of functional neurosurgery, mainly for the treatment of levodopa-related motor complications in Parkinson's disease...
January 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
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