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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165663/oral-contraceptives-and-cigarette-smoking-a-review-of-the-literature-and-future-directions
#1
Alicia M Allen, Andrea H Weinberger, Reagan R Wetherill, Carol L Howe, Sherry A McKee
Introduction: Evidence continues to mount indicating that endogenous sex hormones (e.g., progesterone and estradiol) play a significant role in smoking-related outcomes. Although approximately 1 out of 4 premenopausal smokers use oral contraceptives (OCs), which significantly alter progesterone and estradiol levels, relatively little is known about how OCs may influence smoking-related outcomes. Thus, the goal of this review paper is to describe the state of the literature and offer recommendations for future directions...
November 18, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165645/down-regulation-of-mir-378a-3p-induces-decidual-cell-apoptosis-a-possible-mechanism-for-early-pregnancy-loss
#2
Lihua Hong, Tiantian Yu, Haiyan Xu, Ningning Hou, Qi Cheng, Lihua Lai, Qingqing Wang, Jianzhong Sheng, Hefeng Huang
STUDY QUESTION: Do microRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to human early pregnancy loss (EPL)? SUMMARY ANSWER: miR-378a-3p expression is regulated by progesterone and is down-regulated in ducidua of EPL patients which may contribute to decidual apoptosis through Caspase-3 activation. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: A variety of miRNAs have been demonstrated to be associated with the development of decidualization and placental formation. However, little has been reported on the roles of miRNA in the pathogenesis of EPL...
November 18, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165555/prenatal-exposure-to-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-dehp-disrupts-ovarian-function-in-a-transgenerational-manner-in-female-mice
#3
Saniya Rattan, Emily Brehm, Liying Gao, Sarah Niermann, Jodi A Flaws
Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer found in polyvinyl chloride products such as vinyl flooring, plastic food containers, medical devices, and children's toys. DEHP is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant and is a known endocrine disrupting chemical. Little is known about the effects of prenatal DEHP exposure on the ovary and whether effects occur in subsequent generations. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to DEHP disrupts ovarian functions in the F1, F2, and F3 generations of female mice...
November 20, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164263/plasma-leptin-and-premenstrual-syndrome-a-review
#4
Zaira Fernanda Martinho Nicolau, Andréia Gomes Bezerra, Daniel Ninello Polesel, Monica Levy Andersen, Sergio Tufik, Helena Hachul
Importance: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is characterized by physical and psychological symptoms in the luteal phase. Leptin can influence PMS as it acts on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate data in the literature about the profile of plasma leptin in women with PMS. Evidence Acquisition: We performed a search of databases using both descriptors. Three studies were identified. They included 181 participants...
November 2017: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164052/development-of-novel-patient-derived-xenografts-from-breast-cancer-brain-metastases
#5
María J Contreras-Zárate, D Ryan Ormond, Austin E Gillen, Colton Hanna, Nicole L Day, Natalie J Serkova, Britta M Jacobsen, Susan M Edgerton, Ann D Thor, Virginia F Borges, Kevin O Lillehei, Michael W Graner, Peter Kabos, Diana M Cittelly
Brain metastases are an increasing burden among breast cancer patients, particularly for those with HER2(+) and triple negative (TN) subtypes. Mechanistic insight into the pathophysiology of brain metastases and preclinical validation of therapies has relied almost exclusively on intracardiac injection of brain-homing cells derived from highly aggressive TN MDA-MB-231 and HER2(+) BT474 breast cancer cell lines. Yet, these well characterized models are far from representing the tumor heterogeneity observed clinically and, due to their fast progression in vivo, their suitability to validate therapies for established brain metastasis remains limited...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163791/abnormal-cyp11a1-gene-expression-induces-excessive-autophagy-contributing-to-the-pathogenesis-of-preeclampsia
#6
Tianying Pan, Guolin He, Meng Chen, Chenyi Bao, Yan Chen, Guangyu Liu, Mi Zhou, Shuying Li, Wenming Xu, Xinghui Liu
Objective: In this study, we investigated the exact mechanism by which excessive CYP11A1 expression impairs the placentation process and whether this causes preeclampsia (PE) in an in vivo model. Setting and Design: In order to study CYP11A1 overexpression, BeWo cells were transfected with CYP11A1. Pregnenolone, progesterone, and testosterone levels were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays, and levels of autophagy markers were quantified by western blotting and immunofluorescence...
October 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163762/bmal1-facilitates-trophoblast-migration-and-invasion-via-sp1-dnmt1-dab2ip-pathway-in-recurrent-spontaneous-abortion
#7
Shang Li, Junyu Zhai, Jiansheng Liu, Yan Hong, Weixiu Zhao, Aimin Zhao, Kang Sun, Yanzhi Du, Zi-Jiang Chen
The underlying mechanism about rhythms and epigenetics leading to aberrant trophoblast migration and invasion in recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) remains unknown. Brain and muscle ARNT-like protein 1 (BMAL1) is considered as a crucial role in fertility, and polymorphism of BMAL1 gene has been reported to be associated with risk of miscarriage. However, the functional role of BMAL1 in RSA is not fully understood. Previous study shows the descended expression of DNA 5'-cytosine-methyltransferases 1 (DNMT1) in the villous of early pregnancy loss...
October 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163355/regulation-of-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-1-5-signaling-genes-by-estradiol-is-age-dependent
#8
Bradly M Bauman, Weiling Yin, Andrea C Gore, T John Wu
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a key regulatory molecule of the hypothalamus-pituitary (PIT)-gonadal (HPG) axis that ultimately leads to the downstream release of estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P). These gonadal steroids feed back to the hypothalamus and PIT to regulate reproductive function and behavior. While GnRH is thought to be the master regulator of reproduction, its metabolic product GnRH-(1-5) is also biologically active. Thimet oligopeptidase 1 (also known as EP24.15) cleaves GnRH to form GnRH-(1-5)...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162724/progesterone-receptor-a-promotes-invasiveness-and-metastasis-of-luminal-breast-cancer-by-suppressing-regulation-of-critical-micro-rnas-by-estrogen
#9
Thomas McFall, Brooke McKnight, Rayna Rosati, Seongho Kim, Yanfang Huang, Nerissa Viola-Villegas, Manohar Ratnam
Distal metastasis of luminal breast cancer is frequent and incurable, yet the metastasis mechanisms are poorly understood. Estrogen, even at postmenopausal concentrations, suppresses invasiveness of luminal breast cancer cells through the estrogen receptor (ER). Invasive tumors overexpress the short progesterone receptor A (PR-A) isoform. Even at postmenopausal concentrations, progesterone activates PR-A, inducing invasiveness by counteracting estrogens effects, particularly when cells are hyper-sensitized to progesterone by PR-A overexpression...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161960/efficacy-and-safety-of-long-term-use-of-dienogest-in-women-with-ovarian-endometrioma
#10
Sa Ra Lee, Kyong Wook Yi, Jae Yen Song, Seok Kyo Seo, Dong-Yun Lee, SiHyun Cho, Sung Hoon Kim
Dienogest (DNG) is a progestin with highly selective progesterone activity and minimal androgenic activity and is helpful in reducing endometriosis-related pain. This study assessed the long-term efficacy and safety and recurrence rate of endometrioma with DNG use beyond 12 months of treatment. A retrospective cohort study was conducted with data collected from 7 university-affiliated hospitals and included a total of 514 women with ovarian endometrioma. All patients received 2 mg of oral DNG daily for at least 48 weeks postoperatively...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161658/reproductive-performance-of-lactating-dairy-cows-after-inducing-ovulation-using-hcg-in-a-five-day-progesterone-based-fixed-time-ai-protocol
#11
I Garcia-Ispierto, F De Rensis, X Casas, F Caballero, R Mur-Novales, F López-Gatius
This study compares the effects of inducing ovulation using human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) at the end of a 5-day progesterone(P4)-based protocol for fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) in lactating dairy cows on ovarian dynamics and fertility. A P4 intravaginal device (PRID) was fitted for five days and GnRH administered upon PRID insertion and a double dose (24 h apart) of prostaglandin F2α upon PRID removal. Cows received either GnRH (GnRH group; n = 98), 1000 IU hCG (hCG-1 group; n = 97), or 3000 IU hCG (hCG-2 group; n = 104) 36 h after PRID removal and were inseminated 50-56 h after PRID removal...
November 15, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159311/the-response-of-the-menstrual-cycle-to-initiation-of-hormonal-therapy-in-transgender-men
#12
Shazia Ahmad, Matthew Leinung
Purpose: Transition from female to male gender after initiation of hormonal therapy involves both phenotypic and physiological changes. The response to treatment can vary widely from person to person. In this study, we looked at the response of the menstrual cycle after the initiation of testosterone therapy and we wished to determine the time period and dose of testosterone leading to the cessation of menses in transgender men. Methods: A retrospective chart review of 114 transgender men (individuals assigned female gender at birth but later identify themselves as males) seen for hormonal therapy in our transgender clinic from 2006 through 2016...
2017: Transgender Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158255/nitro-fatty-acid-inhibition-of-triple-negative-breast-cancer-cell-viability-migration-invasion-and-tumor-growth
#13
Chen-Shan Chen Woodcock, Yi Huang, Steven R Woodcock, Sonia R Salvatore, Bhupinder Singh, Franca Golin-Bisello, Nancy E Davidson, Carola Neumann, Bruce A Freeman, Stacy G Wendell
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) comprises ~20% of all breast cancers and is the most aggressive mammary cancer subtype. Devoid of the estrogen and progesterone receptors, along with the receptor tyrosine kinase ERB2 (HER2) that define most mammary cancers, there are no targeted therapies for patients with TNBC. This, combined with a high metastatic rate and a lower 5-year survival rate than for other breast cancer phenotypes, means there is significant unmet need for new therapeutic strategies. Herein, the anti-neoplastic effects of the electrophilic fatty acid nitroalkene derivative, 10-nitro-octadec-9-enoic acid (nitro-oleic acid, NO2-OA), were investigated in multiple preclinical models of TNBC...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157995/in-the-ovine-pituitary-cxcr4-is-localized-in-gonadotropes-and-somatotropes-and-increases-with-elevated-serum-progesterone
#14
N S Sanchez, K E Quinn, A K Ashley, R L Ashley
The pituitary is the central endocrine regulator of reproduction and in addition to various hormones regulating its actions, other molecules, such as chemokines, influence pituitary physiology as well. Despite reports over 2 decades ago that chemokines regulate the pituitary, much of the basic biology discerning chemokine action in the pituitary is unclear. A small number of chemokines and their receptors have been localized to the pituitary, yet chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12) and its receptor, CXCR4, have received the most attention as both are increased in human pituitary adenomas...
October 28, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157955/development-of-a-goat-model-for-evaluation-of-withaferin-a-cervical-implants-for-the-treatment-of-cervical-intraepithelial-neoplasia
#15
Leslie C Sherwood, Farrukh Aqil, Manicka V Vadhanam, Jeyaprakash Jeyabalan, Radha Munagala, David Hoetker, Sanjay Srivastava, Inder P Singh, Scott Cambron, Martin O'Toole, Wendy Spencer, Lynn P Parker, Ramesh C Gupta
Cervical cancer is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). The disease develops over many years through a series of precancerous lesions. Cervical cancer can be prevented by HPV-vaccination, screening and treatment of precancer before development of cervical cancer. The treatment of high-grade cervical dysplasia (CIN(2+)) has traditionally been by cervical conization. Surgical procedures are associated with increased risk of undesirable side effects including bleeding, infection, scarring (stenosis), infertility and complications in later pregnancies...
November 17, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157866/vaginal-progesterone-for-preventing-preterm-birth-and-adverse-perinatal-outcomes-in-singleton-gestations-with-a-short-cervix-a-meta-analysis-of-individual-patient-data
#16
Roberto Romero, Agustin Conde-Agudelo, Eduardo Da Fonseca, John M O'Brien, Elcin Cetingoz, George W Creasy, Sonia S Hassan, Kypros H Nicolaides
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of vaginal progesterone for preventing preterm birth and adverse perinatal outcomes in singleton gestations with a short cervix has been questioned after publication of the OPPTIMUM study. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether vaginal progesterone prevents preterm birth and improves perinatal outcomes in asymptomatic women with a singleton gestation and a midtrimester sonographic short cervix. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and CINAHL (from their inception to September 2017), Cochrane databases, bibliographies, and conference proceedings...
November 16, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157356/effect-of-exogenous-progesterone-on-embryo-size-and-ewe-uterine-gene-expression-in-an-ovine-dam-size-model-of-maternal-constraint
#17
Lisanne M Fermin, Sarah J Pain, Patrick C H Morel, Kristene R Gedye, Paul R Kenyon, Hugh T Blair
Progesterone (P4), acting via its receptor, regulates uterine function and histotroph production, which are crucial to embryo growth. This study aimed to examine exogenous P4 effects on embryo size and differential endometrial gene expression at Day 19 of gestation using a 'dam size' sheep model of maternal constraint. Purebred Suffolk (S, genotypically large) embryos were transferred into recipient groups of Cheviot (C, genotypically small) or Suffolk ewes that had, or had not, been pre-treated with P4 from Days 0 to 6 of pregnancy...
November 21, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157280/the-effects-of-progesterones-on-blood-lipids-in-hormone-replacement-therapy
#18
REVIEW
Yifan Jiang, Weijie Tian
The safety of progestogens as a class has drawn much attention after the publication of data from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) trial, particularly with respect to cardiovascular disease. Depending on the chemical structure, pharmacokinetics, receptor affinity and potency of action, progestogens have a divergent range of properties that may translate to very different clinical effects. The purpose of this review is to describe the role of varied progestogens in hormone replacement therapy (HRT), especially focusing on blood lipids, which are the most important parameters for assessing cardiovascular disease risk...
November 21, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157197/selection-for-female-traits-of-high-fertility-affects-male-reproductive-performance-and-alters-the-testicular-transcriptional-profile
#19
Marten Michaelis, Alexander Sobczak, Dirk Koczan, Martina Langhammer, Norbert Reinsch, Jennifer Schoen, Joachim M Weitzel
BACKGROUND: Many genes important for reproductive performance are shared by both sexes. However, fecundity indices are primarily based on female parameters such as litter size. We examined a fertility mouse line (FL2), which has a considerably increased number of offspring and a total litter weight of 180% compared to a randomly bred control line (Ctrl) after more than 170 generations of breeding. In the present study, we investigated whether there might be a parallel evolution in males after more than 40 years of breeding in this outbred mouse model...
November 21, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156699/cell-specific-regulation-of-proliferation-by-ano1-tmem16a-in-breast-cancer-with-different-er-pr-and-her2-status
#20
Huizhe Wu, Hui Wang, Shu Guan, Jing Zhang, Qiuchen Chen, Xiaodong Wang, Ke Ma, Pengfei Zhao, Haishan Zhao, Weifan Yao, Feng Jin, Qinghuan Xiao, Minjie Wei
The calcium-activated chloride channel Ano1 (TMEM16A) is overexpressed in many tumors. However, conflicting data exist regarding the role of Ano1 in cell proliferation. Here, we performed immunohistochemistry to investigate the expression of Ano1 and Ki67 in 403 patients with breast cancer, and analyzed the association between the expression of Ano1 and Ki67 in breast cancer subtypes categorized according to estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
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