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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682509/initiation-and-propagation-of-vascular-calcification-is-regulated-by-a-concert-of-platelet-and-smooth-muscle-cell-derived-extracellular-vesicles
#1
Leon J Schurgers, Asim C Akbulut, Dawid M Kaczor, Maurice Halder, Rory R Koenen, Rafael Kramann
The ageing population continues to suffer from its primary killer, cardiovascular disease (CVD). Despite recent advances in interventional medicinal and surgical therapies towards the end of the 20th century, the epidemic of cardiovascular disease has not been halted. Yet, rather than receding globally, the burden of CVD has risen to become a top cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most CVD arises from thrombotic rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque, the pathologic thickening of coronary and carotid artery segments and subsequent distal ischemia in heart or brain...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672351/femoral-artery-blood-flow-and-microcirculatory-perfusion-during-acute-low-level-functional-electrical-stimulation-in-spinal-cord-injury
#2
Thomas J Barton, David A Low, Thomas W J Janssen, Maurits Sloots, Christof A J Smit, Dick H J Thijssen
OBJECTIVE: Functional electrical stimulation (FES) may help to reduce the risk of developing macro- and microvascular complications in people with SCI. Low-intensity FES has significant clinical potential since this can be applied continuously throughout the day. This study examines the acute effects of low intensity FES using wearable clothing garment on vascular blood flow and oxygen consumption in people with SCI. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observation study METHODS: Eight participants with a motor complete SCI received 4x3 minutes of unilateral FES to the gluteal and hamstring muscles...
April 19, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670564/biometric-and-emotion-identification-an-ecg-compression-based-method
#3
Susana Brás, Jacqueline H T Ferreira, Sandra C Soares, Armando J Pinho
We present an innovative and robust solution to both biometric and emotion identification using the electrocardiogram (ECG). The ECG represents the electrical signal that comes from the contraction of the heart muscles, indirectly representing the flow of blood inside the heart, it is known to convey a key that allows biometric identification. Moreover, due to its relationship with the nervous system, it also varies as a function of the emotional state. The use of information-theoretic data models, associated with data compression algorithms, allowed to effectively compare ECG records and infer the person identity, as well as emotional state at the time of data collection...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670546/-in-utero-exposure-to-maternal-diabetes-is-associated-with-early-abnormal-vascular-structure-in-offspring
#4
Abdallah Dib, Cyrielle Payen, Jennifer Bourreau, Mathilde Munier, Linda Grimaud, Ziad Fajloun, Laurent Loufrani, Daniel Henrion, Céline Fassot
Aim/hypothesis: In utero exposure to maternal diabetes increases the risk of developing hypertension and cardiovascular disorders during adulthood. We have previously shown that this is associated with changes in vascular tone in favor of a vasoconstrictor profile, which is involved in the development of hypertension. This excessive constrictor tone has also a strong impact on vascular structure. Our objective was to study the impact of in utero exposure to maternal diabetes on vascular structure and remodeling induced by chronic changes in hemodynamic parameters...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668326/effects-of-aging-and-exercise-training-on-leg-hemodynamics-and-oxidative-metabolism-in-the-transition-from-rest-to-steady-state-exercise-role-of-cgmp-signaling
#5
Peter Piil, Tue Smith Jørgensen, Jon Egelund, Nicolai Rytter, Lasse Gliemann, Jens Bangsbo, Ylva Hellsten, Michael Nyberg
Aging is associated with slower skeletal muscle O2 uptake (VO2 ) kinetics; however, the mechanisms underlying this effect of age are unclear. Also, the effects of exercise training in elderly on the initial vascular and metabolic response to exercise remain to be elucidated. We measured leg hemodynamics and oxidative metabolism in the transition from rest to steady state exercise engaging the knee-extensor muscles in young (n=15, 25{plus minus}1 years) and older (n=15, 72{plus minus}1 years) subjects before and after a period of aerobic high-intensity exercise training...
April 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666775/thenar-compartment-syndrome-what-if-a-compartment-pressure-measuring-device-is-absent
#6
Aydin Budeyri, Mehmet C Cankus, Gökhan Meric, Gökhan B Sever
Compartment syndrome (CS) is a threatening condition characterized by excessive tissue pressure accumulation associated with acute trauma. Compartment syndrome causes a significant reduction in blood flow with subsequent muscle and nerve ischemic necrosis. Recently, reports have described the importance of intramuscular pressure measurements as a basis for CS diagnosis. Unfortunately, the measuring devices that were utilized produced results with unsatisfactory reliability, making a diagnosis and subsequent treatment challenging...
February 16, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665013/planhab-hypoxia-does-not-worsen-the-impairment-of-skeletal-muscle-oxidative-function-induced-by-bed-rest-alone
#7
Desy Salvadego, Michail E Keramidas, Roger Kölegård, Lorenza Brocca, Stefano Lazzer, Irene Mavelli, Jörn Rittweger, Ola Eiken, Igor B Mekjavic, Bruno Grassi
KEY POINTS: Superposition of hypoxia on 21 day bed rest did not worsen the impairment of skeletal muscle oxidative function induced by bed rest alone. A significant impairment of maximal oxidative performance was identified downstream of cardiovascular O2 delivery, involving both the intramuscular matching between O2 supply and utilization and mitochondrial respiration. These chronic adaptations appear to be relevant in terms of exposure to spaceflights and reduced gravity habitats (Moon or Mars), as characterized by low gravity and hypoxia, in patients with chronic diseases characterized by hypomobility/immobility and hypoxia, as well as in ageing...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663541/eccentric-exercise-increases-circulating-fibroblast-activation-protein-but-not-bioactive-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-in-healthy-humans
#8
Biraj Parmar, Jo E Lewis, Ricardo J Samms, Francis J P Ebling, Christine C Cheng, Andrew C Adams, Joanne Mallinson, Scott Cooper, Tariq Taylor, Reza Ghasemi, Francis B Stephens, Kostas Tsintzas
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? The role of FGF21 as an exercise-induced myokine remains controversial. The aim of this study was to determine whether eccentric exercise would augment the release of FGF21 and/or its regulatory enzyme Fibroblast Activation Protein (FAP) from skeletal muscle tissue into the systemic circulation of healthy human volunteers. What is the main finding and its importance? Eccentric exercise does not release total or bioactive FGF21 from human skeletal muscle...
April 16, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652699/impact-of-the-glymphatic-system-on-the-kinetic-and-distribution-of-gadodiamide-in-the-rat-brain-observations-by-dynamic-mri-and-effect-of-circadian-rhythm-on-tissue-gadolinium-concentrations
#9
Toshiaki Taoka, Gregor Jost, Thomas Frenzel, Shinji Naganawa, Hubertus Pietsch
OBJECTIVES: The glymphatic system is a recently hypothesized waste clearance system of the brain in which perivascular space constitutes a pathway similar to the lymphatic system in other body regions. Sleep and anesthesia are reported to influence the activity of the glymphatic system. Because rats are nocturnal animals, the glymphatic system is expected to be more active during the day. We attempted to elucidate the influence of the glymphatic system for intravenously injected gadodiamide in the rat brain by 2 experiments...
April 12, 2018: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652542/sympathoexcitation-constrains-vasodilation-in-the-human-skeletal-muscle-microvasculature-during-post-occlusive-reactive-hyperemia
#10
Masashi Ichinose, Mikie Nakabayashi, Yumie Ono
We used diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) to investigate sympathetic vasoconstriction, local vasodilation, and integration of these two responses in the skeletal muscle microvasculature of 20 healthy volunteers. DCS probes were placed on the flexor carpi radialis muscle (FC) or the vastus lateralis muscle (VL), and a blood flow index (BFI) was derived continuously. We measured hemodynamic responses during sympathoexcitation induced by forehead cooling, after which the effects of the increased sympathetic tone on vasodilatory responses during post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) were examined...
April 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629973/the-application-of-blood-flow-restriction-lessons-from-the-laboratory
#11
Kevin T Mattocks, Matthew B Jessee, J Grant Mouser, Scott J Dankel, Samuel L Buckner, Zachary W Bell, Johnny G Owens, Takashi Abe, Jeremy P Loenneke
Blood flow restriction by itself or in combination with exercise has been shown to produce beneficial adaptations to skeletal muscle. These adaptations have been observed across a range of populations, and this technique has become an attractive possibility for use in rehabilitation. Although there are concerns that applying blood flow restriction during exercise makes exercise inherently more dangerous, these concerns appear largely unfounded. Nevertheless, we have advocated that practitioners could minimize many of the risks associated with blood flow-restricted exercise by accounting for methodological factors, such as cuff width, cuff type, and the individual to which blood flow restriction is being applied...
April 2018: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628463/-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-response-to-cyclic-mechanical-stretch-and-aortic-dissection
#12
Masanori Yoshizumi, Jing Zhao, Yoji Kyotani
Acute aortic dissection is the most common life-threatening vascular disease, with sudden onset of severe pain and a high fatality rate. The pulsatile nature of blood flow exposes vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in the vessel wall to cyclic mechanical stretch (CMS), which evokes VSMC death, phenotypic switching, and migration, leading to aortic dissection. We have revealed that CMS of rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs) caused JNK- and p38-dependent cell death and that a calcium channel blocker, azelnidipine and an angiotensin II receptor antagonist, olmesartan decreased the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 and, subsequently, decreased cell death by CMS...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626067/endothelial-c-type-natriuretic-peptide-acts-on-pericytes-to-regulate-microcirculatory-flow-and-blood-pressure
#13
Katarina Špiranec, Wen Chen, Franziska Werner, Viacheslav O Nikolaev, Takashi Naruke, Franziska Koch, Andrea Werner, Petra Eder-Negrin, Rodrigo Diéguez-Hurtado, Ralf H Adams, Hideo A Baba, Hannes Schmidt, Kai Schuh, Boris V Skryabin, Kiavash Movahedi, Frank Schweda, Michaela Kuhn
Background -Peripheral vascular resistance has a major impact on arterial blood pressure levels. Endothelial C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) participates in the local regulation of vascular tone but the target cells remain controversial. The cGMP-producing guanylyl cyclase-B (GC-B) receptor for CNP is expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). However, whereas endothelial cell-specific CNP knockout mice are hypertensive, mice with deletion of GC-B in VSMC have unaltered blood pressure. Methods -We analyzed whether the vasodilating response to CNP changes along the vascular tree, i...
April 6, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623692/daily-muscle-stretching-enhances-blood-flow-endothelial-function-capillarity-vascular-volume-and-connectivity-in-aged-skeletal-muscle
#14
Kazuki Hotta, Bradley J Behnke, Bahram Arjmandi, Payal Ghosh, Bei Chen, Rachael Brooks, Joshua J Maraj, Marcus L Elam, Patrick Maher, Daniel Kurien, Alexandra Churchill, Jaime L Sepulveda, Max B Kabolowsky, Demetra D Christou, Judy M Muller-Delp
KEY POINTS: In aged rats, daily muscle stretching increases blood flow to skeletal muscle during exercise. Daily muscle stretching enhanced endothelium-dependent vasodilatation of skeletal muscle resistance arterioles of aged rats. Angiogenic markers and capillarity increased in response to daily stretching in muscles of aged rats. Muscle stretching performed with a splint could provide a feasible means of improving muscle blood flow and function in elderly patients who cannot perform regular aerobic exercise...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622436/the-role-of-cd27-cd70-mediated-t-cell-co-stimulation-in-vasculogenesis-arteriogenesis-and-angiogenesis
#15
K H Simons, Z Aref, H A B Peters, S P Welten, A Y Nossent, J W Jukema, J F Hamming, R Arens, M R de Vries, P H A Quax
BACKGROUND: T cells have a distinctive role in neovascularization, which consists of arteriogenesis and angiogenesis under pathological conditions and vasculogenesis under physiological conditions. However, the role of co-stimulation in T cell activation in neovascularization has yet to be established. The aim of this study was to investigate the role T cell co-stimulation and inhibition in angiogenesis, arteriogenesis and vasculogenesis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Hind limb ischemia was induced by double ligation of the left femoral artery in mice and blood flow recovery was measured with Laser Doppler Perfusion Imaging in control, CD70-/- , CD80/86-/- , CD70/80/86-/- and CTLA4+/- mice...
June 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621420/regulation-of-eosinophil-recruitment-and-allergic-airway-inflammation-by-heparan-sulfate-proteoglycan-hspg-modifying-enzymes
#16
Xiao Na Ge, Idil Bastan, Sung Gil Ha, Yana G Greenberg, Jeffrey D Esko, Savita P Rao, P Sriramarao
BACKGROUND: HSPGs are glycoproteins containing covalently attached heparan sulfate (HS) chains which bind to growth factors, chemokines, etc., and regulate various aspects of inflammation including cell recruitment. We previously showed that deletion of endothelial N-acetylglucosamine N-deacetylase-N-sulfotransferase-1 (Ndst1), an enzyme responsible for N-sulfation during HS biosynthesis, reduces allergic airway inflammation (AAI). Here, we investigated the importance of O-sulfation mediated by uronyl 2-O-sulfotransferase (Hs2st) in development of AAI relative to N-sulfation...
April 5, 2018: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618983/perivascular-adipose-tissue-as-a-relevant-fat-depot-for-cardiovascular-risk-in-obesity
#17
REVIEW
Rafael M Costa, Karla B Neves, Rita C Tostes, Núbia S Lobato
Obesity is associated with increased risk of premature death, morbidity, and mortality from several cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), including stroke, coronary heart disease (CHD), myocardial infarction, and congestive heart failure. However, this is not a straightforward relationship. Although several studies have substantiated that obesity confers an independent and additive risk of all-cause and cardiovascular death, there is significant variability in these associations, with some lean individuals developing diseases and others remaining healthy despite severe obesity, the so-called metabolically healthy obese...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616172/pork-belly-a-simulation-training-model-for-intramuscular-perforator-dissection
#18
Georgios Pafitanis, Damjan Veljanoski, Ali M Ghanem, Simon Myers
Background: Free tissue transfer has evolved from muscle flaps to fasciocutaneous flaps. Dissection of the intramuscular course of feeding vessels is technically challenging. Simulation-based microsurgery skills acquisition is moving toward nonliving training models. Living porcine model or human cadavers are currently cost-ineffective methods for the early learning curve in teaching intramuscular dissection. The aim of this study was to validate an inexpensive ex vivo porcine model simulating harvest of the deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEAP) flap, specifically including perforator intramuscular dissection...
February 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615916/implications-enzymatic-degradation-of-the-endothelial-glycocalyx-on-the-microvascular-hemodynamics-and-the-arteriolar-red-cell-free-layer-of-the-rat-cremaster-muscle
#19
Ozlem Yalcin, Vivek P Jani, Paul C Johnson, Pedro Cabrales
The endothelial glycocalyx is a complex network of glycoproteins, proteoglycans, and glycosaminoglycans; it lines the vascular endothelial cells facing the lumen of blood vessels forming the endothelial glycocalyx layer (EGL). This study aims to investigate the microvascular hemodynamics implications of the EGL by quantifying changes in blood flow hydrodynamics post-enzymatic degradation of the glycocalyx layer. High-speed intravital microscopy videos of small arteries (around 35 μm) of the rat cremaster muscle were recorded at various time points after enzymatic degradation of the EGL...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606554/the-effects-of-exercise-on-sexual-function-in-women
#20
REVIEW
Amelia M Stanton, Ariel B Handy, Cindy M Meston
BACKGROUND: Acute exercise is associated with transient changes in metabolic rate, muscle activation, and blood flow, whereas chronic exercise facilitates long-lasting adaptations that ultimately improve physical performance. Exercise in general is known to improve both physical and psychological health, but the differential effects of brief bouts of exercise vs long-term exercise regimens on sexual function are less clear. AIM: The purpose of this review was to assess the direct and indirect effects of both acute and chronic exercise on multiple domains of sexual function in women...
March 29, 2018: Sexual Medicine Reviews
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