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Muscle blood flow

Gavin Boerboom, Theo van Kempen, Alberto Navarro-Villa, Adriano Pérez-Bonilla
White striping (WS) is a major problem affecting the broiler industry. Fillets affected by this myopathy present pathologies that compromise the quality of the meat, and most importantly, make the fillets more prone to rejection by the consumer. The exact etiology is still unknown, which is why a metabolomics analysis was performed on breast samples of broilers. The overall objective was to identify biological pathways involved in the pathogenesis of WS. The analysis was performed on a total of 51 muscle samples and distinction was made between normal (n = 19), moderately affected (n = 24) and severely affected (n = 8) breast fillets...
June 20, 2018: Poultry Science
Zafeiris Louvaris, Helmut Habazettl, Harrieth Wagner, Spyros G Zakynthinos, Peter D Wagner, Ioannis Vogiatzis
Reliability of Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), measuring indocyanine green (ICG) for minimally invasive assessment of relative muscle blood flow during exercise has been examined in fit young individuals, but not in COPD. Here we ask whether it could be used to evaluate respiratory and locomotor muscle perfusion in COPD patients. Vastus lateralis muscle blood flow (MBF, the reference method calculated from arterial and muscle ICG concentration curves) and a blood flow index (BFI, calculated using only the (same) muscle ICG concentration curves) were compared in 10 patients (FEV1 :51{plus minus}6%predicted) at rest and during cycling at 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of WRpeak...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Katsuya Nagai, Yoshiko Misonou, Yosiyuki Fujisaki, Risa Fuyuki, Yuko Horii
We previously obtained evidence suggesting that physical exercise increases the release of L-carnosine (CAR) from muscles and that CAR affects autonomic neurotransmission and physiological phenomena in rats. It has also been reported that exercise elicits an increase in activity of the sympathetic nerve innervating the skeletal muscle. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effect of CAR application, onto the surface of the right femoral muscle, on activity of the sympathetic nerve innervating the left femoral muscle, in urethane-anesthetized rats...
June 20, 2018: Amino Acids
Christine Mohn, Olav Vassend, Stein Knardahl
Background and purpose Psychophysiological factors may contribute to the development of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Both local orofacial and systemic responses have been investigated. However, most studies have concentrated on physiological responding during cognitive challenges, while responses during painful tasks may be highly relevant for the development of chronic pain conditions. Moreover, the relationship between experimental challenges and physiological responding may be influenced by affective responses during the experimental tasks, an issue not often considered in the literature...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Hatem Kalawy, Britt-Marie Stålnacke, Martin Fahlström, Lars Öhberg, Felix Linetsky, Håkan Alfredson
Background The presence of high blood flow in the structurally abnormal and painful regions of tendinosis, but not in the normal pain-free tendons, was recently confirmed by colour Doppler (CD) ultrasound (US). Biopsies from the regions with high blood flow demonstrated the presence of sympathetic and sensitive nerve fibres juxtapositioned to neovessels. Grey-scale US and CD are reliable methods used to evaluate structural homogeneity, thickness, and blood flow in the peripheral tendons. The aim of this study was to utilize CD to qualitatively evaluate for the presence of abnormal high blood flow in paravertebral tissues after whiplash injuries in patients with chronic neck pain...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Jatin Nandania, Meri Kokkonen, Liliya Euro, Vidya Velagapudi
The folate cycle is an essential metabolic pathway in the cell, involved in nucleotide synthesis, maintenance of the redox balance in the cell, methionine metabolism and re-methylation reactions. Standardised methods for the measurement of folate cycle intermediates in different biological matrices are in great demand. Here we describe a rapid, sensitive, precise and accurate liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method with a wide calibration curve range and a short run time for the simultaneous determination of folate cycle metabolites, including tetrahydrofolic acid (THF), 5‑methyl THF, 5‑formyl THF, 5,10‑methenyl THF, 5,10‑methylene THF, dihydrofolic acid (DHF) and folic acid in different biological matrices...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Federica Sacco, Bruno Paun, Oriol Lehmkuhl, Tinen L Iles, Paul A Iaizzo, Guillaume Houzeaux, Mariano Vázquez, Constantine Butakoff, Jazmin Aguado-Sierra
Computational modelling plays an important role in right ventricular (RV) haemodynamic analysis. However, current approaches employ smoothed ventricular anatomies. The aim of this study is to characterise RV haemodynamics including detailed endocardial structures like trabeculae, moderator band and papillary muscles (PMs). Four paired detailed and smoothed RV endocardium models (two male and two female) were reconstructed from ex-vivo human hearts high-resolution magnetic resonance images (MRI). Detailed models include structures with ≥1 mm2 cross-sectional area...
June 11, 2018: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
Xuejing Zhang, Xuelian Tang, Milton H Hamblin, Ke-Jie Yin
Angiogenesis is a complex process that depends on the delicate regulation of gene expression. Dysregulation of transcription during angiogenesis often leads to various human diseases. Emerging evidence has recently begun to show that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) may mediate angiogenesis in both physiological and pathological conditions; concurrently, underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unexplored. Previously, our lab identified metastasis associates lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 ( Malat1 ) as an oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-responsive endothelial lncRNA...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Melissa J Black, Adam A Lucero, Philip W Fink, Lee Stoner, Sarah P Shultz, Sally D Lark, David S Rowlands
The increased risk of falls associated with advancing age has increased demand for methods to improve balance and mobility. The primary purpose of the study was to determine whether wearing Aqua Titan-treated stockings could improve balance and walking performance in an older population; secondary was to elucidate the mechanisms. In a randomized, double-blind crossover, 16 healthy older adults (age, 67.9 ± 4.2 years; BMI, 24.8 ± 3.1 kg/m²) performed two 4-day trials composed of baseline measures and fatiguing exercise on Day 1, with recovery measures at 14, 38 and 62 h post-exercise, wearing Aqua Titan and control stockings...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Joshua Krieger, Donald Sims, Cameron Wolterstorff
Blood flow-restricted resistance (BFRR) training is effective as a means to improve muscle strength and size while enduring less mechanical stress. It is generally safe but can have adverse effects. We present a case of an active duty Soldier who developed rhabdomyolysis as a result of a single course of BFRR training. He was presented to the emergency department with bilateral lower extremity pain, was admitted for electrolyte monitoring and rehydration, and had an uncomplicated hospital course and full recovery...
2018: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
Anna L R Xavier, Natalie Linea Hauglund, Stephanie von Holstein-Rathlou, Qianliang Li, Simon Sanggaard, Nanhong Lou, Iben Lundgaard, Maiken Nedergaard
Cisterna magna cannulation (CMc) is a straightforward procedure that enables direct access to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) without operative damage to the skull or the brain parenchyma. In anesthetized rodents, the exposure of the dura mater by blunt dissection of the neck muscles allows the insertion of a cannula into the cisterna magna (CM). The cannula, composed either by a fine beveled needle or borosilicate capillary, is attached via a polyethylene (PE) tube to a syringe. Using a syringe pump, molecules can then be injected at controlled rates directly into the CM, which is continuous with the subarachnoid space...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Leon C D Smyth, Justin Rustenhoven, Emma L Scotter, Patrick Schweder, Richard L M Faull, Thomas I H Park, Mike Dragunow
Brain pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) are a critical component of the neurovascular unit and are important in regulating cerebral blood flow and blood-brain barrier integrity. Identification of subtypes of mural cells in tissue and in vitro is important to any study of their function, therefore we identified distinct mural cell morphologies in neurologically normal post-mortem human brain. Further, the distribution of mural cell markers platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFRβ), α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA), CD13, neural/glial antigen-2 (NG2), CD146 and desmin was examined...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Larissa M Fedorowich, Julie N Côté
Standing is a popular alternative to traditionally seated computer work. However, no studies have described how standing impacts both upper body muscular and vascular outcomes during a computer typing task. Twenty healthy adults completed two 90-min simulated work sessions, seated or standing. Upper limb discomfort, electromyography (EMG) from eight upper body muscles, typing performance and neck/shoulder and forearm blood flow were collected. Results showed significantly less upper body discomfort and higher typing speed during standing...
October 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Yien Liu, Donald G Buerk, Kenneth A Barbee, Dov Jaron
OBJECTIVES: The effect of nitric oxide (NO) on smooth muscle cell contractility is crucial in regulating vascular tone, blood flow, and O2 delivery. Quantitative predictions for interactions between the NO production rate and the myogenic response for microcirculatory blood vessels are lacking. METHODS: We developed a computational model of a branching microcirculatory network with four representative classes of resistance vessels to predict the effect of endothelium-derived NO on the microvascular pressure-flow response...
June 8, 2018: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
Oleg O Sherstiuk, Volodymyr H Hryn, Nataliia I Vynnyk, Andriy V Piliuhin, Mykhailo M Koptev
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: The human prostate gland contains numerous tubular masses of different calibers in its parenchyma. They form the tubuloalveolar prostate glandules, constituting from numerous prostatic excretory ductules as well as major excretory ducts. The aim: The study was aimed at 3D visualization of individual microelements of the tubuloalveolar aggregations, localized within the peripheral area. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: To meet the objectives of the study a series of paraffin plane-parallel 4 μm sections has been obtained in the peripheral prostate area...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Andrew William Sheel, Robert C Boushel, Jerome A Dempsey
Sympathetically-induced vasoconstrictor modulation of local vasodilation occurs in contracting skeletal muscle during exercise to ensure appropriate perfusion of a large active muscle mass and to also maintain arterial blood pressure. In this synthesis, we discuss the contribution of group III-IV muscle afferents to the sympathetic modulation of blood flow distribution to locomotor and respiratory muscles during exercise. This is followed by an examination of the conditions under which diaphragm and locomotor muscle fatigue occur...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Mohammad S Razavi, Ebrahim Shirani, Ghassan S Kassab
The structure-function relation is one of the oldest hypotheses in biology and medicine; i.e., form serves function and function influences form. Here, we derive and validate form-function relations for volume, length, flow, and mean transit time in vascular trees and capillary numbers of various organs and species. We define a vessel segment as a "stem" and the vascular tree supplied by the stem as a "crown." We demonstrate form-function relations between the number of capillaries in a vascular network and the crown volume, crown length, and blood flow that perfuses the network...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Owen Jeffries, Mark Waldron, John R Pattison, Stephen D Patterson
Ischemic preconditioning (IPC), which involves intermittent periods of ischemia followed by reperfusion, is an effective clinical intervention that reduces the risk of myocardial injury and confers ischemic tolerance to skeletal muscle. Repeated bouts of IPC have been shown to stimulate long-term changes vascular function, however, it is unclear what metabolic adaptations may occur locally in the muscle. Therefore, we investigated 7 days of bilateral lower limb IPC (4 × 5 min) above limb occlusion pressure (220 mmHg; n = 10), or sham (20 mmHg; n = 10), on local muscle oxidative capacity and microvascular blood flow...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
D A Cardinale, F J Larsen, M Jensen-Urstad, E Rullman, H Søndergaard, D Morales-Alamo, B Ekblom, J A L Calbet, R Boushel
AIM: We examined the Fick components together with mitochondrial O2 affinity (p50mito ) in defining O2 extraction and O2 uptake during exercise with large and small muscle mass during normoxia (NORM) and hyperoxia (HYPER). METHODS: Seven individuals performed two incremental exercise tests to exhaustion on a bicycle ergometer (BIKE) and two on a one-legged knee extension ergometer (KE) in NORM or HYPER. Leg blood flow and VO2 were determined by thermodilution and the Fick method...
June 4, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Patrick S Hosford, Isabel N Christie, Arun Niranjan, Qadeer Aziz, Naomi Anderson, Richard Ang, Mark F Lythgoe, Jack A Wells, Andrew Tinker, Alexander V Gourine
KIR 6.1 (KCNJ8) is a subunit of ATP sensitive potassium channel (KATP ) that plays an important role in the control of peripheral vascular tone and is highly expressed in brain contractile cells (vascular smooth muscle cells and pericytes). This study determined the effect of global deletion of the KIR 6.1 subunit on cerebral blood flow, neurovascular coupling and cerebral oxygenation in mice. In KIR 6.1 deficient mice resting cerebral blood flow and brain parenchymal partial pressure of oxygen ( PO2 ) were found to be markedly lower compared to that in their wildtype littermates...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
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