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Lysergic Acid Diethylamide

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900674/serotonergic-hallucinogen-induced-visual-perceptual-alterations
#1
Michael Kometer, Franz X Vollenweider
Serotonergic hallucinogens, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocybin, and N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), are famous for their capacity to temporally and profoundly alter an individual's visual experiences. These visual alterations show consistent attributes despite large inter- and intra-individual variances. Many reports document a common perception of colors as more saturated, with increased brightness and contrast in the environment ("Visual Intensifications"). Environmental objects might be altered in size ("Visual illusions") or take on a modified and special meaning for the subject ("Altered self-reference")...
November 30, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886063/d-lysergic-acid-diethylamide-lsd-as-a-model-of-psychosis-mechanism-of-action-and-pharmacology
#2
REVIEW
Danilo De Gregorio, Stefano Comai, Luca Posa, Gabriella Gobbi
d-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) is known for its hallucinogenic properties and psychotic-like symptoms, especially at high doses. It is indeed used as a pharmacological model of psychosis in preclinical research. The goal of this review was to understand the mechanism of action of psychotic-like effects of LSD. We searched Pubmed, Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar and articles' reference lists for preclinical studies regarding the mechanism of action involved in the psychotic-like effects induced by LSD...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856684/psychedelics-in-the-treatment-of-unipolar-mood-disorders-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
James Jh Rucker, Luke A Jelen, Sarah Flynn, Kyle D Frowde, Allan H Young
Unipolar mood disorders, including major depressive disorder and persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia), confer high rates of disability and mortality and a very high socioeconomic burden. Current treatment is suboptimal in most cases and there is little of note in the pharmaceutical development pipeline. The psychedelic drugs, including lysergic acid diethylamide and psilocybin, were used extensively in the treatment of mood disorders, and other psychiatric conditions, before their prohibition in the late 1960s...
December 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732562/possible-role-of-biochemiluminescent-photons-for-lysergic-acid-diethylamide-lsd-induced-phosphenes-and-visual-hallucinations
#4
Gábor Kapócs, Felix Scholkmann, Vahid Salari, Noémi Császár, Henrik Szőke, István Bókkon
Today, there is an increased interest in research on lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) because it may offer new opportunities in psychotherapy under controlled settings. The more we know about how a drug works in the brain, the more opportunities there will be to exploit it in medicine. Here, based on our previously published papers and investigations, we suggest that LSD-induced visual hallucinations/phosphenes may be due to the transient enhancement of bioluminescent photons in the early retinotopic visual system in blind as well as healthy people...
October 12, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729826/psychiatric-comorbidities-in-a-young-man-with-subacute-myelopathy-induced-by-abusive-nitrous-oxide-consumption-a-case-report
#5
Falk Mancke, Gintarė Kaklauskaitė, Jennifer Kollmer, Markus Weiler
Nitrous oxide (N2O), a long-standing anesthetic, is known for its recreational use, and its consumption is on the rise. Several case studies have reported neurological and psychiatric complications of N2O use. To date, however, there has not been a study using standardized diagnostic procedures to assess psychiatric comorbidities in a patient consuming N2O. Here, we report about a 35-year-old male with magnetic resonance imaging confirmed subacute myelopathy induced by N2O consumption, who suffered from comorbid cannabinoid and nicotine dependence as well as abuse of amphetamines, cocaine, lysergic acid diethylamide, and ketamine...
2016: Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723094/blunt-craniofacial-trauma-as-a-manifestation-of-excited-delirium-caused-by-new-psychoactive-substances
#6
Roger W Byard, Matthew Cox, Peter Stockham
The body of a 19-year-old male was found apparently concealed underneath bushes with recent head and facial trauma, and multiple superficial abrasions. Subsequently, it was discovered that the decedent had been running into objects and buildings following the ingestion the evening before of what was thought to be lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Blood staining of a nearby wall close to where the body was lying was in keeping with the described behavior. Toxicology revealed 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (Ecstasy), in addition to two only recently available drugs 2-(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine, (25B-NBOMe), and 1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-butanone, (MDPBP)...
November 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714429/alterations-of-consciousness-and-mystical-type-experiences-after-acute-lsd-in-humans
#7
Matthias E Liechti, Patrick C Dolder, Yasmin Schmid
RATIONALE: Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is used recreationally and in clinical research. Acute mystical-type experiences that are acutely induced by hallucinogens are thought to contribute to their potential therapeutic effects. However, no data have been reported on LSD-induced mystical experiences and their relationship to alterations of consciousness. Additionally, LSD dose- and concentration-response functions with regard to alterations of consciousness are lacking. METHODS: We conducted two placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over studies using oral administration of 100 and 200 μg LSD in 24 and 16 subjects, respectively...
October 7, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538886/psychosis-associated-with-acute-recreational-drug-toxicity-a-european-case-series
#8
Odd Martin Vallersnes, Alison M Dines, David M Wood, Christopher Yates, Fridtjof Heyerdahl, Knut Erik Hovda, Isabelle Giraudon, Paul I Dargan
BACKGROUND: Psychosis can be associated with acute recreational drug and novel psychoactive substance (NPS) toxicity. However, there is limited data available on how common this is and which drugs are most frequently implicated. We describe a European case series of psychosis associated with acute recreational drug toxicity, and estimate the frequency of psychosis for different recreational drugs. METHODS: The European Drug Emergencies Network (Euro-DEN) collects data on presentations to Emergency Departments (EDs) with acute recreational drug and NPS toxicity at 16 centres in ten countries...
August 18, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501227/hsv-mediated-transgene-expression-of-chimeric-constructs-to-study-behavioral-function-of-gpcr-heteromers-in-mice
#9
Terrell Holloway, Jose L Moreno, Javier González-Maeso
The heteromeric receptor complex between 5-HT2A and mGlu2 has been implicated in some of the behavioral phenotypes in mouse models of psychosis(1,2). Consequently, investigation of structural details of the interaction between 5-HT2A and mGlu2 affecting schizophrenia-related behaviors represents a powerful translational tool. As previously shown, the head-twitch response (HTR) in mice is elicited by hallucinogenic drugs and this behavioral response is absent in 5-HT2A knockout (KO) mice(3,4). Additionally, by conditionally expressing the 5-HT2A receptor only in cortex, it was demonstrated that 5-HT2A receptor-dependent signaling pathways on cortical pyramidal neurons are sufficient to elicit head-twitch behavior in response to hallucinogenic drugs(3)...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499488/acid-brothers-henry-beecher-timothy-leary-and-the-psychedelic-of-the-century
#10
Jonathan D Moreno
Henry Knowles Beecher, an icon of human research ethics, and Timothy Francis Leary, a guru of the counterculture, are bound together in history by the synthetic hallucinogen lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Both were associated with Harvard University during a critical period in their careers and of drastic social change. To all appearances the first was a paragon of the establishment and a constructive if complex hero, the second a rebel and a criminal, a rogue and a scoundrel. Although there is no evidence they ever met, Beecher's indirect struggle with Leary over control of the 20th century's most celebrated psychedelic was at the very heart of his views about the legitimate, responsible investigator...
2016: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27422082/development-and-validation-of-an-ultra-fast-and-sensitive-microflow-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-mflc-ms-ms-method-for-quantification-of-lsd-and-its-metabolites-in-plasma-and-application-to-a-controlled-lsd-administration-study-in-humans
#11
Andrea E Steuer, Michael Poetzsch, Lorena Stock, Lisa Eisenbeiss, Yasmin Schmid, Matthias E Liechti, Thomas Kraemer
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a semi-synthetic hallucinogen that gained popularity as a recreational drug and has been investigated as an adjunct to psychotherapy. Analysis of LSD represents a major challenge in forensic toxicology due to its instability, low drug concentrations and short detection windows in biological samples. A new, fast and sensitive microflow liquid chromatography (MFLC) tandem mass spectrometry method for the validated quantification of LSD, iso-LSD, 2-oxo 3-hydroxy-LSD (oxo-HO-LSD), and N-desmethyl-LSD (nor-LSD) was developed in plasma and applied to a controlled pharmacokinetic (PK) study in humans to test whether LSD metabolites would offer for longer detection windows...
July 16, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27406128/analysis-of-25-c-nbome-in-seized-blotters-by-hptlc-and-gc-ms
#12
Boris Duffau, Cristian Camargo, Marcelo Kogan, Edwar Fuentes, Bruce Kennedy Cassels
Use of unauthorized synthetic drugs is a serious, forensic, regulatory and public health issue. In this scenario, consumption of drug-impregnated blotters is very frequent. For decades, blotters have been generally impregnated with the potent hallucinogen known as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD); however, since 2013 blotter stamps with N-2 methoxybenzyl-substituted phenylethylamine hallucinogen designated as "NBOMes" have been seized in Chile. To address this issue with readily accessible laboratory equipment, we have developed and validated a new HPTLC method for the identification and quantitation of 25-C-NBOMe in seized blotters and its confirmation by GC-MS...
August 2016: Journal of Chromatographic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27392130/from-psychiatry-to-flower-power-and-back-again-the-amazing-story-of-lysergic-acid-diethylamide
#13
Hermann A M Mucke
Among the psychedelic drugs that enjoyed a period of popularity in psychiatric research during the 1950s and 1960s, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is the most prominent one. Psychiatrists of that time had seen LSD not only as a tool for psychotherapy but also as a potential therapeutic for anxiety, depression, alcohol abuse, autism, and even schizophrenia. When it became a quasi-religious epitome of the Hippie counterculture in the mid 1960s, and cases of what we now call hallucinogen persisting perception disorder and acute psychotic "flashbacks" mounted, authorities moved to make LSD illegal...
July 8, 2016: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27354909/lysergic-acid-diethylamide-a-drug-of-use
#14
REVIEW
Saibal Das, Preeti Barnwal, Anand Ramasamy, Sumalya Sen, Somnath Mondal
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), described as a classical hallucinogen, began its journey from the middle of the last century following an accidental discovery. Since then, it was used as a popular and notorious substance of abuse in various parts of the world. Its beneficial role as an adjunct to psychotherapy was much unknown, until some 'benevolent' experiments were carried out over time to explore some of its potential uses. But, many of its effects were unclear and seemed to be a psychedelic enigma. In this review article, we have described the receptor pharmacology, mechanism of action, effects and adverse effects of LSD on the normal body system...
June 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27354908/antidepressive-anxiolytic-and-antiaddictive-effects-of-ayahuasca-psilocybin-and-lysergic-acid-diethylamide-lsd-a-systematic-review-of-clinical-trials-published-in-the-last-25-years
#15
REVIEW
Rafael G Dos Santos, Flávia L Osório, José Alexandre S Crippa, Jordi Riba, Antônio W Zuardi, Jaime E C Hallak
To date, pharmacological treatments for mood and anxiety disorders and for drug dependence show limited efficacy, leaving a large number of patients suffering severe and persistent symptoms. Preliminary studies in animals and humans suggest that ayahuasca, psilocybin and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) may have antidepressive, anxiolytic, and antiaddictive properties. Thus, we conducted a systematic review of clinical trials published from 1990 until 2015, assessing these therapeutic properties. Electronic searches were performed using the PubMed, LILACS, and SciELO databases...
June 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27315522/self-reported-use-of-novel-psychoactive-substances-among-attendees-of-electronic-dance-music-venues
#16
Joseph J Palamar, Patricia Acosta, Scott Sherman, Danielle C Ompad, Charles M Cleland
BACKGROUND: Novel psychoactive substances (NPSs) continue to emerge in the United States and worldwide. Few epidemiological studies have examined the prevalence and correlates of use. OBJECTIVE: We examined the extent of NPS use in a high-risk population-attendees of electronic dance music (EDM) parties at nightclubs and festivals. METHODS: We surveyed 682 adults (age 18-25) entering EDM events at nightclubs and festivals in New York City (NYC) in 2015...
November 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27315134/abuse-liability-assessment-of-eslicarbazepine-acetate-in-healthy-male-and-female-recreational-sedative-users-a-phase-i-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Naama Levy-Cooperman, Kerri A Schoedel, Bijan Chakraborty, David Blum, Hailong Cheng
RATIONALE: Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) is a once-daily oral antiepileptic drug for the treatment of partial-onset seizures. Adverse events such as dizziness and somnolence reported in clinical studies suggest that ESL has detectable central nervous system (CNS) effects in addition to its antiepileptic effects. This Phase I study evaluated the abuse liability of ESL compared with that of alprazolam (ALP) and placebo (PBO) in recreational CNS depressant users. METHODS: In this single-dose, randomized, double-blind, PBO- and active-controlled crossover study, healthy recreational CNS depressant users who could discern between ALP 2mg and PBO received single oral doses of each of the following treatments with a washout interval of ≥7days between each treatment: ESL (800mg, 1600mg, 2000mg, and 2400mg); ALP (1...
August 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27272068/interactions-of-cathinone-nps-with-human-transporters-and-receptors-in-transfected-cells
#18
Linda D Simmler, Matthias E Liechti
Pharmacological assays carried out in transfected cells have been very useful for describing the mechanism of action of cathinone new psychoactive substances (NPS). These in vitro characterizations provide fast and reliable information on psychoactive substances soon after they emerge for recreational use. Well-investigated comparator compounds, such as methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, cocaine, and lysergic acid diethylamide, should always be included in the characterization to enhance the translation of the in vitro data into clinically useful information...
June 7, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27265891/return-of-the-lysergamides-part-ii-analytical-and-behavioural-characterization-of-n-6-allyl-6-norlysergic-acid-diethylamide-al-lad-and-2-s-4-s-lysergic-acid-2-4-dimethylazetidide-lsz
#19
Simon D Brandt, Pierce V Kavanagh, Folker Westphal, Simon P Elliott, Jason Wallach, Tristan Colestock, Timothy E Burrow, Stephen J Chapman, Alexander Stratford, David E Nichols, Adam L Halberstadt
Lysergic acid N,N-diethylamide (LSD) is perhaps one of the most intriguing psychoactive substances known and numerous analogs have been explored to varying extents in previous decades. In 2013, N(6) -allyl-6-norlysergic acid diethylamide (AL-LAD) and (2'S,4'S)-lysergic acid 2,4-dimethylazetidide (LSZ) appeared on the 'research chemicals'/new psychoactive substances (NPS) market in both powdered and blotter form. This study reports the analytical characterization of powdered AL-LAD and LSZ tartrate samples and their semi-quantitative determination on blotter paper...
June 6, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27249781/lsd-acutely-impairs-fear-recognition-and-enhances-emotional-empathy-and-sociality
#20
Patrick C Dolder, Yasmin Schmid, Felix Müller, Stefan Borgwardt, Matthias E Liechti
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is used recreationally and has been evaluated as an adjunct to psychotherapy to treat anxiety in patients with life-threatening illness. LSD is well-known to induce perceptual alterations, but unknown is whether LSD alters emotional processing in ways that can support psychotherapy. We investigated the acute effects of LSD on emotional processing using the Face Emotion Recognition Task (FERT) and Multifaceted Empathy Test (MET). The effects of LSD on social behavior were tested using the Social Value Orientation (SVO) test...
October 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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