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Lysergic Acid Diethylamide

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408722/is-lsd-toxic
#1
REVIEW
David E Nichols, Charles S Grob
LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) was discovered almost 75 years ago, and has been the object of episodic controversy since then. While initially explored as an adjunctive psychiatric treatment, its recreational use by the general public has persisted and on occasion has been associated with adverse outcomes, particularly when the drug is taken under suboptimal conditions. LSD's potential to cause psychological disturbance (bad trips) has been long understood, and has rarely been associated with accidental deaths and suicide...
February 1, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403350/the-experience-elicited-by-hallucinogens-presents-the-highest-similarity-to-dreaming-within-a-large-database-of-psychoactive-substance-reports
#2
Camila Sanz, Enzo Tagliazucchi
Ever since the modern rediscovery of psychedelic substances by Western society, several authors have independently proposed that their effects bear a high resemblance to the dreams and dreamlike experiences occurring naturally during the sleep-wake cycle. Recent studies in humans have provided neurophysiological evidence supporting this hypothesis. However, a rigorous comparative analysis of the phenomenology ("what it feels like" to experience these states) is currently lacking. We investigated the semantic similarity between a large number of subjective reports of psychoactive substances and reports of high/low lucidity dreams, and found that the highest-ranking substance in terms of the similarity to high lucidity dreams was the serotonergic psychedelic lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), whereas the highest-ranking in terms of the similarity to dreams of low lucidity were plants of the Datura genus, rich in deliriant tropane alkaloids...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298533/lysergic-acid-diethylamide-causes-photoreceptor-cell-damage-through-inducing-inflammatory-response-and-oxidative-stress
#3
Qi-Di Hu, Ling-Li Xu, Yan Gong, Guo-Hai Wu, Yu-Wen Wang, Shan-Jun Wu, Zhe Zhang, Wei Mao, Yu-Sheng Zhou, Qin-Bo Li, Jian-Shu Yuan
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), a classical hallucinogen, was used as a popular and notorious substance of abuse in various parts of the world. Its abuse could result in long-lasting abnormalities in retina and little is known about the exact mechanism. This study was to investigate the effect of LSD on macrophage activation state at non-toxic concentration and its resultant toxicity to photoreceptor cells. Results showed that cytotoxicity was caused by LSD on 661W cells after co-culturing with RAW264.7 cells...
January 3, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284138/psychiatry-the-psychedelic-drugs-past-present-future
#4
REVIEW
James J H Rucker, Jonathan Iliff, David J Nutt
The classical psychedelic drugs, including psilocybin, lysergic acid diethylamide and mescaline, were used extensively in psychiatry before they were placed in Schedule I of the UN Convention on Drugs in 1967. Experimentation and clinical trials undertaken prior to legal sanction suggest that they are not helpful for those with established psychotic disorders and should be avoided in those liable to develop them. However, those with so-called 'psychoneurotic' disorders sometimes benefited considerably from their tendency to 'loosen' otherwise fixed, maladaptive patterns of cognition and behaviour, particularly when given in a supportive, therapeutic setting...
December 25, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247209/connectome-harmonic-decomposition-of-human-brain-activity-reveals-dynamical-repertoire-re-organization-under-lsd
#5
Selen Atasoy, Leor Roseman, Mendel Kaelen, Morten L Kringelbach, Gustavo Deco, Robin L Carhart-Harris
Recent studies have started to elucidate the effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) on the human brain but the underlying dynamics are not yet fully understood. Here we used 'connectome-harmonic decomposition', a novel method to investigate the dynamical changes in brain states. We found that LSD alters the energy and the power of individual harmonic brain states in a frequency-selective manner. Remarkably, this leads to an expansion of the repertoire of active brain states, suggestive of a general re-organization of brain dynamics given the non-random increase in co-activation across frequencies...
December 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209235/the-endless-trip-among-the-nps-users-psychopathology-and-psychopharmacology-in-the-hallucinogen-persisting-perception-disorder-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Laura Orsolini, Gabriele Duccio Papanti, Domenico De Berardis, Amira Guirguis, John Martin Corkery, Fabrizio Schifano
Hallucinogen-persisting perception disorder (HPPD) is a syndrome characterized by prolonged or reoccurring perceptual symptoms, reminiscent of acute hallucinogen effects. HPPD was associated with a broader range of LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)-like substances, cannabis, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), psilocybin, mescaline, and psychostimulants. The recent emergence of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) posed a critical concern regarding the new onset of psychiatric symptoms/syndromes, including cases of HPPD...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167644/lsd-increases-primary-process-thinking-via-serotonin-2a-receptor-activation
#7
Rainer Kraehenmann, Dan Pokorny, Helena Aicher, Katrin H Preller, Thomas Pokorny, Oliver G Bosch, Erich Seifritz, Franz X Vollenweider
Rationale: Stimulation of serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptors by lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and related compounds such as psilocybin has previously been shown to increase primary process thinking - an ontologically and evolutionary early, implicit, associative, and automatic mode of thinking which is typically occurring during altered states of consciousness such as dreaming. However, it is still largely unknown whether LSD induces primary process thinking under placebo-controlled, standardized experimental conditions and whether these effects are related to subjective experience and 5-HT2A receptor activation...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153631/human-abuse-potential-of-brivaracetam-in-healthy-recreational-central-nervous-system-depressant-users
#8
Kerri A Schoedel, Armel Stockis, Edward M Sellers
BACKGROUND: Brivaracetam is a new antiepileptic drug indicated for adjunctive treatment of focal seizures in adults at a dose of 50-200mg/day taken in two equal doses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the abuse potential of brivaracetam compared with alprazolam (positive control), placebo, and levetiracetam. METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, triple-dummy, crossover study in healthy male and female recreational central nervous system (CNS) depressant users aged 18-55years, who could distinguish between the subjective effects of alprazolam 2mg and placebo...
November 15, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147729/regulation-of-human-research-with-lsd-in-the-united-states-1949-1987
#9
REVIEW
Katherine R Bonson
Human research with hallucinogens such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) has been ongoing in the USA since 1949. During the 1960s, LSD was investigated for a variety of psychiatric indications, including the following: as an aid in treatment of schizophrenia; as a means of creating a "model psychosis"; as a direct antidepressant; and as an adjunct to psychotherapy. Studies with all drugs, including LSD, have always been conducted under federal regulatory controls, including the 1938 Food Drug and Cosmetic Act (FDCA; which ensured the safety of drugs) and the 1962 Kefauver-Harris Amendments to the FDCA (which described appropriate scientific methodology and ensured drug efficacy)...
November 17, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126911/why-mdma-therapy-for-alcohol-use-disorder-and-why-now
#10
REVIEW
Ben Sessa
Alcohol use disorder represents a serious clinical, social and personal burden on its sufferers and a significant financial strain on society. Current treatments, both psychological and pharmacological are poor, with high rates of relapse after medical detoxification and dedicated treatment programs. The earliest historical roots of psychedelic drug-assisted psychotherapy in the 1950s were associated with Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)-assisted psychotherapy to treat what was then called, alcoholism. But results were varied and psychedelic therapy with LSD and other 'classical' psychedelics fell out of favour in the wake of socio-political pressures and cultural changes...
November 7, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123145/well-being-problematic-alcohol-consumption-and-acute-subjective-drug-effects-in-past-year-ayahuasca-users-a-large-international-self-selecting-online-survey
#11
Will Lawn, Jaime E Hallak, Jose A Crippa, Rafael Dos Santos, Lilla Porffy, Monica J Barratt, Jason A Ferris, Adam R Winstock, Celia J A Morgan
Ayahuasca is a natural psychedelic brew, which contains dimethyltryptamine (DMT). Its potential as a psychiatric medicine has recently been demonstrated and its non-medical use around the world appears to be growing. We aimed to investigate well-being and problematic alcohol use in ayahuasca users, and ayahuasca's subjective effects. An online, self-selecting, global survey examining patterns of drug use was conducted in 2015 and 2016 (n = 96,901). Questions were asked about: use of ayahuasca, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and magic mushrooms; demographics, current well-being and past-year problematic alcohol use of past-year ayahuasca users and comparison drug users; and subjective effects of ayahuasca and comparison drugs...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101022/lsd-modulates-effective-connectivity-and-neural-adaptation-mechanisms-in-an-auditory-oddball-paradigm
#12
REVIEW
Christopher Timmermann, Meg J Spriggs, Mendel Kaelen, Robert Leech, David J Nutt, Rosalyn J Moran, Robin L Carhart-Harris, Suresh D Muthukumaraswamy
Under the predictive coding framework, perceptual learning and inference are dependent on the interaction between top-down predictions and bottom-up sensory signals both between and within regions in a network. However, how such feedback and feedforward connections are modulated in the state induced by lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is poorly understood. In this study, an auditory oddball paradigm was presented to healthy participants (16 males, 4 female) under LSD and placebo, and brain activity was recorded using magnetoencephalography (MEG)...
October 31, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028939/serotonin-2a-receptor-signaling-underlies-lsd-induced-alteration-of-the-neural-response-to-dynamic-changes-in-music
#13
Frederick S Barrett, Katrin H Preller, Marcus Herdener, Petr Janata, Franz X Vollenweider
Classic psychedelic drugs (serotonin 2A, or 5HT2A, receptor agonists) have notable effects on music listening. In the current report, blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal was collected during music listening in 25 healthy adults after administration of placebo, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), and LSD pretreated with the 5HT2A antagonist ketanserin, to investigate the role of 5HT2A receptor signaling in the neural response to the time-varying tonal structure of music. Tonality-tracking analysis of BOLD data revealed that 5HT2A receptor signaling alters the neural response to music in brain regions supporting basic and higher-level musical and auditory processing, and areas involved in memory, emotion, and self-referential processing...
September 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967351/acute-lsd-effects-on-response-inhibition-neural-networks
#14
A Schmidt, F Müller, C Lenz, P C Dolder, Y Schmid, D Zanchi, U E Lang, M E Liechti, S Borgwardt
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence shows that the serotonin 2A receptor (5-hydroxytryptamine2A receptor, 5-HT2AR) is critically involved in the formation of visual hallucinations and cognitive impairments in lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)-induced states and neuropsychiatric diseases. However, the interaction between 5-HT2AR activation, cognitive impairments and visual hallucinations is still poorly understood. This study explored the effect of 5-HT2AR activation on response inhibition neural networks in healthy subjects by using LSD and further tested whether brain activation during response inhibition under LSD exposure was related to LSD-induced visual hallucinations...
October 2, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947181/serotonergic-hallucinogens-in-the-treatment-of-anxiety-and-depression-in-patients-suffering-from-a-life-threatening-disease-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Simon Reiche, Leo Hermle, Stefan Gutwinski, Henrik Jungaberle, Peter Gasser, Tomislav Majić
Anxiety and depression are some of the most common psychiatric symptoms of patients suffering with life-threatening diseases, often associated with a low quality of life and a poor overall prognosis. 5-HT2A-receptor agonists (serotonergic hallucinogens, 'psychedelics') like lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and psilocybin were first investigated as therapeutic agents in the 1960s. Recently, after a long hiatus period of regulatory obstacles, interest in the clinical use of these substances has resumed. The current article provides a systematic review of studies investigating psychedelics in the treatment of symptoms of existential distress in life-threatening diseases across different periods of research, highlighting how underlying concepts have developed over time...
February 2, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947075/psychedelic-drugs-in-biomedicine
#16
REVIEW
Evan J Kyzar, Charles D Nichols, Raul R Gainetdinov, David E Nichols, Allan V Kalueff
Psychedelic drugs, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), mescaline, and psilocybin, exert profound effects on brain and behavior. After decades of difficulties in studying these compounds, psychedelics are again being tested as potential treatments for intractable biomedical disorders. Preclinical research of psychedelics complements human neuroimaging studies and pilot clinical trials, suggesting these compounds as promising treatments for addiction, depression, anxiety, and other conditions. However, many questions regarding the mechanisms of action, safety, and efficacy of psychedelics remain...
November 2017: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918441/long-lasting-subjective-effects-of-lsd-in-normal-subjects
#17
Yasmin Schmid, Matthias E Liechti
RATIONALE: Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and other serotonergic hallucinogens can induce profound alterations of consciousness and mystical-type experiences, with reportedly long-lasting effects on subjective well-being and personality. METHODS: We investigated the lasting effects of a single dose of LSD (200 μg) that was administered in a laboratory setting in 16 healthy participants. The following outcome measures were assessed before and 1 and 12 months after LSD administration: Persisting Effects Questionnaire (PEQ), Mysticism Scale (MS), Death Transcendence Scale (DTS), NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)...
September 16, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917801/development-of-a-quantitative-approach-in-blood-plasma-for-low-dosed-hallucinogens-and-opioids-using-lc-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#18
Achim T Caspar, Andreas B Kollas, Hans H Maurer, Markus R Meyer
The WHO annually reports an increasing abuse of new psychoactive substances (NPS), which are a heterogeneous group of synthetic drugs and are consumed as substitute for controlled drugs of abuse. In this work, we focused on highly potent derivatives such those of phenethylamine (2C), N-2-methoxybenzyl phenethylamine (NBOMes), lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), and fentanyl. Severe to fatal intoxications were described due to their high potency. Therefore, they have to be taken at very low doses resulting in low blood concentration in the low ng/mL range, which is a challenge for reliable analytical detection and quantification...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899696/serotonin-2a-receptor-disulfide-bridge-integrity-is-crucial-for-ligand-binding-to-different-signalling-states-but-not-for-its-homodimerization
#19
Alba Iglesias, Marta Cimadevila, Rocío Ailim de la Fuente, María Martí-Solano, María Isabel Cadavid, Marián Castro, Jana Selent, María Isabel Loza, José Brea
The serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor is a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) with a conserved disulfide bridge formed by Cys(148) (transmembrane helix 3, TM3) and Cys(227) (extracellular loop 2, ECL-2). We hypothesized that disulfide bridges may determine serotonin 5-HT2A receptor functions such as receptor activation, functional selectivity and ligand recognition. We used the reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT) to determine how the reduction of disulfide bridges affects radioligand binding, second messenger mobilization and receptor dimerization...
November 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893851/synthetic-cannabinoid-use-among-high-school-seniors
#20
Joseph J Palamar, Monica J Barratt, Leigh Coney, Silvia S Martins
OBJECTIVES: In this study, we examined the prevalence and correlates of current synthetic cannabinoid (SC) use among high school seniors in the United States. METHODS: Monitoring the Future, an annual nationally representative survey of high school seniors, began querying current (30-day) SC use in 2014. Data were examined from the 2 most recent cohorts (2014-2015; N = 7805). Prevalence of self-reported use was examined and differences in demographics and recency and frequency of other drug use was compared between current marijuana-only users and current SC (plus marijuana) users using χ(2) and generalized linear model using Poisson...
October 2017: Pediatrics
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