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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164310/relevance-of-trpa1-and-trpm8-channels-as-vascular-sensors-of-cold-in-the-cutaneous-microvasculature
#1
REVIEW
Y Pan, D Thapa, L Baldissera, F Argunhan, A A Aubdool, S D Brain
Cold exposure is directly related to skin conditions, such as frostbite. This is due to the cold exposure inducing a vasoconstriction to reduce cutaneous blood flow and protect against heat loss. However, a long-term constriction will cause ischaemia and potentially irreversible damage. We have developed techniques to elucidate the mechanisms of the vascular cold response. We focused on two ligand-gated transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, namely, the established "cold sensors" TRP ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and TRP melastin (TRPM8)...
November 21, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158117/cold-acclimation-and-cognitive-performance-a-review
#2
Douglas M Jones, Stephen P Bailey, Bart Roelands, Michael J Buono, Romain Meeusen
Athletes, occupational workers, and military personnel experience cold temperatures through cold air exposure or cold water immersion, both of which impair cognitive performance. Prior work has shown that neurophysiological pathways may be sensitive to the effects of temperature acclimation and, therefore, cold acclimation may be a potential strategy to attenuate cold-induced cognitive impairments for populations that are frequently exposed to cold environments. This review provides an overview of studies that examine repeated cold stress, cold acclimation, and measurements of cognitive performance to determine whether or not cold acclimation provides beneficial protection against cold-induced cognitive performance decrements...
November 17, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150789/radial-pulse-and-electrocardiography-modulation-by-mild-thermal-stresses-applied-to-feet-an-exploratory-study-with-randomized-crossover-design
#3
Jang-Han Bae, Boncho Ku, Young Ju Jeon, Hyunho Kim, Jihye Kim, Haebeom Lee, Jong Yeol Kim, Jaeuk U Kim
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changes in radial pulse induced by thermal stresses (TSs). METHODS: Sixty subjects were enrolled. Using an open-label, 2×2 crossover randomization design, both feet of each subject were immersed in 15 °C water for cold stress (CS) and in 40 °C water for heat stress (HS) for 5 min each. Radial pulse, respiration and electrocardiogram (ECG) signals were recorded before, during and immediately after the TSs. RESULTS: The analysis of heart rate variability revealed that CS increased the low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) components (P <0...
November 17, 2017: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130570/cold-water-or-partial-body-cryotherapy-comparison-of-physiological-responses-and-recovery-following-muscle-damage
#4
Erich Hohenauer, Joseph T Costello, Rahel Stoop, Ursula M Küng, Peter Clarys, Tom Deliens, Ron Clijsen
The aim of this study was to compare i) the physiological responses following cold-water immersion (CWI) and partial-body cryotherapy (PBC) and ii) the effects on recovery following a muscle-damaging protocol (5 x 20 drop jumps). Nineteen healthy males were randomly allocated into either a CWI (10 °C for 10 min; n = 9) or a PBC (-60 °C for 30 sec, -135 °C for 2 min; n = 10) group. The physiological variables (thigh muscle oxygen saturation [SmO2 ], cutaneous vascular conductance [CVC], mean-arterial pressure [MAP] and local skin temperature) were assessed immediately prior and up to 60 min post-treatment (10 min intervals)...
November 11, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127510/recovery-following-a-marathon-a-comparison-of-cold-water-immersion-whole-body-cryotherapy-and-a-placebo-control
#5
Laura J Wilson, Emma Cockburn, Katherine Paice, Scott Sinclair, Tanwir Faki, Frank A Hills, Marcela B Gondek, Alyssa Wood, Lygeri Dimitriou
PURPOSE: Cryotherapy is an increasingly popular recovery strategy used in an attempt to attenuate the negative impact of strenuous physical activity on subsequent exercise. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the effects of whole body cryotherapy (WBC) and cold water immersion (CWI) on markers of recovery following a marathon. METHODS: Thirty-one endurance trained males completed a marathon. Participants were randomly assigned to a CWI, WBC or placebo group. Perceptions of muscle soreness, training stress and markers of muscle function were recorded before the marathon and at 24 and 48 h post exercise...
November 10, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122653/validation-of-an-automated-bilateral-feet-cold-pressor-test
#6
Petra Bachmann, Xinwei Zhang, Mauro F Larra, Dagmar Rebeck, Karsten Schönbein, Klaus P Koch, Hartmut Schächinger
The Cold Pressor Test (CPT) is often used in psychobiological research. However, the classical CPT version (unilateral hand immersion into ice-water) involves some disadvantages: hands may be needed for further applications, attentional drift towards the affected sensory hemi-field and/or physiological activation of the contralateral hemisphere may produce a laterality bias. Furthermore, instruction-induced motor activity may bias physiologic reactivity. To avoid these problems, a fully automated bilateral feet CPT was developed and tested for validity and feasibility...
November 6, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121286/prediction-of-persistent-post-surgery-pain-by-preoperative-cold-pain-sensitivity-biomarker-development-with-machine-learning-derived-analysis
#7
J Lötsch, A Ultsch, E Kalso
Background: To prevent persistent post-surgery pain, early identification of patients at high risk is a clinical need. Supervised machine-learning techniques were used to test how accurately the patients' performance in a preoperatively performed tonic cold pain test could predict persistent post-surgery pain. Methods: We analysed 763 patients from a cohort of 900 women who were treated for breast cancer, of whom 61 patients had developed signs of persistent pain during three yr of follow-up...
October 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120980/effect-of-cold-water-immersion-on-elbow-flexors-muscle-thickness-after-resistance-training
#8
Filipe Matos, Eduardo Borba Neves, Claudio Rosa, Victor Machado Reis, Francisco Saavedra, Severiano Silva, José Vilaça-Alves
Cold Water Immersion (CWI) is commonly applied in order to speed up the recovery process after exercise. Muscle damage may induce a performance reduction, consequence of the intramuscular pressure induced by the muscular swelling. The aim of the study was to verify the CWI effects on muscle thickness (MT) behavior of the elbow flexors after a strength training protocol (ST). Eleven males were submitted to a RT, performed in two different weeks. In one of the weeks, subjects experienced a passive recovery. In the other, subjects were submitted to a CWI (20 min at 5C-10°C)...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072114/a-customised-cold-water-immersion-protocol-favours-one-size-fits-all-protocols-in-improving-acute-performance-recovery
#9
Coen S Zandvoort, Jelmer R de Zwart, Brenda L van Keeken, Patrick J F Viroux, Ivo J H Tiemessen
The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether a customised cold-water immersion (CWIc) protocol was more effective in enhancing acute performance recovery than a one-size-fits-all CWI (CWIs) or active recovery (AR) protocol. On three separate testing days, 10 healthy, physically active, non-smoking males completed the same fatiguing protocol (60 squat jumps and a 2'30″ all-out cycling time-trial) followed by CWIc (12°C, 10-17 min), CWIs (15°C, 10 min) or AR (60 W, 10 min). Outcome measures to assess acute recovery were heart rate variability (HRV) as HRVrecovery, muscle power (MP) as absolute and relative decline, and muscle soreness (MS) at 0 and 24 h...
October 26, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064890/carotid-artery-reactivity-predicts-events-in-peripheral-arterial-disease-patients
#10
Anke C C M van Mil, Sjaak Pouwels, Jelmer Wilbrink, Michiel C Warlé, Dick H J Thijssen
OBJECTIVE: Patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) have increased risk on future cerebro- and cardiovascular events. Our aim was to examine whether carotid artery reactivity (CAR; a novel, simple procedure to examine endothelial function) predicts cardiovascular events in PAD patients. BACKGROUND: Increased risk for future cardiovascular events in PAD patients is likely related to endothelial dysfunction, highlighting the necessity for simple assessment of endothelial function...
October 23, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022796/aural-exostoses-surfer-s-ear-provide-vital-fossil-evidence-of-an-aquatic-phase-in-man-s-early-evolution
#11
P H Rhys Evans, M Cameron
For over a century, otolaryngologists have recognised the condition of aural exostoses, but their significance and aetiology remains obscure, although they tend to be associated with frequent swimming and cold water immersion of the auditory canal. The fact that this condition is usually bilateral is predictable since both ears are immersed in water. However, why do exostoses only grow in swimmers and why do they grow in the deep bony meatus at two or three constant sites? Furthermore, from an evolutionary point of view, what is or was the purpose and function of these rather incongruous protrusions? In recent decades, paleoanthropological evidence has challenged ideas about early hominid evolution...
September 15, 2017: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018924/rapid-volumetric-photoacoustic-tomographic-imaging-with-a-fabry-perot-ultrasound-sensor-depicts-peripheral-arteries-and-microvascular-vasomotor-responses-to-thermal-stimuli
#12
Andrew A Plumb, Nam Trung Huynh, Jamie Guggenheim, Edward Zhang, Paul Beard
PURPOSE: To determine if a new photoacoustic imaging (PAI) system successfully depicts (1) peripheral arteries and (2) microvascular circulatory changes in response to thermal stimuli. METHODS: Following ethical permission, 8 consenting subjects underwent PAI of the dorsalis pedis (DP) artery, and 13 completed PAI of the index fingertip. Finger images were obtained after immersion in warm (30-35 °C) or cold (10-15 °C) water to promote vasodilation or vasoconstriction...
October 10, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940766/effects-of-menthol-application-on-the-skin-during-prolonged-immersion-in-cool-and-cold-water
#13
Petros G Botonis, Stylianos N Kounalakis, Evgenia D Cherouveim, Maria D Koskolou, Nickos D Geladas
The aim of the study was to compare the effects of skin surface menthol application on rectal temperature (Tre) during prolonged immersion in cool and cold water. We hypothesized that menthol application would lead to a slower Tre decline due to the reduced heat loss as a consequence of the menthol-induced vasoconstriction and that this effect would be attenuated during cold-water immersion. Six male subjects were immersed for 55min in stirred cool (24°C) or cold (14°C) water immediately after attaining a Tre of 38°C by cycling at 60% of maximum heart rate on two occasions: without (ΝΜ) and with (Μ) whole-body skin application of menthol cream...
September 20, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937782/cold-water-immersion-cooling-rates-in-football-linemen-and-cross-country-runners-with-exercise-induced-hyperthermia
#14
Sandra Fowkes Godek, Katherine E Morrison, Gregory Scullin
CONTEXT:   Ideal and acceptable cooling rates in hyperthermic athletes have been established in average-sized participants. Football linemen (FBs) have a small body surface area (BSA)-to-mass ratio compared with smaller athletes, which hinders heat dissipation. OBJECTIVE:   To determine cooling rates using cold-water immersion in hyperthermic FBs and cross-country runners (CCs). DESIGN:   Cohort study. SETTING:   Controlled university laboratory...
October 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902112/the-efficacy-of-repeated-cold-water-immersion-on-recovery-following-a-simulated-rugby-union-protocol
#15
Sean Barber, Pattison John, Freddy Brown, Jessica Hill
Training and athletic competition frequently results in exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of repeated cold water immersion (CWI) on recovery following a simulated rugby union match. Sixteen male, club level rugby players were matched for body mass and randomly assigned to either a CWI group or control (CON) group. Following the simulated rugby match the CWI group underwent 2 x 5 min immersions at a temperature of 10°C separated by 2.5 min seated at room temperature, whilst the CON group remained seated for 15 min...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891869/chronic-exposure-to-insufficient-sleep-alters-processes-of-pain-habituation-and-sensitization
#16
Norah S Simpson, Jennifer Scott-Sutherland, Shiva Gautam, Navil Sethna, Monika Haack
Chronic pain conditions are highly co-morbid with insufficient sleep. While the mechanistic relationships between the two are not understood, chronic insufficient sleep may be one pathway through which central pain-modulatory circuits deteriorate, thereby contributing to chronic pain vulnerability over time. To test this hypothesis, an in-laboratory model of three weeks of restricted sleep with limited recovery (five nights of 4-hour sleep/night followed by two nights of 8-hour sleep/night) was compared to three weeks of 8-hour sleep/night (control protocol)...
September 1, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885962/cold-acclimation-does-not-alter-physiological-or-perceptual-responses-during-subsequent-exercise-in-the-heat
#17
Douglas M Jones, Kaitlyn A Rostomily, Carina M Pautz, Danica W Ito, Stephen P Bailey, Bart Roelands, Michael J Buono, Romain Meeusen
INTRODUCTION: Warfighters often train and conduct operations in cold environments. Specifically, military trainees and divers that are repeatedly exposed to cold water may experience inadvertent cold acclimatization, which results in body heat retention. These same warfighters can quickly switch between environments (cold to hot or hot to cold) given the nature of their work. This may present a risk of early onset of hyperthermia when cold-acclimatized warfighters are subsequently exposed to physiological insults that increase body temperature, such as exercise and heat stress...
September 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885961/effectiveness-of-ice-sheet-cooling-following-exertional-hyperthermia
#18
Cory L Butts, Debora L Spisla, J D Adams, Cody R Smith, Kathleen M Paulsen, Aaron R Caldwell, Matthew S Ganio, Brendon P McDermott
BACKGROUND: The procedure of wrapping a heat casualty in ice-water soaked bed sheets to reduce core temperature has received little investigation, despite the practice and recommendation for its use in some military settings. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the cooling efficacy of ice-sheet cooling (ISC) following exertional hyperthermia. METHODS: 13 (11 males, 2 females) participants (age = 23 ± 3 years, height = 176.5 ± 10.3 cm, mass = 78...
September 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877129/iatrogenic-full-thickness-frostbite-injury-caused-by-the-use-of-a-conductive-cooling-device
#19
Corbin Muetterties, Eric Weiss, Sandra Tomlinson-Hansen, William Hughes
Reports of iatrogenic cold thermal injuries are rare in the literature. Conductive cooling devices, typically employed for their neuroprotective effects, use conductive hydrogel pads to achieve rapid and precise temperature control approaching the level of water immersion. Despite a number of built-in safeguards, prolonged or improper use of these devices can lead to significant thermal injury. To the best of their knowledge, the authors describe the first report of a significant iatrogenic full-thickness injury caused by the use of a surface cooling system in a patient who had recently suffered a cerebrovascular accident...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859025/seizures-induced-by-exiting-water-a-unique-form-of-reflex-epilepsy
#20
Brian Appavu, Jordana Fox, Robert Little, John F Kerrigan, Makram Obeid
INTRODUCTION: Reflex epilepsies represent a form of epilepsy in which unique modes of seizure precipitation are characterized by endogenous or exogenous stimuli. Hot water epilepsy represents a subtype of reflex epilepsy in which seizure precipitation arises from the act of immersing the head with hot water. Bathing epilepsy represents another subtype of reflex epilepsy in which seizure precipitation arises from the immersion with water at lukewarm temperatures. CASE SERIES: We report on 2 boys with a unique form of bathing epilepsy characterized by the act of exiting out of water...
September 2017: Neurologist
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