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Hans H de Boer, George J R Maat, D Aji Kadarmo, Putut T Widodo, Ate D Kloosterman, Arnoud J Kal
In disaster victim identification (DVI), DNA profiling is considered to be one of the most reliable and efficient means to identify bodies or separated body parts. This requires a post mortem DNA sample, and an ante mortem DNA sample of the presumed victim or their biological relative(s). Usually the collection of an adequate ante mortem sample is technically simple, but the acquisition of a good quality post mortem sample under unfavourable DVI circumstances is complicated due to the variable degree of preservation of the human remains and the high risk of DNA (cross) contamination...
June 4, 2018: Forensic Science International
Ronghua Li, Jim J Wang, Zengqiang Zhang, Mukesh Kumar Awasthi, Dan Du, Pengfei Dang, Qian Huang, Yichen Zhang, Lu Wang
Metal oxide-Carbon composites have been developed tailoring towards specific functionalities for removing pollutants from contaminated environmental systems. In this study, we synthesized a novel CaO-MgO hybrid carbon composite for removal of phosphate and humate by co-pyrolysis of dolomite and sawdust at various temperatures. Increasing of pyrolysis temperature to 900 °C generated a composite rich in carbon, CaO and MgO particles. Phosphate and humate can be removed efficiently by the synthesized composite with the initial solution in the range of pH 3...
June 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Prasanna Kumarathilaka, Saman Seneweera, Andrew Meharg, Jochen Bundschuh
Arsenic (As) elevation in paddy soils will have a negative impact on both the yield and grain quality of rice (Oryza sativa L.). The mechanistic understanding of As uptake, translocation, and grain filling is an important aspect to produce rice grains with low As concentrations through agronomical, physico-chemical, and breeding approaches. A range of factors (i.e. physico-chemical, biological, and environmental) govern the speciation and mobility of As in paddy soil-water systems. Major As uptake transporters in rice roots, such as phosphate and aquaglyceroporins, assimilate both inorganic (As(III) and As(V)) and organic As (DMA(V) and MMA(V)) species from the rice rhizosphere...
June 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Thomas Hennequin, Hjalte Jomo Danielsen Sørup, Yan Dong, Karsten Arnbjerg-Nielsen
Sustainable flood management is a basic societal need. In this article, life cycle assessment is used to compare two ways to maintain the state of a coastal urban area in a changing climate with increasing flood risk. On one side, the construction of a dike, a hard and proactive scenario, is modelled using a bottom up approach. On the other, the systematic repair of houses flooded by sea surges, a post-disaster measure, is assessed using a Monte Carlo simulation allowing for aleatory uncertainties in predicting future sea level rise and occurrences of extreme events...
June 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jiabiao Wang, Jianshi Zhao, Xiaohui Lei, Hao Wang
Pollution risk from the discharge of industrial waste or accidental spills during transportation poses a considerable threat to the security of rivers. The ability to quickly identify the pollution source is extremely important to enable emergency disposal of pollutants. This study proposes a new approach for point source identification of sudden water pollution in rivers, which aims to determine where (source location), when (release time) and how much pollutant (released mass) was introduced into the river...
June 13, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Bingrui Ma, Naling Yu, Yuetong Han, Mengchun Gao, Sen Wang, Shanshan Li, Liang Guo, Zonglian She, Yangguo Zhao, Chunji Jin, Feng Gao
The performance, microbial enzymatic activity and microbial community of a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) have been explored under magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO NPs) stress. The NH4 + -N removal efficiency kept relatively stable during the whole operational process. The MgO NPs at 30-60 mg/L slightly restrained the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), and the presence of MgO NPs also affected the denitrification and phosphorus removal. The specific oxygen uptake rate, nitrifying and denitrifying rates, phosphorus removal rate, and microbial enzymatic activities distinctly varied with the increase of MgO NPs concentration...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
David M Fisher, Spencer A Wood, Eric M White, Dale J Blahna, Sarah Lange, Alex Weinberg, Michael Tomco, Emilia Lia
Outdoor recreation is one of many important benefits provided by public lands. Data on recreational use are critical for informing management of recreation resources, however, managers often lack actionable information on visitor use for large protected areas that lack controlled access points. The purpose of this study is to explore the potential for social media data (e.g., geotagged images shared on Flickr and trip reports shared on a hiking forum) to provide land managers with useful measures of recreational use to dispersed areas, and to provide lessons learned from comparing several more traditional counting methods...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Liang Shi, Jiawang Xue, Binhao Liu, Pengcheng Dong, Zhugui Wen, Zhenguo Shen, Yahua Chen
Pisolithus sp1 is an ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi that was chosen during a screening test of six strains of ECM fungi due to its ability to tolerate and remove hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)). The physiological responses of Pisolithus sp1 to Cr(VI) exposure, the relationship between Pisolithus sp1 and exogenously added organic acids (EAOAs) or Na3 VO4 (H+ -ATPase inhibitor) and the ability of Pisolithus sp1 to reduce Cr(VI) in liquid culture were also investigated. Hydrogen ions (H+ ), which were produced directly by Pisolithus sp1, reduced the pH of the medium and played an important role in Cr(VI) reduction; however, Na3 VO4 significantly inhibited this process and resulted in a decrease in the Cr(VI) reduction rates...
June 13, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Amanda P Napp, José Evandro S Pereira, Jorge S Oliveira, Rita C B Silva-Portela, Lucymara F Agnez-Lima, Maria C R Peralba, Fátima M Bento, Luciane M P Passaglia, Claudia E Thompson, Marilene H Vainstein
The oil drilling process generates large volumes of waste with inadequate treatments. Here, oil drilling waste (ODW) microbial communities demonstrate different hydrocarbon degradative abilities when exposed to distinct nutrient enrichments as revealed by comparative metagenomics. The ODW was enriched in Luria Broth (LBE) and Potato Dextrose (PDE) media to examine the structure and functional variations of microbial consortia. Two metagenomes were sequenced on Ion Torrent platform and analyzed using MG-RAST...
June 11, 2018: Chemosphere
Maryam Shamsayei, Yadollah Yamini, Hamid Asiabi
In this work, the bio-nanohybrids of magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxide intercalated with zwitterionic histidine (His-LDH) was synthesized. The crystal phase, morphology, and nanostructure of the as-prepared His-LDH were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and nitrogen adsorption-desorption methods. The His-LDHs were used to remove anionic dyes, including Congo red (CR), indigo carmine (IC) and sunset yellow FCF (SY) from aqueous solutions...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Fujian Zhao, Bo Lei, Xian Li, Yunfei Mo, Renxian Wang, Dafu Chen, Xiaofeng Chen
Early vascularization capacity of biomaterials plays an essential role in efficient wound healing and tissue regeneration, especially in large tissue tension implanting position such as bone augmentation. Strontium-contained silica-based bioactive materials have shown the role of promoting angiogenesis by stimulating osteoblasts to secrete angiogenesis related cytokines. However, osteoblasts have little effect on early angiogenesis due to the inflammatory reaction of implantation site. Here, for the first time, we found that the monodispersed strontium-contained bioactive glasses microspheres (SrBGM) could significantly promote the early angiogenesis through regulating macrophage phenotypes...
June 8, 2018: Biomaterials
Yasmin Abo-Zeid, Richard A Urbanowicz, Brian J Thomson, William L Irving, Alexander W Tarr, Martin C Garnett
Virus infections cause diseases of different severity ranged from mild infection e.g. common cold into life threating diseases e.g. Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Hepatitis B. Virus infections represent 44% of newly emerging infections. Although there are many efficient antiviral agents, they still have drawbacks due to accumulation at off target organs and developing of virus resistance due to virus mutation. Therefore, developing a delivery system that can selectively target drug into affected organs and avoid off target accumulation would be a highly advantageous strategy to improve antiviral therapy...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Paola Mura, Serena Orlandini, Marzia Cirri, Francesca Maestrelli, Natascia Mennini, Giada Casella, Sandra Furlanetto
The work was aimed at developing an in vitro method able to provide rapid and reliable evaluation of drug absorption through buccal mucosa. Absorption simulator apparatus endowed with an artificial membrane was purposely developed by experimental design. The apparent permeation coefficient (Papp ) through excised porcine buccal mucosa of naproxen, selected as model drug, was the target value to obtain with the artificial membrane. The multivariate approach enabled systematic evaluation of the effect on the response (Papp ) of simultaneous variations of the variables (kind of lipid components for support impregnation and relative amounts)...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Hualong Xi, Jinfei Yu, Qing Sun, Jingcai Lu, Tiejun Gu, Xiaonan Guo, Bo Li, Xiaorui Chen, Kaixin Zhang, Wei Kong, Yongge Wu
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major pathogen that causes life-threatening diseases, such as pneumonia, otitis media, bacteremia, and meningitis, worldwide and especially in young children and the elderly. Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) is a widely studied candidate protein vaccine that represents a promising replacement for current polysaccharide and polysaccharide-conjugate vaccines. In this study, we describe a simple method to produce PspA of clade 4 from an Escherichia coli expression system using hydroxylapatite and ion-exchange chromatography...
June 13, 2018: Protein Expression and Purification
Tingting Lv, Liang Xu, Guolin Wu, Cailong Li, Yibo Wen, Tao Zhang, Haijun Chen, Yu Gao
Chemotherapy is currently one of the promising therapeutic methods for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but the emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR) is the greatest obstacle to efficient drug delivery for successful chemotherapy. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery holds great promise to promote intracellular drug delivery to reverse MDR. In this work, we used our previously synthesized ursolic acid (UA) derivative, FZU-03,010 (F3), to prepare nanodrugs of F3 with different architectures and study the role of the structure on the physiochemical properties and the biological effects against A549 and its PTX-resistant A549/PTX lung cancer cells...
June 13, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
G Jayanath, Sowmya P Mohandas, Bhavya Kachiprath, Solly Solomon, T P Sajeevan, I S Bright Singh, Rosamma Philip
A novel esterase, designated as EstSP was identified by function based screening from a soil metagenomic fosmid library of solar saltern of Goa. EstSP gene of 1065 bp encoding a putative esterase of 354 amino acids showing 55% identity to esterase from gamma proteobacterium HIMB55 was identified. The enzyme EstSP belongs to family IV hormone sensitive lipase with novel sequence characteristics and a unique motif GDSGG. EstSP was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified protein with molecular mass of 58...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Tatiana N Olivares-Bañuelos, Isabel Martínez-Hernández, Luisa C Hernández-Kelly, Donají Chi-Castañeda, Libia Vega, Arturo Ortega
Glutamate, the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate Central Nervous System, is involved in almost every aspect of brain physiology, and its signaling properties are severely affected in most neurodegenerative diseases. This neurotransmitter has to be efficiently removed from the synaptic cleft in order to prevent an over-stimulation of glutamate receptors that leads to neuronal death. Specific sodium-dependent membrane transporters, highly enriched in glial cells, elicit the clearance of glutamate...
June 13, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Diane R M Somlo, Nelson P Repenning, Abeel A Mangi
BACKGROUND: Contemporary reimbursement systems allow hospitals to maintain profitability by offering procedural services. However, increasing procedural volume can be met with structural inefficiencies that in turn cause delays, worse patient outcomes, and increased cost. METHODS: A multidisciplinary team assessed operations and outcomes at the Heart and Vascular Center at Yale New Haven Hospital, a tertiary academic medical center. Data were analyzed retrospectively to assess delays in transferring patients between care environments, patient outcomes, and cost...
June 13, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Richa Shrivastava, Shruti Trivedi, Pankaj Kumar Singh, Mohammad Asif, Manish Kumar Chourasia, Amit Khanna, Smrati Bhadauria
Breast cancer is most frequently diagnosed cancer and fifth leading cause of death in women. About 20-30% of all breast cancers overexpress HER2/neu receptors. Lapatinib is a dual tyrosin kinase inhibitor of EGFR and HER2. It exhibits its anticancer effect via blocking intracellular domain of HER2 receptor in breast cancer. Lapatinib belongs to class II of BSC classification due to its poor solubility restricting its clinical application. Due to presence of HER2 receptor on cardiomyocytes, it is associated with generation of cardiotoxicity...
June 13, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Si-Qi Huang, Bei-Bei Han, Yan-Mei Li, Yong-Xiang Chen
Intracellular protein delivery is of significance for cellular protein analysis and therapeutic development, but remains challenging technically. Herein, we report a general and highly potent strategy for intracellular protein delivery based on commercially available cationic lipids. In this strategy, a designed double branching poly-glutamate tag is site-specifically attached onto the C-terminal of protein cargos via expressed protein ligation (EPL), which mediates the entrapment of proteins into cationic liposomes driven by electrostatic interaction...
June 13, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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