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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786523/decision-support-beyond-total-savings-eligibility-and-potential-savings-for-individual-participants-from-changes-in-the-national-surveillance-strategy-for-bovine-viral-diarrhoea-bvd-in-ireland
#1
Jamie A Tratalos, Hans-Hermann Thulke, David A Graham, Maria Guelbenzu Gonzalo, Simon J More
Surveillance and management of livestock diseases is often evaluated with reference to expected sector-wide costs. In contrast, we calculate losses or savings for individual herd owners of a change in monitoring strategy during a national cattle disease eradication programme: bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) in Ireland. The alternative strategy differs in how the disease is identified; by its sample- rather than census-based approach; and by its greater cost per test. We examined the costs faced by each breeding herd if testing were conducted using serology on a sample of young stock, in contrast to the current method of tissue-tag testing of all newborn calves...
July 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785060/cost-effectiveness-of-vitamin-c-supplementation-for-pregnant-smokers-to-improve-offspring-lung-function-at-birth-and-reduce-childhood-wheeze-asthma
#2
Leah Yieh, Cindy T McEvoy, Scott W Hoffman, Aaron B Caughey, Kelvin D MacDonald, Dmitry Dukhovny
OBJECTIVE: To determine the implications of supplemental vitamin C for pregnant tobacco smokers and its effects on the prevalence of pediatric asthma, asthma-related mortality, and associated costs. STUDY DESIGN: A decision-analytic model built via TreeAge compared the outcome of asthma in a theoretical annual cohort of 480,000 children born to pregnant smokers through 18 years of life. Vitamin C supplementation (500 mg/day) with a standard prenatal vitamin was compared to a prenatal vitamin (60 mg/day)...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784820/efficient-collective-swimming-by-harnessing-vortices-through-deep-reinforcement-learning
#3
Siddhartha Verma, Guido Novati, Petros Koumoutsakos
Fish in schooling formations navigate complex flow fields replete with mechanical energy in the vortex wakes of their companions. Their schooling behavior has been associated with evolutionary advantages including energy savings, yet the underlying physical mechanisms remain unknown. We show that fish can improve their sustained propulsive efficiency by placing themselves in appropriate locations in the wake of other swimmers and intercepting judiciously their shed vortices. This swimming strategy leads to collective energy savings and is revealed through a combination of high-fidelity flow simulations with a deep reinforcement learning (RL) algorithm...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784696/why-are-we-failing-to-address-the-issue-of-access-to-insulin-a-national-and-global-perspective
#4
David Beran, Irl B Hirsch, John S Yudkin
Insulin was discovered in 1921 and soon became widely available in high-income countries. However, many people currently in need of this life-saving medicine are unable to access it. This is a global phenomenon, impacting not only populations of low- and middle-income countries but low-income populations in the U.S. In the U.S., the rate of diabetic ketoacidosis remains high in certain subpopulations, the cost of insulin being the main precipitating factor. On a global level the main cause of mortality for a child with type 1 diabetes is a lack of access to insulin, and in sub-Saharan Africa the life expectancy of a child with type 1 diabetes can be as low as 1 year...
June 2018: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784132/effect-of-the-self-efficacy-enhancing-active-cycle-of-breathing-technique-on-lung-cancer-patients-with-lung-resection-a-quasi-experimental-trial
#5
Mei Yang, Jiu-di Zhong, Jun-E Zhang, Xiao-Xiao Huang, Chuan-Zhen Li, Zhang-Xiang Hong, Si-Wen Zhang
PURPOSE: Enhancing self-efficacy during the active cycle of breathing technique is essential for realizing the full benefit of pulmonary rehabilitation among lung cancer patients. This study aimed to explore the effect of self-efficacy-enhancing active cycle of breathing technique (SEE-ACBT) among patients with lung resection. METHOD: A quasi-experimental trial with a pre-post test design was performed. The control group (n = 81) received routine perioperative care, and the intervention group (n = 81) received SEE-ACBT in addition to routine perioperative care...
June 2018: European Journal of Oncology Nursing: the Official Journal of European Oncology Nursing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784004/positive-impact-of-retrograde-autologous-priming-in-adult-patients-undergoing-cardiac-surgery-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#6
Britt Hofmann, Claudia Kaufmann, Markus Stiller, Thomas Neitzel, Andreas Wienke, Rolf-Edgar Silber, Hendrik Treede
BACKGROUND: Adult cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation is known to be associated with increased risk of blood transfusion leading to adverse outcomes. Procedures like retrograde autologous priming (RAP) may reduce these negative side effects. This randomized prospective study was initiated to assess whether RAP using specifically designed RAP bag (Terumo) has immediate effects on patient outcome. METHODS: One hundred eighteen adults undergoing elective CABG or elective aortic valve replacement were randomly assigned by a computer program into two groups: the RAP group (n = 54) in which the retrograde autologous priming was applied and the non-RAP (n = 64) group in which the same setting was used without the possibility to save priming volume...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783180/reprint-of-cling-film-plastic-wrap-an-innovation-for-dead-body-packaging-preservation-and-transportation-by-first-responders-as-a-replacement-for-cadaver-body-bag-in-large-scale-disasters
#7
Lay See Khoo, Poh Soon Lai, Mohd Hilmi Saidin, Zahari Noor, Mohd Shah Mahmood
Cadaver body bags are the conventional method to contain a human body or human remains, which includes the use for storage and transportation of the deceased at any crime scene or disaster scene. During disasters, most often than not, the first responders including the police will be equipped with cadaver body bags to do scene processing of human remains and collection of personal belongings at the disaster site. However, in an unanticipated large scale disasters involving hundreds and thousands of fatalities, cadaver body bags supplies may be scarce...
May 18, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783031/a-unique-all-payer-rate-setting-system-controls-the-cost-but-not-the-racial-disparity-in-lower-extremity-revascularization-procedures
#8
Besma Nejim, Robert J Beaulieu, Husain Alshaikh, Mohammed Hamouda, Joseph Canner, Mahmoud B Malas
BACKGROUND: Patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) often have high comorbidity burden that may complicate post-interventional course and drive increased healthcare expenditures. Racial disparity had been observed in lower extremity revascularization (LER) patterns and outcomes. In 2014, Maryland adopted an all-payer rate setting system to limit the rising hospitalization costs. This resulted in an aggregate payment system in which hospital compensation takes place as an overall per capita expenditure for hospital services...
May 18, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782617/patient-specific-neurosurgical-phantom-assessment-of-visual-quality-accuracy-and-scaling-effects
#9
Felipe Wilker Grillo, Victor Hugo Souza, Renan Hiroshi Matsuda, Carlo Rondinoni, Theo Zeferino Pavan, Oswaldo Baffa, Helio Rubens Machado, Antonio Adilton Oliveira Carneiro
Background: Training in medical education depends on the availability of standardized materials that can reliably mimic the human anatomy and physiology. One alternative to using cadavers or animal bodies is to employ phantoms or mimicking devices. Styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene (SEBS) gels are biologically inert and present tunable properties, including mechanical properties that resemble the soft tissue. Therefore, SEBS is an alternative to develop a patient-specific phantom, that provides real visual and morphological experience during simulation-based neurosurgical training...
2018: 3D printing in medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782288/-clinical-and-cost-effectiveness-of-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-for-patients-with-chronic-coronary-artery-disease-during-overnight-hospitalization
#10
A B Basinkevich, Y G Matchin, D C Bubnov, G A Silvestrova, N S Shamrina, R V Atanesyan, Y V Danilushkin, A V Skorobogatova, F T Ageev, S K Vladimirov
AIM: To evaluate cost effectiveness of coronary endovascular treatment in patients with stable IHD during "one-night" hospitalization. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using the cost-minimization analysis direct medical cost of coronary endovascular treatment in patients with stable IHD during the "one-night" hospitalization was compared with the "classic" hospitalization. RESULTS: The most cost-effective strategy for hospitalization of patients for transcutaneous coronary intervention (TCI) with stenting was the "one-night" hospitalization...
2018: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782065/foley-catheter-vs-oral-misoprostol-to-induce-labour-among-hypertensive-women-in-india-a-cost-consequence-analysis-alongside-a-clinical-trial
#11
Simon Leigh, Paul Granby, Alan Haycox, Shuchita Mundle, Hillary Bracken, Vaishali Khedikar, Jayashree Mulik, Brian Faragher, Thomas Easterling, Mark A Turner, Zarko Alfirevic, Beverly Winikoff, Andrew D Weeks
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness and economic impact of two methods for induction of labour in hypertensive women, in low-resource settings. DESIGN: Cost-consequence analysis of a previously reported multi-centre, parallel, open-label randomized trial. SETTING & POPULATION: 602 women with a live fetus, aged>18 years requiring delivery for pre-eclampsia or hypertension, in two public hospitals in Nagpur, India. METHODS: We performed a formal economic evaluation alongside the INFORM clinical trial...
May 21, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780028/induced-endometrial-trauma-endometrial-scratch-in-the-mid-luteal-menstrual-cycle-phase-preceding-first-cycle-ivf-icsi-versus-usual-ivf-icsi-therapy-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#12
Clare Pye, Robin Chatters, Judith Cohen, Kate Brian, Ying C Cheong, Susan Laird, Lamiya Mohiyiddeen, Jonathan Skull, Stephen Walters, Tracey Young, Mostafa Metwally
INTRODUCTION: Endometrial trauma commonly known as endometrial scratch (ES) has been shown to improve pregnancy rates in women with a history of repeated implantation failure undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF), with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). However, the procedure has not yet been fully explored in women having IVF/ICSI for the first time. This study aims to examine the effect of performing an ES in the mid-luteal phase prior to a first-time IVF/ICSI cycle on the chances of achieving a clinical pregnancy and live birth...
May 20, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779962/implementation-of-drug-eluting-stents-for-the-treatment-of-femoropopliteal-disease-provides-significant-cost-to-system-savings-in-a-single-state-outpatient-simulation
#13
Natalie Domenick Sridharan, Nathan Liang, Darve Robinson, Efthymios Avgerinos, Edith Tzeng, Michel S Makaroun, Rabih A Chaer, Mohammad H Eslami
OBJECTIVES: Initial data on drug-eluting stents (DES) shows that they may increase the durability of endovascular treatment of superficial femoral artery disease compared with traditional bare metal stents (BMS). Observed decreased target lesion revascularization (TLR) rates have potential for cost savings despite an increased initial cost. The purpose of this study was to run a simulation model of progressive transition from BMS to DES over 5 years evaluating the overall cost impact of that transition...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779842/a-cost-effectiveness-modeling-study-of-robot-assisted-rarc-versus-open-radical-cystectomy-orc-for-bladder-cancer-to-inform-future-research
#14
Charlotte T J Michels, Carl J Wijburg, Erik Leijte, J Alfred Witjes, Maroeska M Rovers, Janneke P C Grutters
BACKGROUND: Open radical cystectomy (ORC) is regarded the standard treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer, but robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) is increasingly used in practice. However, it is unclear whether RARC provides value for money. OBJECTIVE: To identify the main evidence gaps and main drivers of cost-effectiveness, comparing RARC to ORC. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A decision analytical model was developed to study the 30d and 90d postoperative complications with RARC versus ORC and their related cost in bladder cancer patients...
May 18, 2018: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779820/cost-analysis-of-omega-3-supplementation-in-critically-ill-patients-with-sepsis
#15
Kwadwo Kyeremanteng, Jennifer Shen, Kednapa Thavorn, Shannon M Fernando, Brent Herritt, Dipayan Chaudhuri, Peter Tanuseputro
INTRODUCTION: Nutritional supplement of omega-3 fatty acids have been proposed to improve clinical outcomes in critically ill patients. While previous work have demonstrated that omega-3 supplementation in patients with sepsis is associated with reduced ICU and hospital length of stay, the financial impact of this intervention is unknown. OBJECTIVE: Perform a cost analysis to evaluate the impact of omega-3 supplementation on ICU and hospital costs. METHODS: We extracted data related to ICU and hospital length of stay from the individual studies reported in a recent systematic review...
June 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779722/the-impact-of-using-an-intravenous-workflow-management-system-ivwms-on-cost-and-patient-safety
#16
Alex C Lin, Yihong Deng, Hilal Thaibah, John Hingl, Jonathan Penm, Marianne F Ivey, Mark Thomas
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the financial costs associated with wasted and missing doses before and after the implementation of an intravenous workflow management system (IVWMS) and to quantify the number and the rate of detected intravenous (IV) preparation errors. METHOD: A retrospective analysis of the sample hospital information system database was conducted using three months of data before and after the implementation of an IVWMS System (DoseEdge® ) which uses barcode scanning and photographic technologies to track and verify each step of the preparation process...
July 2018: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779714/self-monitoring-induced-savings-on-type-2-diabetes-patients-travel-and-healthcare-costs
#17
Aapeli Leminen, Markku Tykkyläinen, Tiina Laatikainen
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a major health concern in most regions. In addition to direct healthcare costs, diabetes causes many indirect costs that are often ignored in economic analyses. Patients' travel and time costs associated with the follow-up of T2DM patients have not been previously calculated systematically over an entire healthcare district. The aim of the study was to develop a georeferenced cost model that could be used to measure healthcare accessibility and patient travel and time costs in a sparsely populated healthcare district in Finland...
July 2018: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779145/comprehensive-genetic-testing-for-female-and-male-infertility-using-next-generation-sequencing
#18
Bonny Patel, Sasha Parets, Matthew Akana, Gregory Kellogg, Michael Jansen, Chihyu Chang, Ying Cai, Rebecca Fox, Mohammad Niknazar, Roman Shraga, Colby Hunter, Andrew Pollock, Robert Wisotzkey, Malgorzata Jaremko, Alex Bisignano, Oscar Puig
PURPOSE: To develop a comprehensive genetic test for female and male infertility in support of medical decisions during assisted reproductive technology (ART) protocols. METHODS: We developed a next-generation sequencing (NGS) gene panel consisting of 87 genes including promoters, 5' and 3' untranslated regions, exons, and selected introns. In addition, sex chromosome aneuploidies and Y chromosome microdeletions were analyzed concomitantly using the same panel. RESULTS: The NGS panel was analytically validated by retrospective analysis of 118 genomic DNA samples with known variants in loci representative of female and male infertility...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778344/impact-of-clinical-pharmacist-engagement-in-ward-teams-on-the-number-of-drug-related-readmissions-among-swedish-older-patients-with-dementia-or-cognitive-impairment-an-economic-evaluation
#19
Maria Sjölander, Lars Lindholm, Bettina Pfister, Jeanette Jonsson, Jörn Schneede, Hugo Lövheim, Maria Gustafsson
BACKGROUND: Clinical pharmacists play an increasing role in the pharmacological treatment of hospital-admitted older patients with dementia or cognitive impairment. In an earlier randomised controlled trial, clinical pharmacist involvement in the ward team could significantly reduce drug-related readmissions in patient subgroups. However, the economic impact of the intervention has not been addressed so far. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the economic impact of clinical pharmacist engagement in hospital ward teams for medication therapy management in older patients with dementia or cognitive impairments...
May 16, 2018: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777729/pharmacogenetic-tests-to-guide-drug-treatment-in-depression-comparison-of-the-available-testing-kits-and-clinical-trials
#20
REVIEW
Chiara Fabbri, Joseph Zohar, Alessandro Serretti
The empirical approach to drug choice and dosing in depression often results into inadequate response and side effects. Pharmacogenetic (PGx) testing appears a promising way to implement personalized treatments. A systematic review was performed to identify available PGx tests, compare the genes they include with clinical guidelines and drug labels, and assess the quality of published clinical studies. ~40 commercial PGx tests are available and potential benefits were estimated for nine of them by clinical studies...
May 16, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
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