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Ian H Stanley, Lia J Smith, Joseph W Boffa, Jana K Tran, N Brad Schmidt, Thomas E Joiner, Anka A Vujanovic
BACKGROUND: Firefighters represent an occupational group at increased suicide risk. How suicidality develops among firefighters is poorly understood. The depression-distress amplification model posits that the effects of depression symptoms on suicide risk will be intensified in the context of anxiety sensitivity (AS) cognitive concerns. The current study tested this model among firefighters. METHODS: Overall, 831 firefighters participated (mean [SD] age = 38...
April 7, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Jason Ng, Jonathan E Wingo, Phillip A Bishop, Jason C Casey, Elizabeth K Aldrich
INTRODUCTION: Precooling with ice slurry ingestion attenuates the increase in rectal temperature (Tre) during subsequent running and cycling. It remains unclear how this cooling method affects physiological strain during work while wearing protective garments. This study investigated the effect of ice slurry ingestion on physiological strain during work in hot conditions while wearing firefighter protective clothing. METHODS: In three counterbalanced trials, eight men (mean ± SD; age = 21 ± 2 yr, height = 179...
May 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Aline Menin, Rafael Torchelsen, Luciana Nedel
Using virtual environments (VEs) is a safer and cost-effective alternative to executing dangerous tasks, such as training firefighters and industrial operators. Immersive virtual reality (VR) combined with game aspects have the potential to improve the user experience in the VE by increasing realism, engagement, and motivation. This article investigates the impact of VR technology on 46 immersive gamified simulations with serious purposes and classifies it towards a taxonomy. Our findings suggest that immersive VR improves simulation outcomes, such as increasing learning gain and knowledge retention and improving clinical outcomes for rehabilitation...
March 2018: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
Mireille Gagnon-Roy, Benyahia Hami, Mélissa Généreux, Nathalie Veillette, Marie-Josée Sirois, Mary Egan, Véronique Provencher
OBJECTIVES: Older cognitively impaired adults present a higher risk of hospitalisation and mortality following a visit to the emergency department (ED). Better understanding of avoidable incidents is needed to prevent them and the associated ED presentations in community-dwelling adults. This study aimed to synthetise the actual knowledge concerning these incidents leading this population to ED presentation, as well as possible preventive measures to reduce them. DESIGN: A scoping review was performed according to the Arksey and O'Malley framework...
April 17, 2018: BMJ Open
Gerald S Poplin, Stephanie Griffin, Keshia Pollack Porter, Joshua Mallett, Chengcheng Hu, Virginia Day-Nash, Jefferey L Burgess
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the efficacy of a fire department proactive risk management program aimed at reducing firefighter injuries and their associated costs. METHODS: Injury data were collected for the intervention fire department and a contemporary control department. Workers' compensation claim frequency and costs were analyzed for the intervention fire department only. Total, exercise, patient transport, and fireground operations injury rates were calculated for both fire departments...
April 16, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
Raymond B Flannery, Thomas Greenhalgh
Experimental studies have documented the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in first responders. These studies have routinely included police, firefighters, and paramedics. However, there is another group of first responders that are at risk for PTSD but that has received less research attention. This group is comprised of coroners. This paper reviewed the published data concerning coroners and PTSD and outlined various treatments for addressing coronial PTSD. The findings, the differing treatments, and a detailed methodological inquiry are presented...
April 13, 2018: Psychiatric Quarterly
John A Hoskins
On 14 June 2017, a fire broke out at Grenfell Tower: a residential block in North Kensington, London, UK. Soon the whole tower was ablaze and it took firefighters over 24 h to get the fire under control. At least 80 people were confirmed or presumed dead and around 70 injured. Among the many reasons given for the blaze none discuss why a Tower Block, constructed in 1974, from materials whose fire safety had been checked was recently refurbished with materials considered by many to be flammable. The frame of the tower had curtain walls, originally finished with 6 infill panels constructed from 4 glass windows and two 3 ply composite panels constructed with chrysotile cement...
April 9, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Grace E Vincent, Sally Ferguson, Brianna Larsen, Nicola D Ridgers, Rod Snow, Brad Aisbett
PURPOSE: To examine the effects of sleep restriction on firefighters' physical task performance, physical activity, and physiological and perceived exertion during simulated hot wildfire conditions. METHODS: 31 firefighters were randomly allocated to either the hot (n = 18, HOT; 33 °C, 8-h sleep opportunity) or hot and sleep restricted (n = 13, HOT + SR; 33 °C, 4-h sleep opportunity) condition. Intermittent, self-paced work circuits of six firefighting tasks were performed for 3 days...
April 6, 2018: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
David P Bui, Samantha Balland, Casey Giblin, Alesia Jung, Sandy Kramer, Abigail Peng, Marie Corazon Ponce Aquino, Stephanie Griffin, Dustin D French, Keshia Pollack Porter, Steve Crothers, Jefferey L Burgess
BACKGROUND: Emergency service vehicle incidents (ESVI), including crashes, rollovers, and roadside struck-by-incidents, are a leading cause of occupational fatality and injury among firefighters and other emergency responders. Though there are numerous strategies and interventions to prevent ESVIs, the evidence base for these strategies is limited and dispersed. The goal of this study was to gather and present a review of evidence-based ESVI interventions. METHODS: We searched five academic databases for articles published within the last decade featuring interventions to reduce or prevent ESVIs...
April 2, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Emily R Watkins, Mark Hayes, Peter Watt, Alan J Richardson
Analysis of Fire Service Instructors (FSI) working practices and health is needed to minimise health risks related to heat illness, cardiovascular events and immunological stress. Online surveys were distributed to UK FSI and Firefighters (FF). One hundred and thirty FSI (age: 43±7yrs) and 232 FF (age: 41±8yrs) responded. FSI experienced 2-10 live fires per week, with 45% of FSI reporting management does not set a limit on the number of exposures. Few FSI followed hydration guidelines, or cooling methods...
April 5, 2018: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
Anna Dubaniewicz
In the light of modified the Matzinger's model of immune response, human heat shock proteins (hsp) as main "danger signals" tissue damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) or/and microbial hsp as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) recognized by pattern recognition receptors (PRR), may induce sarcoid granuloma by both infectious and non-infectious factors in genetically different predisposed host. Regarding infectious causes of sarcoid models, low-virulence strains of, e.g. mycobacteria and propionibacteria recognized through genetically changed PRR and persisting in genetically altered host phagocytes, generate increased release of both human and microbial hsp with their molecular and functional homology...
March 27, 2018: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Ian H Stanley, Melanie A Hom, Carol Chu, Sean P Dougherty, Austin J Gallyer, Sally Spencer-Thomas, Leah Shelef, Eyal Fruchter, Katherine Anne Comtois, Peter M Gutierrez, Natalie J Sachs-Ericsson, Thomas E Joiner
Firefighters experience high rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is imperative to identify malleable factors that protect against the development of PTSD symptoms among this population. We examined whether perceptions of belongingness broadly (Study 1) and social support from supervisors, coworkers, and family/friends specifically (Study 2) are associated with lower PTSD symptom severity among firefighters. Study 1 included 840 U.S. firefighters (91.1% male); participants completed the Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire and PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version...
March 29, 2018: Psychological Services
Ian H Stanley, Melanie A Hom, Anna R Gai, Thomas E Joiner
Recent research has indicated that firefighters are at elevated suicide risk. Fire service organizations have called for research to examine fire service subgroups that might be at relatively increased suicide risk. Although anecdotal reports suggest that wildland firefighters represent one such group, to our knowledge, no study has empirically examined this conjecture. Thus, the present investigation examined if wildland firefighters report greater levels of suicide risk than non-wildland firefighters. Moreover, we sought to determine if two constructs proposed by the interpersonal theory of suicide to comprise suicidal desire-thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness-statistically explain the link between wildland firefighter status and suicide risk...
March 14, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Heyeon Park, Johanna Inhyang Kim, Sohee Oh, Jeong-Hyun Kim
BACKGROUND: Despite attempts to identify predictors for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in firefighters, it is still uncertain whether occupational stress factors impact PTSD symptoms. Given the emotionally taxing job environment of firefighters, this population has been known to suffer from emotional labor. In this study, we investigated whether and how emotional labor, one of the occupational stress factors, influences the severity of PTSD symptoms in firefighters. METHODS: A total of 7151 Korean firefighters (age range 21-60 years, 6484 (90...
March 13, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Richard M Kesler, Faith F Bradley, Grace S Deetjen, Michael J Angelini, Matthew N Petrucci, Karl S Rosengren, Gavin P Horn, Elizabeth T Hsiao-Wecksler
Risk of slips, trips, and falls in firefighters may be influenced by the firefighter's equipment and duration of firefighting. This study examined the impact of a four self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) -three SCBA of increasing size and a prototype design- and three work cycles -one bout (1B), two bouts with a five-minute break (2B), and two bouts back-to-back (BB)- on gait in 30 firefighters. Five gait parameters (double support time, single support time, stride length, step width, and stride velocity) were examined pre- and post-firefighting activity...
March 23, 2018: Ergonomics
R N Carleton, T O Afifi, T Taillieu, S Turner, R El-Gabalawy, J Sareen, G J G Asmundson
Canadian Public Safety Personnel (PSP; e.g., correctional service officers, dispatchers, firefighters, paramedics, police officers) regularly experience potentially traumatic, painful, and injurious events. Such exposures increase risk for developing mental disorders and chronic pain, which both involve substantial personal and social costs. The interrelationship between mental disorders and chronic pain is well-established, and both can be mutually maintaining; accordingly, understanding the relationship between mental health and chronic pain among PSP is important for improving health care...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Michael W Schleh, Charles L Dumke
INTRODUCTION: This study compared 2 commercially available beverages, an oral rehydration solution (ORS; 60.9 mM Na+ ; 3.4% carbohydrate) and a sports drink (SDS; 18.4 mM Na+; 5.9% carbohydrate), on hydration and metabolism during submaximal exercise in the heat. METHODS: Ten male subjects completed two 90-min exercise trials (39ºC, 30%) of walking at 50% VO2max followed by a 30-min rest period in the heat while wearing wildland firefighter personal protective clothing...
March 13, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Duy Vu Tran, Carol S North
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate potential association between psychopathology and subjective evaluation of the experience of debriefing in disaster-exposed rescue and recovery workers. METHODS: Structured diagnostic interviews for DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders were conducted with 166 firefighters who served as rescue and recovery workers for the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing, who categorized their satisfaction with the debriefing on 4 levels...
March 15, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
David Fessell, Frank J Lexa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
Kenneth W Fent, Douglas E Evans, Kelsey Babik, Cynthia Striley, Stephen Bertke, Steve Kerber, Denise Smith, Gavin P Horn
In this study, we characterize the area and personal air concentrations of combustion byproducts produced during controlled residential fires with furnishings common in 21st century single family structures. Area air measurements were collected from the structure during active fire and overhaul (post suppression) and on the fireground where personnel were operating without any respiratory protection. Personal air measurements were collected from firefighters assigned to fire attack, victim search, overhaul, outside ventilation, and command/pump operator positions...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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