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Hyuek Jong Lee
White adipose tissue (WAT) expansion is associated with angiogenesis. Although, activation of lipolysis by exercise induces adipocyte hypotrophy and reduction of fat mass, it is poorly understood whether exercise regulates angiogenesis by altering angiogenic gene expression in WAT. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 6 weeks voluntary wheel running exercise on angiogenic gene expression in adipose tissues. Male C57BL/6J mice performed voluntary wheel running for 6 weeks. At 24 hr after the last exercise training, tibialis anterior (TA), soleus (Sol), epididymal WAT (eWAT), inguinal WAT (iWAT), and brown adipose tissue (BAT) were isolated and then the expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), angiopoietin1 (Ang1), Ang2, platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGF-B) and their corresponding receptors were analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction...
February 2018: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
Molinaro Francesco, Cobellis Giovanni, Cerchia Elisa, Ferrara Francesco, Tallarico Rosella, Sica Marina, Noviello Carmine, Martino Ascanio, Angotti Rossella, Messina Mario
Background: The varicocele is the most commonly diagnosed pre-pubertal andrological condition with an incidence of 10%-15% between adolescents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of retroperitoneoscopic varicocelectomy (RV) in two Italian centres with particular attention to post-operative testicular volume and semen analysis after 18 years of life. Materials and Methods: From 1999 to 2010, 286 adolescents underwent retroperitoneoscopic left varicocelectomy...
April 2017: African Journal of Paediatric Surgery: AJPS
Ryan Zimmerman, Raina Patel, Amanda Smith, Julio Pasos, Randy J Kulesza
Auditory dysfunction is a common occurrence in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). While most cases of ASD are of unknown etiology, in utero exposure to the antiepileptic valproic acid (VPA) significantly increases risk. We have previously identified significant dysmorphology and hypoplasia in the auditory brainstem of humans with ASD and rodents exposed to VPA in utero. Further, we have identified abnormal c-Fos immunolabeling patterns after exposure to pure tone stimuli in VPA-exposed animals...
March 3, 2018: Neuroscience
Muhannad Alanazi, Alaa AlDuraibi, Mohamamed M Shoukri, Ahmed Fathala
Background: Coronary artery calcification score (CACS) is well validated prognostic tool in coronary artery disease (CAD). The data on the prevalence of myocardial ischemia on myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (MPS) in symptomatic patients with zero CACS and low to intermediate risk probability is lacking and controversial. The aim of our study was to evaluate the capability of zero CACS to exclude myocardial ischemia on MPS. Methods: A total of 157 patients ((mean age 53 ± 10 years), 88 (56%) female patients, 69 (44%) male patients) who were suspected to have CAD and having low to intermediate pretest likelihood for CAD underwent CACS on dedicated computed tomography (CT) scanners...
February 2018: Cardiology Research
G Baujat, C Michot, K H Le Quan Sang, V Cormier-Daire
Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is a rare hereditary disease characterized by defective skeletal mineralization, and with a broad severity spectrum. The perinatal forms, lethal and non-lethal, are associated with severe neonatal respiratory distress, potential seizures, hypotrophy and marked hypotonia. The diagnosis is rapidly suggested by a combination of typical radiological signs, hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia and low alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. In the infantile form, the clinical signs appear before the age of six months, but the patients usually have no or very mild signs at birth...
May 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Daniel Tibussek, Sujal Ghosh, Angela Huebner, Joerg Schaper, Ertan Mayatepek, Katrin Koehler
BACKGROUND: Triple A syndrome (or Allgrove syndrome) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by alacrima, achalasia, adrenal insufficiency and autonomic/neurological abnormalities. The majority of cases are caused by mutations in the AAAS gene located on chromosome 12q13. However, the clinical picture as well as genetic testing may be complex since symptomatology is variable and mutations cannot be identified in all clinically diagnosed patients. We present two unrelated patients with triple-A syndrome illustrating the importance of alacrima as an early clinical sign...
January 15, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Miranda J Cullins, Brittany N Krekeler, Nadine P Connor
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Aging is associated with muscle fiber hypotrophy and decreased percentages of rapidly contracting myosin heavy chain (MyHC) type IIb muscle fibers. Tongue exercise programs used to treat dysphagia target age-related decline in tongue muscle function, but the impact of exercise on the intrinsic tongue muscles is unknown. We hypothesized that exercise would induce muscle fiber hypertrophy and increase the percentage of MyHC IIa fibers in the intrinsic tongue. STUDY DESIGN: Animal model...
December 15, 2017: Laryngoscope
Elisa Brandigi, Giovanni Torino, Mario Messina, Francesco Molinaro, Oscar Mazzei, Tommaso Matucci, Juan Carlos López Gutiérrez
OBJECTIVE: Klippel-Trénaunay syndrome (KTS) is described in the literature as a complex syndrome characterized by various combinations of capillary, venous, and lymphatic malformations associated with limb overgrowth. In the first description by Maurice Klippel and Paul Trénaunay, tridimensional bone hypertrophy was believed to be the cause of limb enlargement. The purpose of this study was primarily to assess the presence of real bone hypertrophy as a cause of enlargement of the limb and to underline the rare presence of undergrowth of the affected limb in patients with KTS...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery. Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
Xiaobin Huang, Yong Hou, LeiLei Zhong, Dechun Huang, Hongliang Qian, Marcel Karperien, Wei Chen
We investigated the effects of different oxygen tension (21% and 2.5% O2 ) on the chondrogenesis of different cell systems cultured in pH-degradable PVA hydrogels, including human articular chondrocytes (hACs), human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), and their cocultures with a hAC/hMSC ratio of 20/80. These hydrogels were prepared with vinyl ether acrylate-functionalized PVA (PVA-VEA) and thiolated PVA-VEA (PVA-VEA-SH) via Michael-type addition reaction. The rheology tests determined the gelation of the hydrogels was controlled within 2-7 min, dependent on the polymer concentrations...
January 8, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Ying Xiao, Yinjie Liu, Jiaming Liu, Y James Kang
Myocardial fibrogenesis is initiated once the coordination between oxygen supply and demand is disrupted in pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Clinical observations showed that myocardial fibrosis did not evenly occur in the hypertrophic myocardium. The present study was undertaken to specifically address differential vulnerabilities to fibrogenesis of different regions in the myocardium subjected to pressure overload-induced hypertrophy. SD rats were divided into two groups, sham-operated control and ascending artery constriction-induced cardiac hypotrophy...
December 4, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
M Barral, L Lassalle, R Dautry, C Eveno, J De Laveaucoupet, S Maitre, A Dohan, M Pocard, P Soyer
PURPOSE: To investigate the possible relationships between sigmoid diverticula, the volume of the left lateral segment of the liver and sigmoid colon volvulus. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The presence of sigmoid diverticula was analyzed in 36 patients (24 men, 12 women; mean age, 70.77±19.86 [SD] years) with sigmoid volvulus (group 1). The volumes of left lateral segment of the liver (i.e., segments 2 and 3 and further referred to as liver 1), liver 2 (i.e., segments 1, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8), total liver volume and liver volume ratio (LVR) (i...
November 28, 2017: Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging
Chamindra G Konersman, Fernande Freyermuth, Thomas L Winder, Michael W Lawlor, Clotilde Lagier-Tourenne, Shailendra B Patel
BACKGROUND: Nemaline myopathy (NEM) is one of the three major forms of congenital myopathy and is characterized by diffuse muscle weakness, hypotonia, respiratory insufficiency, and the presence of nemaline rod structures on muscle biopsy. Mutations in troponin T1 (TNNT1) is 1 of 10 genes known to cause NEM. To date, only homozygous nonsense mutations or compound heterozygous truncating or internal deletion mutations in TNNT1 gene have been identified in NEM. This extended family is of historical importance as some members were reported in the 1960s as initial evidence that NEM is a hereditary disorder...
November 2017: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
Joanna Schreiber-Zamora, Monika Szpotanska-Sikorska, Agnieszka Drozdowska-Szymczak, Natalia Czaplinska, Bronisława Pietrzak, Miroslaw Wielgos, Bozena Kociszewska-Najman
BACKGROUND: Pregnancies after kidney transplantation are at high risk of complications such as preterm birth and foetal growth restriction. Until now, the impact of these factors on neurological development of children born to transplant mothers has not been established. AIMS: A comparison of neurological examinations performed in 36 children of kidney transplant women (study group) and 36 children born to healthy mothers (control group). The children from both groups were born at a similar gestational age and in the similar time period from 12/1996 to 09/2012...
December 3, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Marco A S Fortes, Maria V M Scervino, Gabriel N Marzuca-Nassr, Kaio F Vitzel, Carlos H da Justa Pinheiro, Rui Curi
Diabetes mellitus induces a reduction in skeletal muscle mass and strength. Strength training is prescribed as part of treatment since it improves glycemic control and promotes increase of skeletal muscle mass. The mechanisms involved in overload-induced muscle hypertrophy elicited at the establishment of the type I diabetic state was investigated in Wistar rats. The purpose was to examine whether the overload-induced hypertrophy can counteract the hypotrophy associated to the diabetic state. The experiments were performed in oxidative (soleus) or glycolytic (EDL) muscles...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Annalisa Mencarelli, Paolo Prontera, Gabriela Stangoni, Elisabetta Mencaroni, Nicola Principi, Susanna Esposito
Malformations of the cerebral cortex are an important cause of developmental disabilities and epilepsy. Neurological disorders caused by abnormal neuronal migration have been observed to occur with mutations in tubulin genes. The α- and β-tubulin genes encode cytoskeletal proteins, which play a role in the developing brain. TUBA1A mutations are associated with a wide spectrum of neurological problems, which are characterized by peculiar clinical details and neuroradiologic patterns. This manuscript describes the case of a nine-year-old girl with microcephaly, mild facial dysmorphisms, epileptic seizures, and severe developmental delay, with a de novo heterozygous c...
October 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Sofía Gitler, Ibrahim Rámirez, Ricardo Ramírez, Joel Medina, Pavel Vázquez, Alicia Ortega
Skeletal muscle (SM) is the most abundant tissue and the largest reservoir of protein in the body. It transports glucose in an insulin dependent manner by the glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) and contributes in the maintenance of serum amino acids concentration. By its mass and energetic requirements, it is fundamental for the systemic metabolic balance. In the present work, we present the effect of gestational undernourishment (GU) on the mechanical and metabolic properties of SM at birth and in old age in an animal model...
2017: Gaceta Médica de México
Xuefeng Deng, Wei Zou, Min Xiong, Zekun Wang, John F Engelhardt, Shui Qing Ye, Ziying Yan, Jianming Qiu
Human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1) is a human parvovirus that causes acute respiratory tract infections in young children. In this study, we confirmed that, when polarized/well-differentiated human airway epithelia are infected with HBoV1 in vitro , they develop damage characterized by barrier function disruption and cell hypotrophy. Cell death mechanism analyses indicated that the infection induced pyroptotic cell death characterized by caspase-1 activation. Unlike infections with other parvoviruses, HBoV1 infection did not activate the apoptotic or necroptotic cell death pathway...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
Miriam Helena Fonseca-Alaniz, Talita Sayuri Higa, Tarcila Beatriz Ferraz-de-Campos, Julie Takada, Francisco Leonardo Torres-Leal, Fabiana Sant'Anna Evangelista, Fabio Bessa Lima, José Eduardo Krieger
Emerging evidence suggests that both systemic and white adipose tissue-renin-angiotensin system components influence body weight control. We previously demonstrated that higher angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene expression is associated with lower body adiposity in a rodent model. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a higher ACE gene dosage reduces fat accumulation by increasing energy expenditure and modulating lipolysis and glucose incorporation into lipids in adipocytes. After a 12 wk follow-up period, transgenic mice harboring three ACE (3ACE) gene copies displayed diminished WAT mass, lipid content in their carcasses, adipocyte hypotrophy, and higher resting oxygen uptake (V̇o2 ) in comparison with animals with one ACE gene copy (1ACE) after long fasting (12 h)...
December 1, 2017: Physiological Genomics
James Hughes, Ruby Dawson, Melinda Tea, Dale McAninch, Sandra Piltz, Dominique Jackson, Laura Stewart, Michael G Ricos, Leanne M Dibbens, Natasha L Harvey, Paul Thomas
DEPDC5 mutations have recently been shown to cause epilepsy in humans. Evidence from in vitro studies has implicated DEPDC5 as a negative regulator of mTORC1 during amino acid insufficiency as part of the GATOR1 complex. To investigate the role of DEPDC5 in vivo we generated a null mouse model using targeted CRISPR mutagenesis. Depdc5 homozygotes display severe phenotypic defects between 12.5-15.5 dpc, including hypotrophy, anaemia, oedema, and cranial dysmorphology as well as blood and lymphatic vascular defects...
October 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
Marjan Shojaie, Farzane Ghanbari, Nasrin Shojaie
Undesirable and desirable effects of stressors on the body are assigned to distress and eustress, respectively. Immune system and brain are the most susceptible parts to stressful conditions, whereas long-lasting alterations in putative immune proteins involved in tension such as corticosterone (CORT), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) can impact learning and memory. Intermittent fasting (IF) is a repeated regular cycle of dietary restriction with well-known beneficial properties on the body...
November 2017: Journal of Advanced Research
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