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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550173/experimental-cardiac-radiation-exposure-induces-ventricular-diastolic-dysfunction-with-preserved-ejection-fraction
#1
Hirofumi Saiki, Gilles Moulay, Adam J Guenzel, Weibin Liu, Teresa Decklever, Kelly Classic, Linh Pham, Horng H Chen, John C Burnett, Stephen J Russell, Margaret M Redfield
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer radiotherapy increases the risk of heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Cardiomyocytes are highly radio-resistant but radiation specifically affects coronary microvascular endothelial cells with subsequent microvascular inflammation and rarefaction. The effects of radiation on left ventricular (LV) diastolic function are poorly characterized. We hypothesized that cardiac radiation exposure may result in diastolic dysfunction without reduced EF...
May 26, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550088/cardiac-telomere-length-in-heart-development-function-and-disease
#2
Scott A Booth, Fadi J Charchar
Telomeres are repetitive nucleoprotein structures at chromosome ends and a decrease in the number of these repeats, known as a reduction in telomere length (TL), triggers cellular senescence and apoptosis. Heart disease, the worldwide leading cause of death, often results from the loss of cardiac cells which could be explained by decreases in TL. Due to the cell-specific regulation of TL, this review focuses on studies that have measured telomeres in heart cells and critically assesses the relationship between cardiac TL and heart function...
May 26, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549098/high-protein-foods-and-physical-activity-protect-against-age-related-muscle-loss-and-functional-decline
#3
M Loring Bradlee, Jabed Mustafa, Martha R Singer, Lynn L Moore
Background: Some clinical trials suggest that protein supplementation enhances the effects of resistance exercise on skeletal muscle mass (SMM); fewer studies examine the effects of diets rich in protein-source foods on SMM and functional status among community-dwelling adults. Methods: Data from the Framingham Offspring study including diet (three-day records, exams 3 and 5), physical activity (exams 2 and 4), percent SMM (%SMM) (exams 6 and 7), and functional performance (exams 5 through 8) were used to evaluate independent and combined effects of physical activity and high-protein foods on adjusted mean %SMM (using analysis of covariance) and risk of functional decline (using Cox proportional hazard's models)...
May 25, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548991/protein-nutrition-and-exercise-survival-kit-for-critically-ill
#4
Peter J M Weijs
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Protein delivery as well as exercise of critically ill in clinical practice is still a highly debated issue. Here we discuss only the most recent updates in the literature concerning protein nutrition and exercise of the critically ill. RECENT FINDINGS: By lack of randomized controlled trial (RCTs) in protein nutrition we discuss four post-hoc analyses of nutrition studies and one experimental study in mice. Studies mainly confirm some insights that protein and energy effects are separate and that the trajectory of the patient in the ICU might change these effects...
May 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546468/influence-of-maximal-fat-oxidation-on-long-term-weight-loss-maintenance-in-humans
#5
Sune Dandanell, Karina Husted, Signe Amdisen, Andreas Vigelsø, Flemming Dela, Steen Larsen, Jorn Wulff Helge
Impaired maximal fat oxidation has been linked to obesity and weight regain after weight loss. The aim was to investigate the relationship between maximal fat oxidation (MFO) and long-term weight loss maintenance. Eighty subjects (mean(SD)) (Age: 36(13) yrs; BMI: 38(1) kg/m(2)) were recruited from a total of 2420 former participants of an 11-12-week lifestyle intervention. Three groups were established based on % weight loss at follow-up (5.3(3.3) yrs): Clinical weight loss maintenance (CWL) >10% weight loss, moderate weight loss (MWL) 1-10%, and weight regain (WR)...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544314/low-intensity-endurance-exercise-plus-nandrolone-decanoate-modulates-cardiac-adiponectin-and-its-receptors
#6
A Karimi, S Joukar, H Najafipour, Y Masoumi-Ardakani, B Shahouzehi
Vast adverse effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) on athletes' cardiovascular systems have been reported. However, there is still a lack of adequate information regarding the pathways and mechanisms involved. We tested the hypothesis that adiponectin and its receptors in the heart may be affected by long-term use of AASs alongside exercising. Male Wistar rats were randomized into the control (CTL), exercise (EX), nandrolone (Nan), arachis (Arach) group which treated with arachis as vehicle, trained vehicle (EX+Arach) and trained nandrolone (EX+Nan) groups that were treated for 8 weeks...
March 2017: Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543538/clinical-and-histopathological-features-of-myofibrillar-myopathy-in-warmblood-horses
#7
S J Valberg, A M Nicholson, S S Lewis, R A Reardon, C J Finno
BACKGROUND: To report a novel exertional myopathy, myofibrillar myopathy (MFM), in Warmblood horses. OBJECTIVES: To 1) describe the distinctive clinical and myopathic features of MFM in Warmblood horses, 2) investigate the potential inheritance of MFM in a Warmblood family. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective selection of MFM cases and prospective evaluation of a Warmblood family. METHODS: Retrospectively, muscle biopsies were selected from Warmblood horses diagnosed with MFM and clinical histories obtained (n = 10)...
May 22, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543309/adenovirus-vector-expressing-keratinocyte-growth-factor-using-cag-promoter-impaired-pulmonary-function-of-elastase-induced-emphysema
#8
Hiroshi Oki, Takuya Yazawa, Yasuko Baba, Yumi Kanegae, Hanako Sato, Seiko Sakamoto, Takahisa Goto, Izumu Saito, Kiyoyasu Kurahashi
Pulmonary emphysema impairs quality of life and increases mortality. Previous studies demonstrated that administration of KGF before elastase instillation prevented pulmonary emphysema in mice. We hypothesized that KGF could improve pulmonary function, and that the therapeutic administration of KGF would restore damaged lungs caused by elastase instillation in an animal model. We constructed KGF expressing adenovirus vector, which prevented bleomycin induced pulmonary fibrosis in the previous study. Adenovirus vector (1...
May 24, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542873/a-map-of-the-phosphoproteomic-alterations-that-occur-after-a-bout-of-maximal-intensity-contractions
#9
Gregory K Potts, Rachel M McNally, Rocky Blanco, Jae-Sung You, Alexander S Hebert, Michael S Westphall, Joshua J Coon, Troy A Hornberger
The maintenance of skeletal muscle mass is essential for health and quality of life. It is well recognized that maximal-intensity contractions, such as those which occur during resistance exercise, promote an increase in muscle mass. Yet, the molecules that sense the mechanical information and convert it into the signalling events (e.g. phosphorylation) that drive the increase in muscle mass remain undefined. Here we describe a phosphoproteomics workflow to examine the effects of electrically evoked maximal-intensity contractions (MIC) on protein phosphorylation in mouse skeletal muscle...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540659/neuroprotective-benefits-of-aerobic-exercise-and-organoselenium-dietary-supplementation-in-hippocampus-of-old-rats
#10
José L Cechella, Marlon R Leite, Simone Pinton, Gilson Zeni, Cristina W Nogueira
The progressive decline of neurological functions, such as learning and memory, is an unavoidable consequence of aging. Our previous work suggested that the combination of physical exercise and a diet supplemented with diphenyl diselenide improves age-related memory decline in rats. The present study investigated the effects of physical exercise and a diet supplemented with diphenyl diselenide on the levels of proteins involved in the hippocampal neuroprotection to figure out the mechanisms related to the beneficial effects of this intervention in aged rats...
May 25, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537848/influence-of-endurance-training-on-skeletal-muscle-mitophagy-regulatory-proteins-in-type-2-diabetic-men
#11
Christian Brinkmann, Axel Przyklenk, Alexander Metten, Thorsten Schiffer, Wilhelm Bloch, Klara Brixius, Sebastian Gehlert
BACKGROUND: Mitophagy is a form of autophagy for the elimination of mitochondria. Mitochondrial content and function are reduced in the skeletal muscle of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Physical training has been shown to restore mitochondrial capacity in T2DM patients, but the role of mitophagy has not been examined in this context. This study analyzes the impact of a 3-month endurance training on important skeletal muscle mitophagy regulatory proteins and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes in T2DM patients...
May 24, 2017: Endocrine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536949/exercise-and-doxorubicin-treatment-modulate-cardiac-mitochondrial-quality-control-signaling
#12
I Marques-Aleixo, E Santos-Alves, J R Torrella, P J Oliveira, J Magalhães, A Ascensão
The cross-tolerance effect of exercise against heart mitochondrial-mediated quality control, remodeling and death-related mechanisms associated with sub-chronic Doxorubicin (DOX) treatment is yet unknown. We therefore analyzed the effects of two distinct chronic exercise models (endurance treadmill training-TM and voluntary free wheel activity-FW) performed during the course of the sub-chronic DOX treatment on mitochondrial susceptibility to permeability transition pore (mPTP), apoptotic and autophagic signaling and mitochondrial dynamics...
May 23, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536184/pre-sleep-dietary-protein-derived-amino-acids-are-incorporated-in-myofibrillar-protein-during-post-exercise-overnight-recovery
#13
Jorn Trommelen, Imre W K Kouw, Andrew M Holwerda, Tim Snijders, Shona L Halson, Ian Rollo, Lex B Verdijk, Luc J C van Loon
The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of ingesting 30 g casein protein with and without 2 g free leucine prior to sleep on myofibrillar protein synthesis rates during post-exercise overnight recovery. 36 healthy young males performed a single bout of resistance-type exercise in the evening (19:45 h) after a full day of dietary standardization. Thirty min prior to sleep (23:30 h), subjects ingested 30 g intrinsically L-[1-(13)C]-phenylalanine-labeled protein with (PRO+leu, n=12) or without (PRO, n=12) 2 g free leucine, or a noncaloric placebo (PLA, n=12)...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534952/effects-of-exercise-on-mature-or-precursor-brain%C3%A2-derived-neurotrophic-factor-pathways-in-ovariectomized-rats
#14
Joon-Ki Park, Young-Pyo Hong, Sam-Jun Lee
Ovariectomy (OVX) is a method used to block estrogen in female rats that induces hippocampal dysfunction and affects brain‑derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) pathways. The majority of previous studies investigating OVX focused on BDNF expression in the hippocampus and cognitive function. The present study focused on the pathways of each BDNF type, precursor (proBDNF) and mature (mBDNF), and the effects of regular exercise in the hippocampus of ovariectomized rats. Female Sprague‑Dawely rats were used and OVX surgery was performed...
May 19, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534495/exercise-induces-cerebral-vegf-and-angiogenesis-via-the-lactate-receptor-hcar1
#15
Cecilie Morland, Krister A Andersson, Øyvind P Haugen, Alena Hadzic, Liv Kleppa, Andreas Gille, Johanne E Rinholm, Vuk Palibrk, Elisabeth H Diget, Lauritz H Kennedy, Tomas Stølen, Eivind Hennestad, Olve Moldestad, Yiqing Cai, Maja Puchades, Stefan Offermanns, Koen Vervaeke, Magnar Bjørås, Ulrik Wisløff, Jon Storm-Mathisen, Linda H Bergersen
Physical exercise can improve brain function and delay neurodegeneration; however, the initial signal from muscle to brain is unknown. Here we show that the lactate receptor (HCAR1) is highly enriched in pial fibroblast-like cells that line the vessels supplying blood to the brain, and in pericyte-like cells along intracerebral microvessels. Activation of HCAR1 enhances cerebral vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and cerebral angiogenesis. High-intensity interval exercise (5 days weekly for 7 weeks), as well as L-lactate subcutaneous injection that leads to an increase in blood lactate levels similar to exercise, increases brain VEGFA protein and capillary density in wild-type mice, but not in knockout mice lacking HCAR1...
May 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533625/beneficial-effect-of-interventional-exercise-on-autistic-fragile-x-syndrome
#16
REVIEW
Seunghoon Lee, Jinyoung Won, Sookyoung Park, Sang-Rae Lee, Kyu-Tae Chang, Joo-Heon Kim, Yonggeun Hong
[Purpose] The purpose of the present review is to discuss recent published articles in the understanding of efficacy of interventional exercise on autistic Fragile X syndrome (FXS) with special emphasis on its significance in clinical application in patients. [Methods] This review article was identified scientifically and/or clinically relevant articles from PubMed that directly/indirectly met the inclusion criteria. [Results] Mutation of fragile X mental retardation 1 (fmr1) gene on the X chromosome is related with loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) that affecting physiological and behavioral abnormalities...
April 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533314/exercise-metabolism-fuels-for-the-fire
#17
Mark Hargreaves, Lawrence L Spriet
During exercise, the supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is essential for the energy-dependent processes that underpin ongoing contractile activity. These pathways involve both substrate-level phosphorylation, without any need for oxygen, and oxidative phosphorylation that is critically dependent on oxygen delivery to contracting skeletal muscle by the respiratory and cardiovascular systems and on the supply of reducing equivalents from the degradation of carbohydrate, fat, and, to a limited extent, protein fuel stores...
May 22, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533262/acute-and-chronic-changes-in-rat-soleus-muscle-after-high-fat-high-sucrose-diet
#18
Kelsey H Collins, David A Hart, Ian C Smith, Anthony M Issler, Raylene A Reimer, Ruth A Seerattan, Jaqueline L Rios, Walter Herzog
The effects of obesity on different musculoskeletal tissues are not well understood. The glycolytic quadriceps muscles are compromised with obesity, but due to its high oxidative capacity, the soleus muscle may be protected against obesity-induced muscle damage. To determine the time-course relationship between a high-fat/high-sucrose (HFS) metabolic challenge and soleus muscle integrity, defined as intramuscular fat invasion, fibrosis and molecular alterations over six time points. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a HFS diet (n = 64) and killed at serial short-term (3 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks) and long-term (12 weeks, 28 weeks) time points...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530448/carbohydrates-alone-or-mixing-with-beef-or-whey-protein-promote-similar-training-outcomes-in-resistance-training-males-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#19
Fernando Naclerio, Marco Seijo-Bujia, Eneko Larumbe-Zabala, Conrad P Earnest
Beef powder is a new high-quality protein source scarcely researched relative to exercise performance. The present study examined the impact of ingesting hydrolyzed beef protein, whey protein, and carbohydrate on strength performance (1RM), body composition (via plethysmography), limb circumferences and muscular thickness (via ultrasonography), following an 8-week resistance-training program. After being randomly assigned to one of the following groups: Beef, Whey, or Carbohydrate, twenty four recreationally physically active males (n=8 per treatment) ingested 20 g of supplement, mixed with orange juice, once a day (immediately after workout or before breakfast)...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529499/exercise-and-glycemic-control-focus-on-redox-homeostasis-and-redox-sensitive-protein-signaling
#20
REVIEW
Lewan Parker, Christopher S Shaw, Nigel K Stepto, Itamar Levinger
Physical inactivity, excess energy consumption, and obesity are associated with elevated systemic oxidative stress and the sustained activation of redox-sensitive stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Sustained SAPK activation leads to aberrant insulin signaling, impaired glycemic control, and the development and progression of cardiometabolic disease. Paradoxically, acute exercise transiently increases oxidative stress and SAPK signaling, yet postexercise glycemic control and skeletal muscle function are enhanced...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
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