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Lysergic Acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918441/long-lasting-subjective-effects-of-lsd-in-normal-subjects
#1
Yasmin Schmid, Matthias E Liechti
RATIONALE: Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and other serotonergic hallucinogens can induce profound alterations of consciousness and mystical-type experiences, with reportedly long-lasting effects on subjective well-being and personality. METHODS: We investigated the lasting effects of a single dose of LSD (200 μg) that was administered in a laboratory setting in 16 healthy participants. The following outcome measures were assessed before and 1 and 12 months after LSD administration: Persisting Effects Questionnaire (PEQ), Mysticism Scale (MS), Death Transcendence Scale (DTS), NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)...
September 16, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917801/development-of-a-quantitative-approach-in-blood-plasma-for-low-dosed-hallucinogens-and-opioids-using-lc-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#2
Achim T Caspar, Andreas B Kollas, Hans H Maurer, Markus R Meyer
The WHO annually reports an increasing abuse of new psychoactive substances (NPS), which are a heterogeneous group of synthetic drugs and are consumed as substitute for controlled drugs of abuse. In this work, we focused on highly potent derivatives such those of phenethylamine (2C), N-2-methoxybenzyl phenethylamine (NBOMes), lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), and fentanyl. Severe to fatal intoxications were described due to their high potency. Therefore, they have to be taken at very low doses resulting in low blood concentration in the low ng/mL range, which is a challenge for reliable analytical detection and quantification...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899696/serotonin-2a-receptor-disulfide-bridge-integrity-is-crucial-for-ligand-binding-to-different-signalling-states-but-not-for-its-homodimerization
#3
Alba Iglesias, Marta Cimadevila, Rocío Ailim de la Fuente, María Martí-Solano, María Isabel Cadavid, Marián Castro, Jana Selent, María Isabel Loza, José Brea
The serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor is a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) with a conserved disulfide bridge formed by Cys(148) (transmembrane helix 3, TM3) and Cys(227) (extracellular loop 2, ECL-2). We hypothesized that disulfide bridges may determine serotonin 5-HT2A receptor functions such as receptor activation, functional selectivity and ligand recognition. We used the reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT) to determine how the reduction of disulfide bridges affects radioligand binding, second messenger mobilization and receptor dimerization...
September 9, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893851/synthetic-cannabinoid-use-among-high-school-seniors
#4
Joseph J Palamar, Monica J Barratt, Leigh Coney, Silvia S Martins
OBJECTIVES: In this study, we examined the prevalence and correlates of current synthetic cannabinoid (SC) use among high school seniors in the United States. METHODS: Monitoring the Future, an annual nationally representative survey of high school seniors, began querying current (30-day) SC use in 2014. Data were examined from the 2 most recent cohorts (2014-2015; N = 7805). Prevalence of self-reported use was examined and differences in demographics and recency and frequency of other drug use was compared between current marijuana-only users and current SC (plus marijuana) users using χ(2) and generalized linear model using Poisson...
September 11, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870224/psychoactive-substances-as-a-last-resort-a-qualitative-study-of-self-treatment-of-migraine-and-cluster-headaches
#5
Martin Andersson, Mari Persson, Anette Kjellgren
BACKGROUND: Treatment resistant cluster headache and migraine patients are exploring alternative treatments online. The aim of this study was to improve comprehension regarding the use of non-established or alternative pharmacological treatments used by sufferers of cluster headaches and migraines. METHODS: A qualitative thematic analysis of the users' own accounts presented in online forum discussions were conducted. The forum boards https://shroomery.org/ , http://bluelight...
September 5, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803722/advantages-of-analyzing-postmortem-brain-samples-in-routine-forensic-drug-screening-case-series-of-three-non-natural-deaths-tested-positive-for-lysergic-acid-diethylamide-lsd
#6
Marie Mardal, Sys Stybe Johansen, Ragnar Thomsen, Kristian Linnet
Three case reports are presented, including autopsy findings and toxicological screening results, which were tested positive for the potent hallucinogenic drug lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). LSD and its main metabolites were quantified in brain tissue and femoral blood, and furthermore hematoma and urine when available. LSD, its main metabolite 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD (oxo-HO-LSD), and iso-LSD were quantified in biological samples according to a previously published procedure involving liquid-liquid extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS)...
September 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768346/-psychotherapy-with-adjuvant-use-of-serotonergic-psychoactive-substances-possibilities-and-challenges
#7
Tomislav Majić, Henrik Jungaberle, Timo T Schmidt, Andrea Zeuch, Leo Hermle, Jürgen Gallinat
Background Recently, scientific interest in the therapeutic potential of serotonergic and psilocybin hallucinogens (psychedelics) such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and entactogens like 3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) within the framework of psychotherapy has resumed. The present article provides an overview on the current evidence on substance-assisted psychotherapy with these substances. Method A selective search was carried out in the PubMed and Cochrane Library including studies investigating the clinical use of serotonergic psychoactive substances since 2000...
July 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701958/a-single-dose-of-lsd-does-not-alter-gene-expression-of-the-serotonin-2a-receptor-gene-htr2a-or-early-growth-response-genes-egr1-3-in-healthy-subjects
#8
Patrick C Dolder, Edna Grünblatt, Felix Müller, Stefan J Borgwardt, Matthias E Liechti
Rationale: Renewed interest has been seen in the use of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in psychiatric research and practice. The repeated use of LSD leads to tolerance that is believed to result from serotonin (5-HT) 5-HT2A receptor downregulation. In rats, daily LSD administration for 4 days decreased frontal cortex 5-HT2A receptor binding. Additionally, a single dose of LSD acutely increased expression of the early growth response genes EGR1 and EGR2 in rat and mouse brains through 5-HT2A receptor stimulation...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678583/lsd-treatment-in-scandinavia-emphasizing-indications-and-short-term-treatment-outcomes-of-151-patients-in-denmark
#9
Jens Knud Larsen
BACKGROUND: New research has suggested the clinical use of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and psilocybin in selected patient populations. However, concerns about the clinical use of LSD were advanced in a large Danish follow-up study that assessed 151 LSD-treated psychiatric patients approximately 25 years after their treatment in the 1960s. AIMS: The purpose of the present study was to give a retrospective account of the short-term outcome of LSD treatment in these 151 Danish psychiatric patients...
October 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677096/hallucinogens-and-serotonin-5-ht2a-receptor-mediated-signaling-pathways
#10
Juan F López-Giménez, Javier González-Maeso
The neuropsychological effects of naturally occurring psychoactive chemicals have been recognized for millennia. Hallucinogens, which include naturally occurring chemicals such as mescaline and psilocybin, as well as synthetic compounds, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), induce profound alterations of human consciousness, emotion, and cognition. The discovery of the hallucinogenic effects of LSD and the observations that LSD and the endogenous ligand serotonin share chemical and pharmacological profiles led to the suggestion that biogenic amines like serotonin were involved in the psychosis of mental disorders such as schizophrenia...
July 5, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641537/lsd-detection-and-interpretation-in-hair
#11
Camille Richeval, Delphine Allorge, X Vanhoye, Jean-Michel Gaulier
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a powerful hallucinogen, active at very low dosages, with, as a direct consequence, potential difficulties to be detected and quantified in a clinical or forensic context, in body fluids and even more in hair. The aim of this work is to review literature data related to hair analysis of LSD with a particular focus on the main issues encountered in LSD detection in hair. Results of LSD investigation in hair remain difficult to interpret regarding the very sparse data available on LSD concentrations in hair (n=10)...
June 22, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625125/dreams-and-psychedelics-neurophenomenological-comparison-and-therapeutic-implications
#12
Rainer Kraehenmann
BACKGROUND: A resurgence of neurobiological and clinical research is currently underway into the therapeutic potential of serotonergic or 'classical' psychedelics, such as the prototypical psychedelic drug lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N,Ndimethyltryptamine), and ayahuasca - a betacarboline- and dimethyltryptamine (DMT)-containing Amazonian beverage. The aim of this review is to introduce readers to the similarities and dissimilarities between psychedelic states and night dreams, and to draw conclusions related to therapeutic applications of psychedelics in psychiatry...
2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598863/characterization-of-the-discriminative-stimulus-effects-of-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#13
Michael D Berquist, Lisa E Baker
Recreational use of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) in the early 2000s prompted numerous scientific investigations of its behavioral and neurochemical effects. The purpose of this study was to further characterize the interoceptive stimulus effects of MDPV using a validated in-vivo drug-detection assay. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to discriminate 0.3 mg/kg MDPV from saline under a fixed ratio 20 (FR 20) schedule of food reinforcement. After stimulus control was established with MDPV (∼35 training sessions), substitution tests were commenced with drugs from several chemical classes, including drugs with predominantly dopaminergic actions [MDPV, D-amphetamine, (+)-methamphetamine, (-)-cocaine], drugs with predominantly serotonergic actions [(+)-lysergic acid diethylamide, (+)-fenfluramine], and drugs with both serotonergic and dopaminergic actions (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, 4-methylmethcathinone)...
August 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585392/return-of-the-lysergamides-part-iv-analytical-and-pharmacological-characterization-of-lysergic-acid-morpholide-lsm-775
#14
Simon D Brandt, Pierce V Kavanagh, Brendan Twamley, Folker Westphal, Simon P Elliott, Jason Wallach, Alexander Stratford, Landon M Klein, John D McCorvy, David E Nichols, Adam L Halberstadt
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is perhaps one of the best-known psychoactive substances and many structural modifications of this prototypical lysergamide have been investigated. Several lysergamides were recently encountered as "research chemicals" or new psychoactive substances (NPS). Although lysergic acid morpholide (LSM-775) appeared on the NPS market in 2013, there is disagreement in the literature regarding the potency and psychoactive properties of LSM-775 in humans. The present investigation attempts to address the gap of information that exists regarding the analytical profile and pharmacological effects of LSM-775...
June 5, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573080/rapid-identification-of-psychoactive-drugs-in-drained-gastric-lavage-fluid-and-whole-blood-specimens-of-drug-overdose-patients-using-ambient-mass-spectrometry
#15
Chi-Wei Lee, Hung Su, You-Da Cai, Ming-Tsang Wu, Den-Chyang Wu, Jentaie Shiea
Psychoactive drug overdoses are life-threatening and require prompt and proper treatment in the emergency room to minimize morbidity and mortality. Prompt identification of the ingested psychoactive drugs is challenging, since witness recall is unreliable and patients' symptoms do not necessarily explain their loss of consciousness. Gas and liquid chromatography mass spectrometric analyses have been the traditionally employed methods to detect and identify abused substances; however, these techniques are time-consuming and labor-intensive...
2017: Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554863/lysergic-acid-amide-as-chemical-marker-for-the-total-ergot-alkaloids-in-rye-flour-determination-by-high-performance-thin-layer-chromatography-fluorescence-detection
#16
Claudia Oellig
Ergot alkaloids are generally determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to fluorescence detection (FLD) or mass selective detection, analyzing the individual compounds. However, fast and easy screening methods for the determination of the total ergot alkaloid content are more suitable, since for monitoring only the sum of the alkaloids is relevant. The herein presented screening uses lysergic acid amide (LSA) as chemical marker, formed from ergopeptine alkaloids, and ergometrine for the determination of the total ergot alkaloids in rye with high-performance thin-layer chromatography-fluorescence detection (HPTLC-FLD)...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548305/development-and-validation-of-an-lc-ms-ms-method-to-quantify-lysergic-acid-diethylamide-lsd-iso-lsd-2-oxo-3-hydroxy-lsd-and-nor-lsd-and-identify-novel-metabolites-in-plasma-samples-in-a-controlled-clinical-trial
#17
Patrick C Dolder, Matthias E Liechti, Katharina M Rentsch
BACKGROUND: Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a widely used recreational drug. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of LSD, iso-LSD, 2-oxo-3-hydroxy LSD (O-H-LSD), and nor-LSD in plasma samples from 24 healthy subjects after controlled administration of 100 μg LSD in a clinical trial. In addition, metabolites that have been recently described in in vitro studies, including lysergic acid monoethylamide (LAE), lysergic acid ethyl-2-hydroxyethylamide (LEO), 2-oxo-LSD, trioxylated-LSD, and 13/14-hydroxy-LSD, should be identified...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540034/ayahuasca-dimethyltryptamine-and-psychosis-a-systematic-review-of-human-studies
#18
REVIEW
Rafael G Dos Santos, José Carlos Bouso, Jaime E C Hallak
Ayahuasca is a hallucinogen brew traditionally used for ritual and therapeutic purposes in Northwestern Amazon. It is rich in the tryptamine hallucinogens dimethyltryptamine (DMT), which acts as a serotonin 5-HT2A agonist. This mechanism of action is similar to other compounds such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and psilocybin. The controlled use of LSD and psilocybin in experimental settings is associated with a low incidence of psychotic episodes, and population studies corroborate these findings. Both the controlled use of DMT in experimental settings and the use of ayahuasca in experimental and ritual settings are not usually associated with psychotic episodes, but little is known regarding ayahuasca or DMT use outside these controlled contexts...
April 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517366/genie-in-a-blotter-a-comparative-study-of-lsd-and-lsd-analogues-effects-and-user-profile
#19
Leigh D Coney, Larissa J Maier, Jason A Ferris, Adam R Winstock, Monica J Barratt
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe self-reported patterns of use and effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) analogues (AL-LAD, 1P-LSD, and ETH-LAD) and the characteristics of those who use them. METHODS: An anonymous self-selected online survey of people who use drugs (Global Drug Survey 2016; N = 96,894), which measured perceived drug effects of LSD and its analogues. RESULTS: Most LSD analogue users (91%) had also tried LSD. The proportion of U...
May 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476772/biosynthesis-of-the-pharmaceutically-important-fungal-ergot-alkaloid-dihydrolysergic-acid-requires-a-specialized-allele-of-cloa
#20
Stephanie L Arnold, Daniel G Panaccione
Ergot alkaloids are specialized fungal metabolites that are important as the bases of several pharmaceuticals. Many ergot alkaloids are derivatives of lysergic acid (LA) and have vasoconstrictive activity, whereas several dihydrolysergic acid (DHLA) derivatives are vasorelaxant. The pathway to LA is established, with the P450 monooxygenase CloA playing a key role in oxidizing its substrate agroclavine to LA. We analyzed the activities of products of cloA alleles from different fungi relative to DHLA biosynthesis by expressing them in a mutant of the fungus Neosartorya fumigata that accumulates festuclavine, the precursor to DHLA...
July 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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