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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29863323/psychedelics-and-personality
#1
Marc Aixalà, Rafael G Dos Santos, Jaime E C Hallak, José Carlos Bouso
In the past decade, an increasing number of clinical trials are reporting evidence that psychedelics or serotonergic hallucinogens (such as lysergic acid diethylamide, psilocybin, and ayahuasca/dimethyltryptamine) could be effective in the treatment of mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders. The mechanisms responsible for these effects are not fully understood but seem to involve changes in bran dynamics in areas rich in serotonergic 5-HT2A receptors and in personality. In the present text, we present a brief and critical overview of the current research in this field, pointing out both promises and limitations of these studies...
June 4, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29847929/co-exposure-of-the-mycotoxins-lolitrem-b-and-ergovaline-in-steers-fed-perennial-ryegrass-lolium-perenne-straw-metabolic-characterization-of-excreta
#2
Lia Murty, Jennifer Marie Duringer, A Morrie Craig
Past research showed a strong linear correlation between levels of the mycotoxins lolitrem B (LB, a tremorgen) and ergovaline (EV, an ergot alkaloid and potent vasoconstrictor) in perennial ryegrass (PRG) forage. The purpose of this study was to characterize the excretion of these two compounds in beef cattle consuming PRG straw, and to utilize liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to investigate the metabolism of LB and EV in excreta. Four groups of steers (n=6/group) were fed endophyte-infected PRG for 64 days (2256/638, 1554/373, 1012/259 or 247/<100 µg/kg LB/EV)...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29807492/psychedelic-use-and-intimate-partner-violence-the-role-of-emotion-regulation
#3
Michelle S Thiessen, Zach Walsh, Brian M Bird, Adele Lafrance
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that psychedelic use predicts reduced perpetration of intimate partner violence among men involved in the criminal justice system. However, the extent to which this association generalizes to community samples has not been examined, and potential mechanisms underlying this association have not been directly explored. AIMS: The present study examined the association between lifetime psychedelic use and intimate partner violence among a community sample of men and women...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779692/development-and-validation-of-an-uhplc-hrms-ms-assay-for-nine-toxic-alkaloids-from-endophyte-infected-pasture-grasses-in-horse-serum
#4
Wiebke Rudolph, Daniela Remane, Dirk K Wissenbach, Frank T Peters
Endophyte fungi (e.g. Epichloë ssp. and Neotyphodium ssp.) in symbiosis with pasture grasses (e.g. Festuca arundinacaea and Lolium perenne) can produce toxic alkaloids, which are suspected to be involved in equine diseases such as fescue toxicosis, ryegrass staggers, and equine fescue oedema. The aim of this study was, therefore, to develop and validate a quantification method for these and related alkaloids: ergocristine, ergocryptine, ergotamine, ergovaline, lolitrem B, lysergic acid, N-acetylloline, N-formylloline, peramine, and paxilline in horse serum...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763291/classics-in-neuroimaging-the-serotonergic-2a-receptor-system-from-discovery-to-modern-molecular-imaging
#5
Elina T L'Estrade, Hanne D Hansen, Maria Erlandsson, Tomas G Ohlsson, Gitte M Knudsen, Matthias M Herth
Already in 1953, Woolley and Shaw speculated that serotonin could be involved in a range of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) displayed an important role in this respect. It was used not only to antagonize biological effects of serotonin and to study the system itself, but also to identify serotonergic subtype receptors. The 5-HT2A receptor was discovered in the 1970s and identified as the responsible receptor mediating psychedelic effects of LSD. The development of positron emission tomography (PET) allowed to study this receptor system in vivo...
May 15, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722608/lysergic-acid-diethylamide-and-psilocybin-for-the-management-of-patients-with-persistent-pain-a-potential-role
#6
Andy Whelan, Mark I Johnson
Recently, there has been interest in lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and psilocybin for depression, anxiety and fear of death in terminal illness. The aim of this review is to discuss the potential use of LSD and psilocybin for patients with persistent pain. LSD and psilocybin are 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor agonists and may interact with nociceptive and antinociceptive processing. Tentative evidence from a systematic review suggests that LSD (7 studies, 323 participants) and psilocybin (3 studies, 92 participants) may be beneficial for depression and anxiety associated with distress in life-threatening diseases...
May 2018: Pain Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555857/role-of-the-5-ht-2a-receptor-in-self-and-other-initiated-social-interaction-in-lysergic-acid-diethylamide-induced-states-a-pharmacological-fmri-study
#7
Katrin H Preller, Leonhard Schilbach, Thomas Pokorny, Jan Flemming, Erich Seifritz, Franz X Vollenweider
Distortions of self-experience are critical symptoms of psychiatric disorders and have detrimental effects on social interactions. In light of the immense need for improved and targeted interventions for social impairments, it is important to better understand the neurochemical substrates of social interaction abilities. We therefore investigated the pharmacological and neural correlates of self- and other-initiated social interaction. In a double-blind, randomized, counterbalanced, crossover study 24 healthy human participants (18 males and 6 females) received either (1) placebo + placebo, (2) placebo + lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD; 100 μg, p...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532180/serotonergic-psychedelics-experimental-approaches-for-assessing-mechanisms-of-action
#8
Clinton E Canal
Recent, well-controlled - albeit small-scale - clinical trials show that serotonergic psychedelics, including psilocybin and lysergic acid diethylamide, possess great promise for treating psychiatric disorders, including treatment-resistant depression. Additionally, fresh results from a deluge of clinical neuroimaging studies are unveiling the dynamic effects of serotonergic psychedelics on functional activity within, and connectivity across, discrete neural systems. These observations have led to testable hypotheses regarding neural processing mechanisms that contribute to psychedelic effects and therapeutic benefits...
March 13, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476779/psychedelics-where-we-are-now-why-we-got-here-what-we-must-do
#9
REVIEW
Sean J Belouin, Jack E Henningfield
The purpose of this commentary is to provide an introduction to this special issue of Neuropharmacology with a historical perspective of psychedelic drug research, their use in psychiatric disorders, research-restricting regulatory controls, and their recent emergence as potential breakthrough therapies for several brain-related disorders. It begins with the discovery of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and its promising development as a treatment for several types of mental illnesses during the 1940s. This was followed by its abuse and stigmatization in the 1960s that ultimately led to the placement of LSD and other psychedelic drugs into the most restrictively regulated drug schedule of the United States Controlled Substances Act (Schedule I) in 1970 and its international counterparts...
February 21, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461039/dark-classics-in-chemical-neuroscience-lysergic-acid-diethylamide-lsd
#10
David E Nichols
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is one of the most potent psychoactive agents known, producing dramatic alterations of consciousness after submilligram (≥20 μg) oral doses. Following the accidental discovery of its potent psychoactive effects in 1943, it was supplied by Sandoz Laboratories as an experimental drug that might be useful as an adjunct for psychotherapy, or to give psychiatrists insight into the mental processes in their patients. The finding of serotonin in the mammalian brain in 1953, and its structural resemblance to LSD, quickly led to ideas that serotonin in the brain might be involved in mental disorders, initiating rapid research interest in the neurochemistry of serotonin...
March 1, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408722/is-lsd-toxic
#11
REVIEW
David E Nichols, Charles S Grob
LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) was discovered almost 75 years ago, and has been the object of episodic controversy since then. While initially explored as an adjunctive psychiatric treatment, its recreational use by the general public has persisted and on occasion has been associated with adverse outcomes, particularly when the drug is taken under suboptimal conditions. LSD's potential to cause psychological disturbance (bad trips) has been long understood, and has rarely been associated with accidental deaths and suicide...
March 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403350/the-experience-elicited-by-hallucinogens-presents-the-highest-similarity-to-dreaming-within-a-large-database-of-psychoactive-substance-reports
#12
Camila Sanz, Enzo Tagliazucchi
Ever since the modern rediscovery of psychedelic substances by Western society, several authors have independently proposed that their effects bear a high resemblance to the dreams and dreamlike experiences occurring naturally during the sleep-wake cycle. Recent studies in humans have provided neurophysiological evidence supporting this hypothesis. However, a rigorous comparative analysis of the phenomenology ("what it feels like" to experience these states) is currently lacking. We investigated the semantic similarity between a large number of subjective reports of psychoactive substances and reports of high/low lucidity dreams, and found that the highest-ranking substance in terms of the similarity to high lucidity dreams was the serotonergic psychedelic lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), whereas the highest-ranking in terms of the similarity to dreams of low lucidity were plants of the Datura genus, rich in deliriant tropane alkaloids...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29375135/total-synthesis-of-lysergic-acid
#13
Rentaro Kanno, Satoshi Yokoshima, Motomu Kanai, Tohru Fukuyama
A total synthesis of (+)-lysergic acid, which features the C-C bond formation between C10 and C11 via cleavage of an aziridine ring, was accomplished.
February 2018: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298533/lysergic-acid-diethylamide-causes-photoreceptor-cell-damage-through-inducing-inflammatory-response-and-oxidative-stress
#14
Qi-Di Hu, Ling-Li Xu, Yan Gong, Guo-Hai Wu, Yu-Wen Wang, Shan-Jun Wu, Zhe Zhang, Wei Mao, Yu-Sheng Zhou, Qin-Bo Li, Jian-Shu Yuan
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), a classical hallucinogen, was used as a popular and notorious substance of abuse in various parts of the world. Its abuse could result in long-lasting abnormalities in retina and little is known about the exact mechanism. This study was to investigate the effect of LSD on macrophage activation state at non-toxic concentration and its resultant toxicity to photoreceptor cells. Results showed that cytotoxicity was caused by LSD on 661 W cells after co-culturing with RAW264...
January 19, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284138/psychiatry-the-psychedelic-drugs-past-present-future
#15
REVIEW
James J H Rucker, Jonathan Iliff, David J Nutt
The classical psychedelic drugs, including psilocybin, lysergic acid diethylamide and mescaline, were used extensively in psychiatry before they were placed in Schedule I of the UN Convention on Drugs in 1967. Experimentation and clinical trials undertaken prior to legal sanction suggest that they are not helpful for those with established psychotic disorders and should be avoided in those liable to develop them. However, those with so-called 'psychoneurotic' disorders sometimes benefited considerably from their tendency to 'loosen' otherwise fixed, maladaptive patterns of cognition and behaviour, particularly when given in a supportive, therapeutic setting...
December 25, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247209/connectome-harmonic-decomposition-of-human-brain-activity-reveals-dynamical-repertoire-re-organization-under-lsd
#16
Selen Atasoy, Leor Roseman, Mendel Kaelen, Morten L Kringelbach, Gustavo Deco, Robin L Carhart-Harris
Recent studies have started to elucidate the effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) on the human brain but the underlying dynamics are not yet fully understood. Here we used 'connectome-harmonic decomposition', a novel method to investigate the dynamical changes in brain states. We found that LSD alters the energy and the power of individual harmonic brain states in a frequency-selective manner. Remarkably, this leads to an expansion of the repertoire of active brain states, suggestive of a general re-organization of brain dynamics given the non-random increase in co-activation across frequencies...
December 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209235/the-endless-trip-among-the-nps-users-psychopathology-and-psychopharmacology-in-the-hallucinogen-persisting-perception-disorder-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Laura Orsolini, Gabriele Duccio Papanti, Domenico De Berardis, Amira Guirguis, John Martin Corkery, Fabrizio Schifano
Hallucinogen-persisting perception disorder (HPPD) is a syndrome characterized by prolonged or reoccurring perceptual symptoms, reminiscent of acute hallucinogen effects. HPPD was associated with a broader range of LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)-like substances, cannabis, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), psilocybin, mescaline, and psychostimulants. The recent emergence of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) posed a critical concern regarding the new onset of psychiatric symptoms/syndromes, including cases of HPPD...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186777/clavine-alkaloids-gene-clusters-of-penicillium-and-related-fungi-evolutionary-combination-of-prenyltransferases-monooxygenases-and-dioxygenases
#18
REVIEW
Juan F Martin, Rubén Álvarez-Álvarez, Paloma Liras
The clavine alkaloids produced by the fungi of the Aspergillaceae and Arthrodermatacea families differ from the ergot alkaloids produced by Claviceps and Neotyphodium . The clavine alkaloids lack the extensive peptide chain modifications that occur in lysergic acid derived ergot alkaloids. Both clavine and ergot alkaloids arise from the condensation of tryptophan and dimethylallylpyrophosphate by the action of the dimethylallyltryptophan synthase. The first five steps of the biosynthetic pathway that convert tryptophan and dimethylallyl-pyrophosphate (DMA-PP) in chanoclavine-1-aldehyde are common to both clavine and ergot alkaloids...
November 24, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167644/lsd-increases-primary-process-thinking-via-serotonin-2a-receptor-activation
#19
Rainer Kraehenmann, Dan Pokorny, Helena Aicher, Katrin H Preller, Thomas Pokorny, Oliver G Bosch, Erich Seifritz, Franz X Vollenweider
Rationale: Stimulation of serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptors by lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and related compounds such as psilocybin has previously been shown to increase primary process thinking - an ontologically and evolutionary early, implicit, associative, and automatic mode of thinking which is typically occurring during altered states of consciousness such as dreaming. However, it is still largely unknown whether LSD induces primary process thinking under placebo-controlled, standardized experimental conditions and whether these effects are related to subjective experience and 5-HT2A receptor activation...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153631/human-abuse-potential-of-brivaracetam-in-healthy-recreational-central-nervous-system-depressant-users
#20
Kerri A Schoedel, Armel Stockis, Edward M Sellers
BACKGROUND: Brivaracetam is a new antiepileptic drug indicated for adjunctive treatment of focal seizures in adults at a dose of 50-200mg/day taken in two equal doses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the abuse potential of brivaracetam compared with alprazolam (positive control), placebo, and levetiracetam. METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, triple-dummy, crossover study in healthy male and female recreational central nervous system (CNS) depressant users aged 18-55years, who could distinguish between the subjective effects of alprazolam 2mg and placebo...
January 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
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