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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858673/evaluating-the-statistical-power-of-dna-based-identification-exemplified-by-the-missing-grandchildren-of-argentina
#1
Daniel Kling, Thore Egeland, Mariana Herrera Piñero, Magnus Dehli Vigeland
Methods and implementations of DNA-based identification are well established in several forensic contexts. However, assessing the statistical power of these methods has been largely overlooked, except in the simplest cases. In this paper we outline general methods for such power evaluation, and apply them to a large set of family reunification cases, where the objective is to decide whether a person of interest (POI) is identical to the missing person (MP) in a family, based on the DNA profile of the POI and available family members...
August 12, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837856/secure-and-robust-cloud-computing-for-high-throughput-forensic-microsatellite-sequence-analysis-and-databasing
#2
Sarah F Bailey, Melissa K Scheible, Christopher Williams, Deborah S B S Silva, Marina Hoggan, Christopher Eichman, Seth A Faith
Next-generation Sequencing (NGS) is a rapidly evolving technology with demonstrated benefits for forensic genetic applications, and the strategies to analyze and manage the massive NGS datasets are currently in development. Here, the computing, data storage, connectivity, and security resources of the Cloud were evaluated as a model for forensic laboratory systems that produce NGS data. A complete front-to-end Cloud system was developed to upload, process, and interpret raw NGS data using a web browser dashboard...
August 8, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834547/high-resolution-melting-hrm-of-hypervariable-mitochondrial-dna-regions-for-forensic-science
#3
Alípio Dos Santos Rocha, Isis Salviano Soares de Amorim, Tatiana de Almeida Simão, Adenilson de Souza da Fonseca, Rodrigo Grazinoli Garrido, Andre Luiz Mencalha
Forensic strategies commonly are proceeding by analysis of short tandem repeats (STRs); however, new additional strategies have been proposed for forensic science. Thus, this article standardized the high-resolution melting (HRM) of DNA for forensic analyzes. For HRM, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from eight individuals were extracted from mucosa swabs by DNAzol reagent, samples were amplified by PCR and submitted to HRM analysis to identify differences in hypervariable (HV) regions I and II. To confirm HRM, all PCR products were DNA sequencing...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766523/-the-morphological-diagnostics-of-the-toxic-effects-of-the-smoking-blends-in-the-cases-of-fatal-intoxication-with-pyrrolidinovalerophenone
#4
P G Dzhuvalyakov, Yu V Zbrueva, S S Kabakova, D V Bogomolov, M R Bekeshov
The objective of the present study was the development of the morphological criteria for the diagnostics of fatal intoxication with the herbal smoking blends (spices) using the samples of the biological materials obtained from the victims of pyrrolidinovalerophenone poisoning. The samples were taken from 13 autopsied cadavers of 11 men and 2 women at the age from 26 to 39 years based at the Astrakhan Regional Bureau of Forensic Medical Expertise during the period from 21011 to 2015. The diagnosis of pyrrolidinvalerpphenon poisoning was verified to the letter...
2017: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755626/the-use-of-forensic-dna-analysis-in-humanitarian-forensic-action-the-development-of-a-set-of-international-standards
#5
William H Goodwin
DNA analysis was first applied to the identification of victims of armed conflicts and other situations of violence (ACOSV) in the mid-1990s, starting in South America and the Balkans. Argentina was the first country to establish a genetic database specifically developed to identify disappeared children. Following on from these programs the early 2000s marked major programs, using a largely DNA-led approach, identifying missing persons in the Balkans and following the attack on the World Trade Center in New York...
September 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743032/straf-a-convenient-online-tool-for-str-data-evaluation-in-forensic-genetics
#6
Alexandre Gouy, Martin Zieger
Population data in forensic genetics has to be checked for a variety of statistical parameters before it can be employed for case work. A lot of very powerful statistical tools are available for this task, most of them developed by labs having their research focus on population genetics or evolution. However, most of these programs require a substantial amount of experience. In addition, to our knowledge, none of the freely available programs calculates all the common parameters for a population study in forensic genetics at once, based on a single input file...
July 15, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728056/sequence-based-diversity-of-23-autosomal-str-loci-in-koreans-investigated-using-an-in-house-massively-parallel-sequencing-panel
#7
Eun Hye Kim, Hwan Young Lee, So Yeun Kwon, Eun Young Lee, Woo Ick Yang, Kyoung-Jin Shin
As DNA databases continue to grow and international cooperation increases, forensic STR loci have expanded to increase the discriminatory power and inter-database compatibility. Current capillary electrophoresis (CE) and/or massively parallel sequencing (MPS)-based commercial STR analysis systems reflect such changing trends of expanding STR loci. Due to the general gains of larger multiplexing and the detection of sequence variation, the application of MPS technology to STR analysis has further improved discrimination and is expected to aid in mixture interpretation by increasing the effective number of alleles...
July 9, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700963/application-of-dip-strs-to-sexual-physical-assault-investigations-eight-case-reports
#8
Fabio Oldoni, Vincent Castella, Diana Hall
DIP-STRs are compound markers formed by a deletion/insertion polymorphism linked to a microsatellite. They enable the deconvolution of unbalanced DNA mixtures from two individuals, up to 1000 fold excess of one contributor. In practice, this novel tool allows to test for the presence of a DNA of interest in traces appearing not useful because of the masking effect of the major DNA contributor. Thus far two sets of DIP-STRs have been published: the first set was described as proof-of-principle, while the second set was specifically developed for forensic applications...
July 1, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697681/a-particularly-complex-case-of-matricide-by-means-of-plastic-bag-suffocation-case-report
#9
Arnaldo Stanislao Migliorini, Michele Boracchi, Guendalina Gentile, Francesca Maciocco, Andrea Piccinini, Riccardo Zoja
A rare case of homicide with plastic bag suffocation is presented in which forensic genetic investigations were carried out on the inner surface of a plastic bag placed over the head of an elderly woman, bedridden after a stroke. The results obtained suggested that she had been murdered and hinted at the perpetrator of the crime. In fact, it emerged that biological traces left by the victim matched those of her principal caregiver, her psychotic daughter, who later confessed to the crime. The old woman also had a son affected by a serious illness, whose genetic profile was found on the same bag...
January 1, 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691916/social-and-ethical-aspects-of-forensic-genetics-a-critical-review
#10
REVIEW
R Williams, M Wienroth
This review describes the social and ethical responses to the history of innovations in forensic genetics and their application to criminal investigations. Following an outline of the three recurrent social perspectives that have informed these responses (crime management, due process, and genetic surveillance), it goes on to introduce the repertoire of ethical considerations by describing a series of key reports that have shaped subsequent commentaries on forensic DNA profiling and databasing. Four major ethical concerns form the focus of the remainder of the paper (dignity, privacy, justice, and social solidarity), and key features of forensic genetic practice are examined in the light of these concerns...
July 2017: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631109/increasing-the-reach-of-forensic-genetics-with-massively-parallel-sequencing
#11
REVIEW
Bruce Budowle, Sarah E Schmedes, Frank R Wendt
The field of forensic genetics has made great strides in the analysis of biological evidence related to criminal and civil matters. More so, the discipline has set a standard of performance and quality in the forensic sciences. The advent of massively parallel sequencing will allow the field to expand its capabilities substantially. This review describes the salient features of massively parallel sequencing and how it can impact forensic genetics. The features of this technology offer increased number and types of genetic markers that can be analyzed, higher throughput of samples, and the capability of targeting different organisms, all by one unifying methodology...
June 19, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589897/phylogenic-analysis-and-forensic-genetic-characterization-of-chinese-uyghur-group-via-autosomal-multi-str-markers
#12
Xiaoye Jin, Yuanyuan Wei, Jiangang Chen, Tingting Kong, Yuling Mu, Yuxin Guo, Qian Dong, Tong Xie, Haotian Meng, Meng Zhang, Jianfei Li, Xiaopeng Li, Bofeng Zhu
We investigated the allelic frequencies and forensic descriptive parameters of 23 autosomal short tandem repeat loci in a randomly selected sample of 1218 unrelated healthy Uyghur individuals residing in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwest China. A total of 281 alleles at these loci were identified and their corresponding allelic frequencies ranged from 0.0004 to 0.5390. The combined match probability and combined probability of exclusion of all loci were 5.192 × 10-29 and 0.9999999996594, respectively...
May 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549544/genetic-dissection-of-five-ethnic-groups-from-punjab-north-west-india-a-study-based-on-autosomal-markers
#13
Gagandeep Singh, Indu Talwar, Harkirat Singh Sandhu, Kawaljit Matharoo, A J S Bhanwer
The present study assessed the applicability of Alu insertion elements and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in forensic identification and estimated the extent of genetic variation in five major ethnic groups of Punjab, North-West India. A total of 1012 unrelated samples belonging to Banias, Brahmins, Jat Sikhs, Khatris and Scheduled Castes were genotyped for four Alu elements (ACE, APO, PLAT, D1) and six Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms [ESR (PvuII), LPL (PvuII), HTR2A (MspI), DRD2 Taq1A, Taq1B, Taq1D]...
May 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547136/curiosities-of-x-chromosomal-markers-and-haplotypes
#14
Daniel Kling
Recent progress in forensic genetics has introduced a number of closely located short tandem repeat (STR) markers on the X chromosome. Inevitably, dependencies arise that have to be accounted for. This paper will in detail explore the complex statistical interpretation of X-chromosomal STR markers, focusing on likelihood calculations. Specifically, we will investigate how the phase uncertainty of haplotypes comes into play in the statistical evaluations and what curious effects this phenomenon can have. The starting point is the different real cases where the weight of evidence has provided unexpected results that require further investigation in order to be fully understood...
May 26, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544956/dna-commission-of-the-international-society-for-forensic-genetics-isfg-guidelines-on-the-use-of-x-strs-in-kinship-analysis
#15
Andreas O Tillmar, Daniel Kling, John M Butler, Walther Parson, Mechthild Prinz, Peter M Schneider, Thore Egeland, Leonor Gusmão
Forensic genetic laboratories perform an increasing amount of genetic analyses of the X chromosome, in particular to solve complex cases of kinship analysis. For some biological relationships X-chromosomal markers can be more informative than autosomal markers, and there are a large number of markers, methods and databases that have been described for forensic use. Due to their particular mode of inheritance, and their physical location on a single chromosome, some specific considerations are required when estimating the weight of evidence for X-chromosomal marker DNA data...
July 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507140/linkage-disequilibrium-matches-forensic-genetic-records-to-disjoint-genomic-marker-sets
#16
Michael D Edge, Bridget F B Algee-Hewitt, Trevor J Pemberton, Jun Z Li, Noah A Rosenberg
Combining genotypes across datasets is central in facilitating advances in genetics. Data aggregation efforts often face the challenge of record matching-the identification of dataset entries that represent the same individual. We show that records can be matched across genotype datasets that have no shared markers based on linkage disequilibrium between loci appearing in different datasets. Using two datasets for the same 872 people-one with 642,563 genome-wide SNPs and the other with 13 short tandem repeats (STRs) used in forensic applications-we find that 90-98% of forensic STR records can be connected to corresponding SNP records and vice versa...
May 30, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454050/forensic-genetic-analyses-in-isolated-populations-with-examples-of-central-european-valachs-and-roma
#17
REVIEW
Edvard Ehler, Daniel Vanek
Isolated populations present a constant threat to the correctness of forensic genetic casework. In this review article we present several examples of how analyzing samples from isolated populations can bias the results of the forensic statistics and analyses. We select our examples from isolated populations from central and southeastern Europe, namely the Valachs and the European Roma. We also provide the reader with general strategies and principles to improve the laboratory practice (best practice) and reporting of samples from supposedly isolated populations...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427331/erratum-to-more-comprehensive-forensic-genetic-marker-analyses-for-accurate-human-remains-identification-using-massively-parallel-dna-sequencing
#18
Angie D Ambers, Jennifer D Churchill, Jonathan L King, Monika Stoljarova, Harrell Gill-King, Mourad Assidi, Muhammad Abu-Elmagd, Abdelbaset Buhmeida, Mohammed Al-Qahtani, Bruce Budowle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416281/population-structure-of-han-nationality-in-central-southern-china
#19
Qiu-Ling Liu, Ye-Fei Chen, Xin He, Yan-Wei Shi, Wei-Wei Wu, Hu Zhao, De-Jian Lu
Knowledge of population structure is very important for forensic genetics. However, the population substructure in Central-Southern China Han nationality has still not been fully described. In this study, we investigated the genetic diversity of 15 forensic autosomal STR loci from 6879 individuals in 12 Han populations subdivided by administrative provinces in Central-Southern China. The statistical analysis of genetic variation showed that genetic differentiation among these populations was very small with a Fst value of 0...
July 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401303/evaluation-of-forensic-genetic-parameters-of-12-str-loci-in-the-korean-population-using-the-investigator-%C3%A2-hdplex-kit
#20
Ju Yeon Jung, Eun Hye Kim, Yu-Li Oh, Hyun-Chul Park, Jung Ho Hwang, Si-Keun Lim
We genotyped and calculated the forensic parameters of 10 non-CODIS loci and 2 CODIS loci of 990 Korean individuals using the Investigator(Ⓡ) HDplex kit. No significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing) or genetic linkage disequilibrium were observed. The calculated matching probability and power of discrimination ranged from 0.0080 to 0.2014, and 0.7986 to 0.9920, respectively. We conclude that the markers of the kit are highly informative corroborative tools for forensic DNA analysis...
April 11, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
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