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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278682/weight-of-the-evidence-of-genetic-investigations-of-ancestry-informative-markers
#1
Torben Tvedebrink, Poul Svante Eriksen, Helle Smidt Mogensen, Niels Morling
Ancestry-informative markers (AIMs) are markers that give information about the ancestry of individuals. They are used in forensic genetics for predicting the geographic origin of the investigated individual in crime and identification cases. In the exploration of the genogeographic origin of an AIMs profile, the likelihoods of the AIMs profile in various populations may be calculated. However, there may not be an appropriate reference population in the database. The fact that the likelihood ratio (LR) of one population compared to that of another population is large does not imply that any of the populations is relevant...
December 23, 2017: Theoretical Population Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275090/lessons-from-a-study-of-dna-contaminations-from-police-services-and-forensic-laboratories-in-switzerland
#2
Patrick Basset, Vincent Castella
In Switzerland, the DNA profiles of police officers collecting crime scene traces as well as forensic genetic laboratories employees are stored in the staff index of the national DNA database to detect potential contaminations. Our study aimed at making a national inventory of contaminations to better understand their origin and to make recommendations in order to decrease their occurrence. For this purpose, a retrospective questionnaire was sent to both police services and forensic genetic laboratories for each case where there was a contamination...
December 19, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226639/early-diagnosis-of-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-by-salivary-micrornas
#3
REVIEW
Raluca Dumache
BACKGROUND: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), the most common type of oral cancer, and represents more than 90% of malignancies of the oral cavity. Worldwide, each year about 275,000 are newly diagnosed. If detected at an early stage, OSCC has a survival rate of up to 80% compared to the detection in later stages (T3-T4) when a survival rate of 20 - 30% is present. METHODS: Because OSCC presents these survival rates, there is an urgent need to introduce new non-invasive molecular biomarkers for the early detection of OSCC from saliva, which will contribute to an increased long term survival rate for these patients...
November 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219271/-polymorphisms-of-19-str-loci-in-guizhou-han-population-and-their-forensic-application
#4
Q S Zhao, Z Ren, H L Zhang, J L Dai, J Wang, F Yu, J Huang
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the allelic distribution of 19 autosomal STR loci in Guizhou Han population, and to estimate the forensic application value. METHODS: The 19 autosomal STR loci in 520 unrelated healthy individuals from Guizhou Han population were studied using Goldeneye™ 20A kit. The 310 genetic analyzer was used for capillary electrophoresis, and the GeneMapper®ID v3.1 for genotyping. RESULTS: The heterozygosis, the discrimination power, the probability of exclusion, the polymorphism information content, the cumulative discrimination power and the cumulative probability of exclusion of the 19 STR loci were 0...
August 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187190/ethical-considerations-in-forensic-genetics-research-on-tissue-samples-collected-post-mortem-in-cape-town-south-africa
#5
Laura J Heathfield, Sairita Maistry, Lorna J Martin, Raj Ramesar, Jantina de Vries
BACKGROUND: The use of tissue collected at a forensic post-mortem for forensic genetics research purposes remains of ethical concern as the process involves obtaining informed consent from grieving family members. Two forensic genetics research studies using tissue collected from a forensic post-mortem were recently initiated at our institution and were the first of their kind to be conducted in Cape Town, South Africa. MAIN BODY: This article discusses some of the ethical challenges that were encountered in these research projects...
November 29, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179488/forensic-efficiency-and-genetic-variation-of-30-indels-in-vietnamese-and-nigerian-populations
#6
Weian Du, Zhiyong Peng, Chunlei Feng, Bofeng Zhu, Bangchao Wang, Yue Wang, Chao Liu, Ling Chen
Insertion/deletion polymorphisms (InDels) are ubiquitous diallelic genetic markers that have drawn increasing attention from forensic researchers. Here, we investigated 30 InDel loci in Vietnamese and Nigerian populations and evaluated their usefulness in forensic genetics. The polymorphic information content of these populations ranged, respectively, from 0.164 to 0.375 and from 0.090 to 0.375 across loci. After Bonferroni correction, no significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was found, except for HLD97 in the Nigerian population...
October 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172066/discrimination-of-relationships-with-the-same-degree-of-kinship-using-chromosomal-sharing-patterns-estimated-from-high-density-snps
#7
Chie Morimoto, Sho Manabe, Shuntaro Fujimoto, Yuya Hamano, Keiji Tamaki
Distinguishing relationships with the same degree of kinship (e.g., uncle-nephew and grandfather-grandson) is generally difficult in forensic genetics by using the commonly employed short tandem repeat loci. In this study, we developed a new method for discerning such relationships between two individuals by examining the number of chromosomal shared segments estimated from high-density single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We computationally generated second-degree kinships (i.e., uncle-nephew and grandfather-grandson) and third-degree kinships (i...
November 21, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151121/impact-of-several-wearers-on-the-persistence-of-dna-on-clothes-a-study-with-experimental-scenarios
#8
Micaela Poetsch, Manuel Pfeifer, Helen Konrad, Thomas Bajanowski, Janine Helmus
The detection of DNA of a certain person on the inside of a piece of clothing involved in a crime scene is usually seen as confirmation that this person is the owner or bearer and therefore participated in this crime. However, besides the possibilities of secondary or even tertiary transfer of DNA, the accused often argues that he lent the garment to another person who by chance did not leave any DNA while committing the crime. Then, forensic genetic scientists have to answer the question how long DNA persists on an item used in daily routine and how long a piece of clothing must be worn to definitively leave detectable DNA behind...
November 18, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150717/genetic-diversity-and-phylogenetic-study-of-the-chinese-gelao-ethnic-minority-via-23-y-str-loci
#9
Pengyu Chen, Yanyan Han, Guanglin He, Haibo Luo, Tianzhen Gao, Feng Song, Dengfu Wan, Jian Yu, Yiping Hou
Haplotype diversity for 23 Y chromosomal short tandem repeat (Y-STR) loci included in the PowerPlex(®) Y23 System was analyzed in the Chinese Gelao minority group of 234 unrelated males living in Daozhen Gelao-Miao Autonomous County in Guizhou Province, southwest China. A total of 216 different haplotypes were detected, of which 199 haplotypes were unique. The overall haplotype diversity (HD) and discrimination capacity (DC) were 0.9996 and 0.9231, respectively. The gene diversity (GD) ranged from 0.4159 (DYS438) to 0...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024923/a-ghep-isfg-collaborative-study-on-the-genetic-variation-of-38-autosomal-indels-for-human-identification-in-different-continental-populations
#10
R Pereira, C Alves, M Aler, A Amorim, C Arévalo, E Betancor, D Braganholi, M L Bravo, P Brito, J J Builes, G Burgos, E F Carvalho, A Castillo, C I Catanesi, R M B Cicarelli, P Coufalova, P Dario, M E D'Amato, S Davison, J Ferragut, M Fondevila, S Furfuro, O García, A Gaviria, I Gomes, E González, A Gonzalez-Liñan, T E Gross, A Hernández, Q Huang, S Jiménez, L F Jobim, A M López-Parra, M Marino, S Marques, G Martínez-Cortés, V Masciovecchio, D Parra, G Penacino, M F Pinheiro, M J Porto, Y Posada, C Restrepo, T Ribeiro, L Rubio, A Sala, A Santurtún, L S Solís, L Souto, E Streitemberger, A Torres, C Vilela-Lamego, J J Yunis, I Yurrebaso, L Gusmão
A collaborative effort was carried out by the Spanish and Portuguese Speaking Working Group of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (GHEP-ISFG) to promote knowledge exchange between associate laboratories interested in the implementation of indel-based methodologies and build allele frequency databases of 38 indels for forensic applications. These databases include populations from different countries that are relevant for identification and kinship investigations undertaken by the participating laboratories...
September 22, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983069/fine-scale-genetic-structure-in-finland
#11
Sini Kerminen, Aki S Havulinna, Garrett Hellenthal, Alicia R Martin, Antti-Pekka Sarin, Markus Perola, Aarno Palotie, Veikko Salomaa, Mark J Daly, Samuli Ripatti, Matti Pirinen
Coupling dense genotype data with new computational methods offers unprecedented opportunities for individual-level ancestry estimation once geographically precisely defined reference data sets become available. We study such a reference data set for Finland containing 2376 such individuals from the FINRISK Study survey of 1997 both of whose parents were born close to each other. This sampling strategy focuses on the population structure present in Finland before the 1950s. By using the recent haplotype-based methods ChromoPainter (CP) and FineSTRUCTURE (FS) we reveal a highly geographically clustered genetic structure in Finland and report its connections to the settlement history as well as to the current dialectal regions of the Finnish language...
October 5, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946114/applying-massively-parallel-sequencing-to-paternity-testing-on-the-ion-torrent-personal-genome-machine
#12
Hui Li, Xueying Zhao, Ke Ma, Yu Cao, Huaigu Zhou, Yuan Ping, Chengchen Shao, Jianhui Xie, Wenbin Liu
Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) is a promising supplementary method for forensic genetics and has gradually been applied to forensic casework. In this study, we applied MPS to forensic casework on an Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine to evaluate its performance in paternity testing with mismatched STR loci. A total of 15 samples from seven cases containing one mismatched locus by capillary electrophoresis typing were analyzed. Combined paternity index (CPI) and relative chance of paternity were calculated according to the International Society for Forensic Genetics guidelines and the Chinese national standards recommended for paternity testing...
September 12, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938152/comparison-of-manual-and-automated-ampliseq%C3%A2-workflows-in-the-typing-of-a-somali-population-with-the-precision-id-identity-panel
#13
Suzanne van der Heijden, Susanne Juel de Oliveira, Marie-Louise Kampmann, Claus Børsting, Niels Morling
The Precision ID Identity Panel was used to type 109 Somali individuals in order to obtain allele frequencies for the Somali population. These frequencies were used to establish a Somali HID-SNP database, which will be used for the biostatistic calculations in family and immigration cases. Genotypes obtained with the Precision ID Identity Panel were found to be almost in complete concordance with genotypes obtained with the SNPforID PCR-SBE-CE assay. In seven SNP loci, silent alleles were identified, of which most were previously described in the literature...
September 14, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934201/forensic-genetics-and-genomics-much-more-than-just-a-human-affair
#14
REVIEW
Miguel Arenas, Filipe Pereira, Manuela Oliveira, Nadia Pinto, Alexandra M Lopes, Veronica Gomes, Angel Carracedo, Antonio Amorim
While traditional forensic genetics has been oriented towards using human DNA in criminal investigation and civil court cases, it currently presents a much wider application range, including not only legal situations sensu stricto but also and, increasingly often, to preemptively avoid judicial processes. Despite some difficulties, current forensic genetics is progressively incorporating the analysis of nonhuman genetic material to a greater extent. The analysis of this material-including other animal species, plants, or microorganisms-is now broadly used, providing ancillary evidence in criminalistics in cases such as animal attacks, trafficking of species, bioterrorism and biocrimes, and identification of fraudulent food composition, among many others...
September 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934125/optimized-mtdna-control-region-primer-extension-capture-analysis-for-forensically-relevant-samples-and-highly-compromised-mtdna-of-different-age-and-origin
#15
Mayra Eduardoff, Catarina Xavier, Christina Strobl, Andrea Casas-Vargas, Walther Parson
The analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has proven useful in forensic genetics and ancient DNA (aDNA) studies, where specimens are often highly compromised and DNA quality and quantity are low. In forensic genetics, the mtDNA control region (CR) is commonly sequenced using established Sanger-type Sequencing (STS) protocols involving fragment sizes down to approximately 150 base pairs (bp). Recent developments include Massively Parallel Sequencing (MPS) of (multiplex) PCR-generated libraries using the same amplicon sizes...
September 21, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858673/evaluating-the-statistical-power-of-dna-based-identification-exemplified-by-the-missing-grandchildren-of-argentina
#16
Daniel Kling, Thore Egeland, Mariana Herrera Piñero, Magnus Dehli Vigeland
Methods and implementations of DNA-based identification are well established in several forensic contexts. However, assessing the statistical power of these methods has been largely overlooked, except in the simplest cases. In this paper we outline general methods for such power evaluation, and apply them to a large set of family reunification cases, where the objective is to decide whether a person of interest (POI) is identical to the missing person (MP) in a family, based on the DNA profile of the POI and available family members...
August 12, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837856/secure-and-robust-cloud-computing-for-high-throughput-forensic-microsatellite-sequence-analysis-and-databasing
#17
Sarah F Bailey, Melissa K Scheible, Christopher Williams, Deborah S B S Silva, Marina Hoggan, Christopher Eichman, Seth A Faith
Next-generation Sequencing (NGS) is a rapidly evolving technology with demonstrated benefits for forensic genetic applications, and the strategies to analyze and manage the massive NGS datasets are currently in development. Here, the computing, data storage, connectivity, and security resources of the Cloud were evaluated as a model for forensic laboratory systems that produce NGS data. A complete front-to-end Cloud system was developed to upload, process, and interpret raw NGS data using a web browser dashboard...
August 8, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834547/high-resolution-melting-hrm-of-hypervariable-mitochondrial-dna-regions-for-forensic-science
#18
Alípio Dos Santos Rocha, Isis Salviano Soares de Amorim, Tatiana de Almeida Simão, Adenilson de Souza da Fonseca, Rodrigo Grazinoli Garrido, Andre Luiz Mencalha
Forensic strategies commonly are proceeding by analysis of short tandem repeats (STRs); however, new additional strategies have been proposed for forensic science. Thus, this article standardized the high-resolution melting (HRM) of DNA for forensic analyzes. For HRM, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from eight individuals were extracted from mucosa swabs by DNAzol reagent, samples were amplified by PCR and submitted to HRM analysis to identify differences in hypervariable (HV) regions I and II. To confirm HRM, all PCR products were DNA sequencing...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766523/-the-morphological-diagnostics-of-the-toxic-effects-of-the-smoking-blends-in-the-cases-of-fatal-intoxication-with-pyrrolidinovalerophenone
#19
P G Dzhuvalyakov, Yu V Zbrueva, S S Kabakova, D V Bogomolov, M R Bekeshov
The objective of the present study was the development of the morphological criteria for the diagnostics of fatal intoxication with the herbal smoking blends (spices) using the samples of the biological materials obtained from the victims of pyrrolidinovalerophenone poisoning. The samples were taken from 13 autopsied cadavers of 11 men and 2 women at the age from 26 to 39 years based at the Astrakhan Regional Bureau of Forensic Medical Expertise during the period from 21011 to 2015. The diagnosis of pyrrolidinvalerpphenon poisoning was verified to the letter...
2017: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755626/the-use-of-forensic-dna-analysis-in-humanitarian-forensic-action-the-development-of-a-set-of-international-standards
#20
William H Goodwin
DNA analysis was first applied to the identification of victims of armed conflicts and other situations of violence (ACOSV) in the mid-1990s, starting in South America and the Balkans. Argentina was the first country to establish a genetic database specifically developed to identify disappeared children. Following on from these programs the early 2000s marked major programs, using a largely DNA-led approach, identifying missing persons in the Balkans and following the attack on the World Trade Center in New York...
September 2017: Forensic Science International
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