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"forensic age"

Daniel Wittschieber, Ronald Schulz, Heidi Pfeiffer, Andreas Schmeling, Sven Schmidt
In forensic age estimations of living individuals, computed tomography of the clavicle is widely used for determining the age of majority. To this end, the degree of ossification of the medial clavicular epiphysis can be determined by means of two classification systems complementing each other: a 5-stage system and an additional 6-stage system that further sub-classifies the stages 2 and 3. In recent years, practical experience and new data revealed that difficulties and even wrong stage determinations may occur especially when following the short descriptions of the fundamental 5-stage system only...
September 22, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Jannick De Tobel, Elke Hillewig, Koenraad Verstraete
BACKGROUND: Established methods to stage development of third molars for forensic age estimation are based on the evaluation of radiographs, which show a 2D projection. It has not been investigated whether these methods require any adjustments in order to apply them to stage third molars on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which shows 3D information. AIM: To prospectively study root stage assessment of third molars in age estimation using 3 Tesla MRI and to compare this with panoramic radiographs, in order to provide considerations for converting 2D staging into 3D staging and to determine the decisive root...
September 20, 2016: Annals of Human Biology
S Schmidt, C A Henke, D Wittschieber, V Vieth, T Bajanowski, F Ramsthaler, K Püschel, H Pfeiffer, A Schmeling, R Schulz
Evaluation of the ossification of the medial clavicular epiphysis plays a key role in forensic age estimation, particularly in determining whether the age of 18 has been attained. A key research objective in the forensic age estimation field at present is to establish non-X-ray methods for investigating the clavicle. This paper looks at the use of magnetic resonance imaging for evaluating the developmental state of the medial clavicular epiphysis. Clavicle specimens obtained from autopsies of 125 female and 270 male subjects aged from 10 to 30 were examined using a 3-T magnetic resonance scanner...
November 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Ashref Ali Khalifa Dardouri, Roberto Cameriere, Stefano De Luca, Stefano Vanin
In most countries, forensic age estimation in living subjects has become increasingly important in the last few years. In addition, as the age of legal majority ranges from 14 to 18 in many countries, and in Libya it is 18 years, radiographic assessment of the degree of third molar development is essential for forensic age estimation of adolescents and young adults. The aim of this paper is to assess the accuracy of the cut-off value of 0.08, by measurements of third molar index (I3M), in determining if a subject is adult or not in Libyan population...
October 2016: Forensic Science International
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August 31, 2016: Annals of Human Biology
Palak H Shah, Rashmi Venkatesh
OBJECTIVE: To determine and compare the accuracy of pulp/tooth ratio method in mandibular first and second molar teeth in forensic age estimation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total 300 panoramic radiographs of the Gujarati population (187 males and 113 females) were studied. The measurements of Pulp Chamber Height (PCH) and Crown Root Trunk Height (CRTH) were performed on the mandibular first and second molar teeth. The acquired data was subjected to correlation and regression...
May 2016: Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
Michael Gonsior, Frank Ramsthaler, Christoph Birngruber, Martin Obert, Marcel A Verhoff
The assessment of ossification of the medial clavicular epiphysis plays a decisive role in the forensic age estimation of living subjects. Primarily for reasons of minimizing the radiation exposure currently associated with such evaluations, non-ionizing methods would be an advance.This study pursued the question whether full union of the medial clavicular epiphysis, visualized by high-frequency sonography, is a reliable criterion for age-threshold determinations. The ossification stage of the medial clavicular epiphysis of 215 female and 195 male volunteers, aged between 14 and 26 years, was evaluated in bilateral sonograms...
November 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Yuya Hamano, Sho Manabe, Chie Morimoto, Shuntaro Fujimoto, Munetaka Ozeki, Keiji Tamaki
Age prediction with epigenetic information is now edging closer to practical use in forensic community. Many age-related CpG (AR-CpG) sites have proven useful in predicting age in pyrosequencing or DNA chip analyses. In this study, a wide range methylation status in the ELOVL2 and FHL2 promoter regions were detected with methylation-sensitive high resolution melting (MS-HRM) in a labor-, time-, and cost-effective manner. Non-linear-distributions of methylation status and chronological age were newly fitted to the logistic curve...
July 2016: Legal Medicine
Jayakumar Jayaraman, Hai Ming Wong, Nigel M King, Graham J Roberts
BACKGROUND: Many countries have recently experienced a rapid increase in the demand for forensic age estimates of unaccompanied minors. Hong Kong is a major tourist and business center where there has been an increase in the number of people intercepted with false travel documents. An accurate estimation of age is only possible when a dataset for age estimation that has been derived from the corresponding ethnic population. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop and validate a Reference Data Set (RDS) for dental age estimation for southern Chinese...
October 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Murat Serdar Gurses, Nursel Turkmen Inanir, Gokhan Gokalp, Recep Fedakar, Eren Tobcu, Gokhan Ocakoglu
Forensic age estimation, a recent topic of research in forensic medicine, is of primary importance to criminal and civil law. Previous studies indicate that the observation of medial clavicular ossification allows for age discrimination along the completed 18th and 21st years of life. Experts recommend that the Schmeling and Kellinghaus methods be used together. In this study, we used these staging methods to retrospectively analyze 725 case studies (385 males, 340 females) of thin-slice computed tomography (CT) images, ranging from 0...
September 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Martin Urschler, Astrid Krauskopf, Thomas Widek, Erich Sorantin, Thomas Ehammer, Martin Borkenstein, Kathrin Yen, Eva Scheurer
Determination of skeletal development is a key pillar in forensic age estimation of living persons. Radiological assessment of hand bone age is widely used until the age of about 17-18 years, applying visual grading techniques to hand radiographs. This study investigated whether Greulich-Pyle (GP) and Tanner-Whitehouse (TW2) grading can be equally used for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, which would offer the huge benefit of avoiding ionizing radiation. In 18 subjects aged between 7 and 17 years a radiograph and an MRI scan of the hand were performed...
September 2016: Forensic Science International
A Freire-Aradas, C Phillips, A Mosquera-Miguel, L Girón-Santamaría, A Gómez-Tato, M Casares de Cal, J Álvarez-Dios, J Ansede-Bermejo, M Torres-Español, P M Schneider, E Pośpiech, W Branicki, Á Carracedo, M V Lareu
Individual age estimation has the potential to provide key information that could enhance and extend DNA intelligence tools. Following predictive tests for externally visible characteristics developed in recent years, prediction of age could guide police investigations and improve the assessment of age-related phenotype expression patterns such as hair colour changes and early onset of male pattern baldness. DNA methylation at CpG positions has emerged as the most promising DNA tests to ascertain the individual age of the donor of a biological contact trace...
September 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Jannick De Tobel, Elke Hillewig, Stephanie Bogaert, Karel Deblaere, Koenraad Verstraete
BACKGROUND: Established dental age estimation methods in subadults study the development of third molar root apices on radiographs. In living individuals however, avoiding ionizing radiation is expedient. Studying dental development with magnetic resonance imaging complies with this requirement, adding the advantage of imaging in three dimensions. AIM: To elaborate the development of an MRI protocol to visualise all third molars for forensic age estimation, with particular attention to the development of the root apex...
June 22, 2016: Annals of Human Biology
Phuwadon Duangto, Apirum Janhom, Sukon Prasitwattanaseree, Pasuk Mahakkanukrauh, Anak Iamaroon
UNLABELLED: The aims of this study were to develop new prediction models for dental age estimation and to test the accuracy of the resulting models in comparison with the Demirjian et al. and the Willems et al. methods in Thai children and adolescents. Digital panoramic radiographs of 1,134 Thai individuals (487 males and 647 females) aged from 6 to 15 years were selected and evaluated for dental age estimation. Quadratic regression was used to generate new models. The results showed that the new prediction models indicated a strong correlation coefficient between the dental maturity score and the chronological age in both sexes (r=0...
September 2016: Forensic Science International
Shakhawan K Mawlood, Lynn Dennany, Nigel Watson, Benjamin S Pickard
Human aging is associated with epigenetic modification of the genome. DNA methylation at cytosines appears currently as the best characterised modification that occurs during the mammalian lifetime. Such methylation changes at regulatory region can provide insights to track contributor age for criminal investigation. The EpiTect Methyl II PCR system (QIAGEN) was used to compare methylation levels of CpG islands in the promoter regions of a number of age related genes, of which four successfully showed changes across the lifespan (NPTX2, KCNQ1DN, GRIA2 and TRIM58)...
July 2016: Forensic Science International
Jeanne Serin, Camille Rérolle, Julien Pucheux, Fabrice Dedouit, Norbert Telmon, Frédéric Savall, Pauline Saint-Martin
Forensic age estimation of living individuals is a controversial subject because of the imprecision of the available methods which leads to errors. Moreover, young persons are exposed to radiation, without diagnostic or therapeutic advantage. Recently, non-invasive imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been studied in this context. The aim of this work was to study if the analysis of wrist/hand MRI enabled determination of whether a subject was 18 years old. Two observers retrospectively analyzed metaphyseal-epiphyseal fusion of the distal epiphysis of the radius and the ulna and the base of the first metacarpus in wrist/hand MRI of living people between 9 and 25 years of age...
July 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Jong-Lyul Park, Jong Hwan Kim, Eunhye Seo, Dong Hyuck Bae, Seon-Young Kim, Han-Chul Lee, Kwang-Man Woo, Yong Sung Kim
In forensics, age prediction is useful to narrow down the number of potential suspects because it can provide some general characteristics for predicting appearance. Previous genome-wide studies based on DNA methylation have reported age prediction algorithms using a penalized multivariate regression method known as elastic net and a few dozen to hundreds of CpG sites. Although more CpG sites may provide better accuracy than fewer CpG sites, this approach is not applicable to forensics because the amounts of crime-scene DNA are usually limited...
March 17, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Furkan Ufuk, Kadir Agladioglu, Nevzat Karabulut
PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the use of computed tomography (CT) staging of the medial clavicular epiphysis ossification in forensic bone age determination, and find a CT criterion to determine whether an individual is adult or not. METHODS: Chest CT and pulmonary CT angiography exams of 354 patients between 10 and 30 years of age (mean, 21.4 years) were retrospectively evaluated for epiphyseal ossification phase of the bilateral medial clavicles (708 clavicles) and compared with the sex and chronologic age of the individuals...
May 2016: Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology: Official Journal of the Turkish Society of Radiology
Sven Schmidt, Danilo Schramm, Sebastian Ribbecke, Ronald Schulz, Daniel Wittschieber, Andreas Olze, Volker Vieth, H Frank Ramsthaler, Klaus Pfischel, Heidi Pfeiffer, Gunther Geserick, Andreas Schmeling
The dramatic rise in the number of refugees entering Germany means that age estimation for juveniles and young adults whose age is unclear but relevant to legal and official procedures has become more important than ever. Until now, whether and to what extent the combination of methods recommended by the Study Group on Forensic Age Diagnostics has resulted in a reduction of the range of scatter of the summarized age diagnosis has been unclear. Hand skeletal age, third molar mineralization stage and ossification stage of the medial clavicular epiphyses were determined for 307 individuals aged between 10 and 29 at time of death on whom autopsies were performed at the Institutes of Legal Medicine in Berlin, Frankfurt am Main and Hamburg between 2001 and 2011...
January 2016: Archiv Für Kriminologie
Oguzhan Ekizoglu, Ercan Inci, Irem Erdil, Elif Hocaoglu, Mustafa Gokhan Bilgili, Cemal Kazimoglu, Ali Reisoglu, Ismail Ozgur Can
Determination of the ossification properties of the iliac apophysis is important not only in the clinical evaluation of patients undergoing orthopedic surgery but also in age estimation studies for forensic purposes. The literature includes both anthropological and radiological (conventional radiography, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging modalities) investigations of the different staging systems used for these purposes. In this study, we assessed the utility of computed tomography (CT) of the iliac crest apophysis in estimating forensic age...
July 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
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