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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917056/sustained-activation-of-postsynaptic-5-ht2a-receptors-gates-plasticity-at-prefrontal-cortex-synapses
#1
Coralie Berthoux, Alexander Barre, Joël Bockaert, Philippe Marin, Carine Bécamel
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a key role in many high-level cognitive processes. It is densely innervated by serotonergic neurons originating from the dorsal and median raphe nuclei, which profoundly influence PFC activity. Among the 5-HT receptors abundantly expressed in PFC, 5-HT2A receptors located in dendrites of layer V pyramidal neurons control neuronal excitability and mediate the psychotropic effects of psychedelic hallucinogens, but their impact on glutamatergic transmission and synaptic plasticity remains poorly characterized...
June 16, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910745/psychedelic-fauna-for-psychonaut-hunters-a-mini-review
#2
REVIEW
Laura Orsolini, Michela Ciccarese, Duccio Papanti, Domenico De Berardis, Amira Guirguis, John M Corkery, Fabrizio Schifano
Currently different classes of psychoactive substances are easily available for abuse, including several hundred novel psychoactive substances (NPS). Some of these drugs occur naturally in plants and animals or are chemically modified from plant or animal compounds and have been abused by humans over millennia. Recently, the occurrence of a new "drug culture" (e.g., psychonauts) who consume a great variety of NPS with hallucinogenic/psychedelic properties, facilitated the development of a new "psychedelic trend" toward the consumption of substances contained in some species of animals ("psychedelic fauna")...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907624/effect-of-rectal-douching-enema-on-rectal-gonorrhoea-and-chlamydia-among-a-cohort-of-men-who-have-sex-with-men-on-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis
#3
Adiba Hassan, Jill S Blumenthal, Michael P Dube, Eric Ellorin, Katya Corado, David J Moore, Sheldon R Morris
OBJECTIVES: Rectal douching/enema (RD) is a common practice among men who have sex with men (MSM) in preparation for sex. RD can break down the rectal mucosal barrier and potentially affect the rectal microbiome. The objective of this study was to understand if RD is associated with acquiring rectal infections (RI) with rectal gonorrhoea (NG) and/or chlamydia (CT). METHODS: From 2013 to 2015, 395 adult HIV-uninfected MSM were enrolled in a randomised controlled study for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) adherence with routine sexual risk survey and testing...
June 15, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896106/ayahuasca-and-its-dmt-and-%C3%AE-carbolines-containing-ingredients-block-the-expression-of-ethanol-induced-conditioned-place-preference-in-mice-role-of-the-treatment-environment
#4
Elisangela G Cata-Preta, Yasmim A Serra, Eliseu da C Moreira-Junior, Henrique S Reis, Natali D Kisaki, Matheus Libarino-Santos, Raiany R R Silva, Thaísa Barros-Santos, Lucas C Santos, Paulo C R Barbosa, José L Costa, Alexandre J Oliveira-Lima, Lais F Berro, Eduardo A V Marinho
Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic beverage produced from the decoction of Banisteriopsis caapi (Bc) and Psychotria viridis (Pv), β-carboline- and N,N -dimethyltryptamine(DMT)-containing plants, respectively. Accumulating evidence suggests that ayahuasca may have therapeutic effects on ethanol abuse. It is not known, however, whether its effects are dependent on the presence of DMT or if non-DMT-containing components would have therapeutic effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the rewarding properties of ayahuasca (30, 100, and 300 mg/kg, orally), Bc (132, 440, and 1320 mg/kg, orally) and Pv (3...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29863323/psychedelics-and-personality
#5
Marc Aixalà, Rafael G Dos Santos, Jaime E C Hallak, José Carlos Bouso
In the past decade, an increasing number of clinical trials are reporting evidence that psychedelics or serotonergic hallucinogens (such as lysergic acid diethylamide, psilocybin, and ayahuasca/dimethyltryptamine) could be effective in the treatment of mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders. The mechanisms responsible for these effects are not fully understood but seem to involve changes in bran dynamics in areas rich in serotonergic 5-HT2A receptors and in personality. In the present text, we present a brief and critical overview of the current research in this field, pointing out both promises and limitations of these studies...
June 4, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29847089/dark-classics-in-chemical-neuroscience-mescaline
#6
Bruce Cassels, Patricio Sáez-Briones
Archeological studies in the USA, Mexico and Peru suggest that mescaline, as a cactus constituent, has been used for more than 6000 years. Although it is a widespread cactus alkaloid, it is present in high concentrations in few species, notably the North American peyote (Lophophora williamsii) and the South American wachuma (Trichocereus pachanoi, T. peruvianus and T. bridgesii). Spanish 16th century chroniclers considered these cacti "diabolic", leading to their prohibition, but their use persisted to our days and has been spreading for the last 150 years...
May 30, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29846147/a-bayesian-hierarchical-model-for-demand-curve-analysis
#7
Yen-Yi Ho, Tien Nhu Vo, Haitao Chu, Xianghua Luo, Chap T Le
Drug self-administration experiments are a frequently used approach to assessing the abuse liability and reinforcing property of a compound. It has been used to assess the abuse liabilities of various substances such as psychomotor stimulants and hallucinogens, food, nicotine, and alcohol. The demand curve generated from a self-administration study describes how demand of a drug or non-drug reinforcer varies as a function of price. With the approval of the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, demand curve analysis provides crucial evidence to inform the US Food and Drug Administration's policy on tobacco regulation, because it produces several important quantitative measurements to assess the reinforcing strength of nicotine...
July 2018: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781894/a-survey-of-american-psychiatrists-attitudes-toward-classic-hallucinogens
#8
Brian S Barnett, Willie O Siu, Harrison G Pope
Recent years have seen renewed interest and research about the use of hallucinogens as possible agents in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. However, we are unaware of studies assessing the current attitudes of American psychiatrists regarding hallucinogens. Therefore, we e-mailed surveys to 1000 members of the American Psychiatric Association-250 resident-fellows and 750 attending psychiatrists. The response rate was 32.4%. Respondents tended to perceive hallucinogens as potentially hazardous and appropriately illegal for recreational purposes...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762664/behavioral-and-serotonergic-changes-in-the-frontal-cortex-following-methamphetamine-self-administration
#9
Lisa M McFadden, Rebecca Cordie, Tamee Livermont, Andrew Johansen
Background: Methamphetamine (METH) use is associated with a variety of negative health outcomes including psychosis. The frontal cortex serotonin (5-HT)-2 receptors are thought to contribute to psychosis-like behaviors. This study investigated changes in serotonergic markers in the frontal cortex following METH self-administration and hallucinogenic drug-induced behavior. Methods: Consistent with previously published studies, freely-cycling male and female rats were allowed to self-administer METH (Males: 0...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760666/candyflipping-and-other-combinations-identifying-drug-drug-combinations-from-an-online-forum
#10
Michael Chary, David Yi, Alex F Manini
Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) refer to synthetic compounds or derivatives of more widely known substances of abuse that have emerged over the last two decades. Case reports suggest that users combine substances to achieve desired psychotropic experiences while reducing dysphoria and unpleasant somatic effects. However, the pattern of combining NPS has not been studied on a large scale. Here, we show that posts discussing NPS describe combining nootropics with sedative-hypnotics and stimulants with plant hallucinogens or psychiatric medications...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755349/ibogaine-acute-administration-in-rats-promotes-wakefulness-long-lasting-rem-sleep-suppression-and-a-distinctive-motor-profile
#11
Joaquín González, José P Prieto, Paola Rodríguez, Matías Cavelli, Luciana Benedetto, Alejandra Mondino, Mariana Pazos, Gustavo Seoane, Ignacio Carrera, Cecilia Scorza, Pablo Torterolo
Ibogaine is a potent psychedelic alkaloid that has been the focus of intense research because of its intriguing anti-addictive properties. According to anecdotic reports, ibogaine has been originally classified as an oneirogenic psychedelic; i.e., induces a dream-like cognitive activity while awake. However, the effects of ibogaine administration on wakefulness (W) and sleep have not been thoroughly assessed. The main aim of our study was to characterize the acute effects of ibogaine administration on W and sleep...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748632/chronic-cannabis-promotes-pro-hallucinogenic-signaling-of-5-ht2a-receptors-through-akt-mtor-pathway
#12
Inés Ibarra-Lecue, Irene Mollinedo-Gajate, J Javier Meana, Luis F Callado, Rebeca Diez-Alarcia, Leyre Urigüen
Long-term use of potent cannabis during adolescence increases the risk of developing schizophrenia later in life, but to date, the mechanisms involved remain unknown. Several findings suggest that the functional selectivity of serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2AR) through inhibitory G-proteins is involved in the molecular mechanisms responsible for psychotic symptoms. Moreover, this receptor is dysregulated in the frontal cortex of schizophrenia patients. In this context, studies involving cannabis exposure and 5-HT2AR are scarce...
April 27, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746791/preferential-accumulation-of-inorganic-elements-in-amanita-muscaria-from-north-eastern-poland
#13
Krzysztof Lipka, Martyna Saba, Jerzy Falandysz
Concentrations of Al, Ba, Cd, Ca, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Hg, Rb, Ag, Na, Sr and Zn were analysed in fruiting bodies of A. muscaria. This mushroom is considered conditionally edible, since parboiling can detoxify its fruiting bodies from the hallucinogens and render it edible. The specific purpose of the research is the little-known phenomenon of the variability of mineral composition of mushrooms for generations harvested in the same forest areas - both in terms of their nutritional value and anthropogenic influences...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741535/amanita-muscaria-fly-agaric-from-a-shamanistic-hallucinogen-to-the-search-for-acetylcholine
#14
M R Lee, E Dukan, I Milne
The mushroom Amanita muscaria (fly agaric) is widely distributed throughout continental Europe and the UK. Its common name suggests that it had been used to kill flies, until superseded by arsenic. The bioactive compounds occurring in the mushroom remained a mystery for long periods of time, but eventually four hallucinogens were isolated from the fungus: muscarine, muscimol, muscazone and ibotenic acid. The shamans of Eastern Siberia used the mushroom as an inebriant and a hallucinogen. In 1912, Henry Dale suggested that muscarine (or a closely related substance) was the transmitter at the parasympathetic nerve endings, where it would produce lacrimation, salivation, sweating, bronchoconstriction and increased intestinal motility...
March 2018: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727969/contamination-profiles-mass-loadings-and-sewage-epidemiology-of-neuropsychiatric-and-illicit-drugs-in-wastewater-and-river-waters-from-a-community-in-the-midwestern-united-states
#15
Allie J Skees, Katelyn S Foppe, Bommanna Loganathan, Bikram Subedi
In this study, residues of the neuropsychiatric and illicit drugs including stimulants, opioids, hallucinogens, antischizophrenics, sedatives, and antidepressants were determined in influent and effluent samples from a small wastewater treatment plant, a receiving creek, and river waters in the Four Rivers region of the Midwestern United States. Nineteen neuropsychiatric drugs, eight illicit drugs, and three metabolites of illicit drugs were detected and quantitated in the water samples using HPLC-MS/MS. Residual concentrations of the drugs varied from below the detection limit to sub-μg/L levels...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699529/substance-use-and-suicidal-ideation-and-behaviour-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review
#16
Elsie Breet, Daniel Goldstone, Jason Bantjes
BACKGROUND: Understanding relationships between substance use and suicidal ideation and behaviour (SIB) has important public health implications for suicide prevention in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where 75% of suicides occur. This systematic review explored the associations between substance use and SIB in LMICs. METHODS: We searched five databases using a combination of keywords for substance use, SIB and LMICs to identify English-written quantitative studies published between January 2006 and February 2016...
April 24, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689063/estimation-of-the-marginal-effect-of-regular-drug-use-on-multiple-sclerosis-in-the-iranian-population
#17
Ibrahim Abdollahpour, Saharnaz Nedjat, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Tibor Schuster
There are only few reports regarding the role of lifetime drug or substance use in multiple sclerosis (MS) etiology. In this study, we investigated the potential effect of drug or substance exposure on the onset of MS diagnosis. We conducted a population-based incident case control study in Tehran. Cases (n = 547) were 15-50 years old persons with MS identified from the Iranian Multiple Sclerosis Society (IMSS) register during August 7, 2013, and November 17, 2015. Population-based controls (n = 1057) were 15-50 years old and were recruited by random digit telephone dialing...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683847/psychoactive-substances-alcohol-and-tobacco-consumption-in-hiv-infected-outpatients
#18
Jean-Marc Jacquet, Hélène Peyriere, Alain Makinson, Marianne Peries, Nicolas Nagot, Hélène Donnadieu-Rigole, Jacques Reynes
OBJECTIVES: To assess the alcohol consumption, tobacco addiction and psychoactive substance use (PSU) of people living with HIV (PLHIV). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study in an HIV outpatient unit. METHODS: Autoquestionnaire systematically proposed to all patients during their usual clinical care visit during a 6-months period, for alcohol (AUDIT test), tobacco (Short Fagerstrom Test) and PSU (ASSIST V3.0 test). RESULTS: Of 1334 distributed questionnaires, 1018 PLHIV responded: 76...
June 1, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682608/-hallucinations-following-acute-cannabis-dosing-a-case-report-and-comparison-to-other-hallucinogenic-drugs
#19
Frederick S Barrett, Nicolas J Schlienz, Natalie Lembeck, Muhammad Waqas, Ryan Vandrey
Introduction: Cannabis has been historically classified as a hallucinogen. However, subjective cannabis effects do not typically include hallucinogen-like effects. Empirical reports of hallucinogen-like effects produced by cannabis in controlled settings, particularly among healthy research volunteers, are rare and have mostly occurred after administration of purified Δ-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) rather than whole plant cannabis. Methods: The case of a healthy 30-year-old male who experienced auditory and visual hallucinations in a controlled laboratory study after inhaling vaporized cannabis that contained 25 mg THC (case dose) is presented...
2018: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682363/acute-intoxication-following-dimethyltryptamine-ingestion
#20
Matthew H Bilhimer, Rachel F Schult, Kristan V Higgs, Timothy J Wiegand, Rachel M Gorodetsky, Nicole M Acquisto
Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic tea that is most commonly comprised of the vine Banisteriopsis caapi alone or in combination with other plants such as Psychotria viridis . This concoction results in an orally active form of dimethyltryptamine (DMT), a hallucinogenic amine. Despite use in South America as a medicinal agent and component in religious ceremonies, interest in its recreational use and spiritual effects has led to increased use in the United States. We describe a unique case following ingestion of ayahuasca tea in a patient with history of schizophrenia resulting in personal injury and property damage...
2018: Case Reports in Emergency Medicine
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