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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664276/effects-of-n-n-dimethyltryptamine-dmt-on-rat-behaviors-relevant-to-anxiety-and-depression
#1
Lindsay P Cameron, Charlie J Benson, Lee E Dunlap, David E Olson
Depression and anxiety disorders are debilitating diseases resulting in substantial economic costs to society. Traditional antidepressants often take weeks to months to positively affect mood and are ineffective for about 30% of the population. Alternatives, such as ketamine, a dissociative anesthetic capable of producing hallucinations, and the psychoactive tisane ayahuasca have shown great promise due to their fast-acting nature and effectiveness in treatment-resistant populations. Here, we investigate the effects of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), the principle hallucinogenic component of ayahuasca, in rodent behavioral assays relevant to anxiety and depression using adult, male, Sprague-Dawley rats...
April 17, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627821/global-scientific-production-on-illicit-drug-addiction-a-two-decade-analysis
#2
Malahat Khalili, Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar, Behrang Shadloo, Ramin Mojtabai, Karl Mann, Masoumeh Amin-Esmaeili
AIMS: Addiction science has made great progress in the past decades. We conducted a scientometric study in order to quantify the number of publications and the growth rate globally, regionally, and at country levels. METHODS: In October 2015, we searched the Scopus database using the general keywords of addiction or drug-use disorders combined with specific terms regarding 4 groups of illicit drugs - cannabis, opioids, cocaine, and other stimulants or hallucinogens...
April 6, 2018: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609628/reconsideration-of-the-nomadic-condition-of-the-southernmost-guachichiles-based-on-the-relationship-with-their-environment
#3
Eric Mellink, Mónica E Riojas-López, José Antonio Rivera-Villanueva
BACKGROUND: The Guachichiles were a group of Chichimeca people that inhabited the southern and central parts of the Mexican Plateau. In the southern area of their distribution, they occupied and used the tunales, extensive forests of arborescent nopales (Opuntia spp.). Their pre-Columbian distribution was dissected by the Royal Silver Road established by the Spaniards, and this lead to them being main protagonists in the so-called Chichimeca War, during the sixteenth century. With very little first-hand documentation, the Guachichiles were described as savage, warring, primitive, hunting nomads, but little efforts have been done to understand their daily life habits...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599719/metabotropic-glutamate-2-receptors-play-a-key-role-in-modulating-head-twitches-induced-by-a-serotonergic-hallucinogen-in-mice
#4
Mark J Benvenga, Stephen F Chaney, Melvyn Baez, Thomas C Britton, William J Hornback, James A Monn, Gerard J Marek
There is substantial evidence that glutamate can modulate the effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine2A (5-HT2A ) receptor activation through stimulation of metabotropic glutamate2/3 (mGlu2/3 ) receptors in the prefrontal cortex. Here we show that constitutive deletion of the mGlu2 gene profoundly attenuates an effect of 5-HT2A receptor activation using the mouse head twitch response (HTR). MGlu2 and mGlu3 receptor knockout (KO) as well as age-matched ICR (CD-1) wild type (WT) mice were administered (±)1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) and observed for head twitch activity...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596726/case-series-salvia-divinorum-as-a-potential-addictive-hallucinogen
#5
Joseph El-Khoury, Evelyne Baroud
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Recreational use of salvia divinorum (salvia), a potent, naturally occurring hallucinogen, is on the rise internationally. Despite the paucity of information about its long-term health effects, salvia is readily available and generally portrayed as a safe non-addictive substance. METHODS AND RESULTS: We report on two patients who presented with an enduring and pervasive pattern of salvia use. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Evaluating patients for salvia use during clinical assessment is strongly encouraged, especially among young polysubstance users...
April 2018: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593537/acute-pharmacological-effects-of-2c-b-in-humans-an-observational-study
#6
Esther Papaseit, Magí Farré, Clara Pérez-Mañá, Marta Torrens, Mireia Ventura, Mitona Pujadas, Rafael de la Torre, Débora González
2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenethylamine (2C-B) is a psychedelic phenylethylamine derivative, structurally similar to mescaline. It is a serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine-2A (5-HT2A ), 5-hydroxytryptamine-2B (5-HT2B ), and 5-hydroxytryptamine-2C (5-HT2C ) receptor partial agonist used recreationally as a new psychoactive substance. It has been reported that 2C-B induces mild psychedelic effects, although its acute pharmacological effects and pharmacokinetics have not yet been fully studied in humans. An observational study was conducted to assess the acute subjective and physiological effects, as well as pharmacokinetics of 2C-B...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572046/neurotoxicity-screening-of-new-psychoactive-substances-nps-effects-on-neuronal-activity-in-rat-cortical-cultures-using-microelectrode-arrays-mea
#7
Anne Zwartsen, Laura Hondebrink, Remco Hs Westerink
While the prevalence and the use of new psychoactive substances (NPS) is steadily increasing, data on pharmacological, toxicological and clinical effects is limited. Considering the large number of NPS available, there is a clear need for efficient in vitro screening techniques that capture multiple mechanisms of action. Neuronal cultures grown on multi-well microelectrode arrays (mwMEAs) have previously proven suitable for neurotoxicity screening of chemicals, pharmaceuticals and (illicit) drugs. We therefore used rat primary cortical cultures grown on mwMEA plates to investigate the effects of eight NPS (PMMA, α-PVP, methylone, MDPV, 2 C-B, 25B-NBOMe, BZP and TFMPP) and two 'classic' illicit drugs (cocaine, methamphetamine) on spontaneous neuronal activity...
March 20, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560311/altered-network-hub-connectivity-after-acute-lsd-administration
#8
Felix Müller, Patrick C Dolder, André Schmidt, Matthias E Liechti, Stefan Borgwardt
LSD is an ambiguous substance, said to mimic psychosis and to improve mental health in people suffering from anxiety and depression. Little is known about the neuronal correlates of altered states of consciousness induced by this substance. Limited previous studies indicated profound changes in functional connectivity of resting state networks after the administration of LSD. The current investigation attempts to replicate and extend those findings in an independent sample. In a double-blind, randomized, cross-over study, 100 μg LSD and placebo were orally administered to 20 healthy participants...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549713/synesthetic-hallucinations-induced-by-psychedelic-drugs-in-a-congenitally-blind-man
#9
Sara Dell'Erba, David J Brown, Michael J Proulx
This case report offers rare insights into crossmodal responses to psychedelic drug use in a congenitally blind (CB) individual as a form of synthetic synesthesia. BP's personal experience provides us with a unique report on the psychological and sensory alterations induced by hallucinogenic drugs, including an account of the absence of visual hallucinations, and a compelling look at the relationship between LSD induced synesthesia and crossmodal correspondences. The hallucinatory experiences reported by BP are of particular interest in light of the observation that rates of psychosis within the CB population are extremely low...
March 14, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547576/hallucinogen-persisting-perception-disorder-etiology-clinical-features-and-therapeutic-perspectives
#10
REVIEW
Giovanni Martinotti, Rita Santacroce, Mauro Pettorruso, Chiara Montemitro, Maria Chiara Spano, Marco Lorusso, Massimo di Giannantonio, Arturo G Lerner
Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder (HPPD) is a rare, and therefore, poorly understood condition linked to hallucinogenic drugs consumption. The prevalence of this disorder is low; the condition is more often diagnosed in individuals with a history of previous psychological issues or substance misuse, but it can arise in anyone, even after a single exposure to triggering drugs. The aims of the present study are to review all the original studies about HPPD in order to evaluate the following: (1) the possible suggested etiologies; (2) the possible hallucinogens involved in HPPD induction; (3) the clinical features of both HPPD I and II; (4) the possible psychiatric comorbidities; and (5) the available and potential therapeutic strategies...
March 16, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538516/-peer-group-influence-and-illicit-drug-use-among-adolescent-students-in-brazil-a-cross-sectional-study
#11
Kelly Oliva Jorge, Raquel Conceição Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira E Ferreira, Ichiro Kawachi, Patrícia Maria Zarzar, Isabela Almeida Pordeus
The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to examine illicit drug use and associations with socioeconomic factors as well as peer group influence among Brazilian adolescents aged 15 to 19 years. Two-stage cluster sampling was adopted, involving the random selection of public and private schools from the nine administrative districts of a Brazilian state capital and the random selection of classrooms at each school. Illicit drug use was the outcome and was measured through the question: "Have you ever used any illicit drugs (marijuana, inhalants, hypnotics, cocaine/crack, hallucinogens, amphetamines and opioids) in your life?"...
March 8, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537989/psilocin-and-ketamine-microdosing-effects-of-subchronic-intermittent-microdoses-in-the-elevated-plus-maze-in-male-wistar-rats
#12
Rachel R Horsley, Tomáš Páleníček, Jan Kolin, Karel Valeš
Short-term moderate doses of serotonergic and dissociative hallucinogens can be useful in the treatment of anxiety. Recently, a trend has developed for long-term intermittent 'microdosing' (usually one-tenth of a 'full' active dose), with reports of long-lasting relief from anxiety and related disorders; however, there is no scientific evidence for the efficacy of therapeutic microdosing nor to show its lasting effects. The objective of this study was to test for lasting effects on anxiety in rats after microdosing with ketamine or psilocin...
March 13, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533847/the-additive-effects-of-depressive-symptoms-and-polysubstance-use-on-hiv-risk-among-gay-bisexual-and-other-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#13
Kiffer G Card, Nathan J Lachowsky, Heather L Armstrong, Zishan Cui, Lu Wang, Paul Sereda, Jody Jollimore, Thomas L Patterson, Trevor Corneil, Robert S Hogg, Eric A Roth, David M Moore
INTRODUCTION: Among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBM), collinearity between polysubstance use and mental health concerns has obscured their combined effects on HIV risk with multivariable results often highlighting only one or the other. METHODS: We used mediation and moderation analyses to examine the effects of polysubstance use and depressive symptoms on high-risk sex (i.e., condomless anal sex with serodiscordant/unknown status partner) in a sample of sexually-active GBM, aged ≥16 years, recruited in Metro Vancouver using respondent driven sampling...
March 6, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522798/maternal-and-developmental-toxicity-of-the-hallucinogenic-plant-based-beverage-ayahuasca-in-rats
#14
Luciana Gueiros da Motta, Juliana Alves de Morais, Ana Carolina A M Tavares, Leonora Maciel Sousa Vianna, Marcia Renata Mortari, Rivadávio Fernandes Batista Amorim, Rosângela R Carvalho, Francisco José R Paumgartten, Aline Pic-Taylor, Eloisa Dutra Caldas
Rats were treated orally with ayahuasca (AYA) on gestation days (GD) 6-20 at doses corresponding to one-(1X) to eight-fold (8X) the average dose taken by a human adult in a religious ritual, and the pregnancy outcome evaluated on GD21. Rats treated with 4X and 8X doses died during the treatment period (44 and 52%), and those that survived showed kidney injury. Rats surviving the 8X dose showed neuronal loss in hippocampal regions and in the raphe nuclei, and those from the 2X dose neuronal loss in CA1. Delayed intrauterine growth, induced embryo deaths and increased occurrence of foetal anomalies were observed at the 8X dose...
March 6, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518578/principal-component-analysis-of-early-alcohol-drug-and-tobacco-use-with-major-depressive-disorder-in-us-adults
#15
Kesheng Wang, Ying Liu, Youssoufou Ouedraogo, Nianyang Wang, Xin Xie, Chun Xu, Xingguang Luo
Early alcohol, tobacco and drug use prior to 18 years old are comorbid and correlated. This study included 6239 adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) in the past year and 72,010 controls from the combined data of 2013 and 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). To deal with multicollinearity existing among 17 variables related to early alcohol, tobacco and drug use prior to 18 years old, we used principal component analysis (PCA) to infer PC scores and then use weighted multiple logistic regression analyses to estimate the associations of potential factors and PC scores with MDD...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515439/clinical-interpretations-of-patient-experience-in-a-trial-of-psilocybin-assisted-psychotherapy-for-alcohol-use-disorder
#16
Michael P Bogenschutz, Samantha K Podrebarac, Jessie H Duane, Sean S Amegadzie, Tara C Malone, Lindsey T Owens, Stephen Ross, Sarah E Mennenga
After a hiatus of some 40 years, clinical research has resumed on the use of classic hallucinogens to treat addiction. Following completion of a small open-label feasibility study, we are currently conducting a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial of psilocybin-assisted treatment of alcohol use disorder. Although treatment effects cannot be analyzed until the study is complete, descriptive case studies provide a useful window into the therapeutic process of psychedelic-assisted treatment of addiction...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501528/comparative-neuropharmacology-of-n-2-methoxybenzyl-2-5-dimethoxyphenethylamine-nbome-hallucinogens-and-their-2c-counterparts-in-male-rats
#17
REVIEW
Joshua S Elmore, Ann M Decker, Agnieszka Sulima, Kenner C Rice, John S Partilla, Bruce E Blough, Michael H Baumann
2,5-Dimethoxyphenethylamines (2C compounds) are 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonists that induce hallucinogenic effects. N-methoxybenzylation of 2C compounds markedly increases their affinity for 5-HT2A receptors, and two such analogs, 2-(4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine (25C-NBOMe) and 2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine (25I-NBOMe), have emerged in recreational drug markets. Here, we investigated the neuropharmacology of 25C-NBOMe and 25I-NBOMe in rats, as compared to their 2C analogs and the prototypical 5-HT2A/2C agonist 1-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)propan-2-amine (DOI)...
March 1, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499587/ergot-alkaloids-and-their-hallucinogenic-potential-in-morning-glories
#18
Ulrike Steiner, Eckhard Leistner
Naturally occurring and semisynthetic ergot alkaloids play a role in health care or as recreational drugs in Western and indigenous Mexican societies. Evidence is summarized that ergot alkaloids present in Central American Convolvulaceae like Turbina corymbosa, Ipomoea violacea , and Ipomoea asarifolia are colonized by different species of a newly described clavicipitaceous fungal genus named Periglandula . The fungi are associated with peltate glandular trichomes on the adaxial leaf surface of its host plants...
March 2, 2018: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499272/receptor-binding-profiles-and-behavioral-pharmacology-of-ring-substituted-n-n-diallyltryptamine-analogs
#19
REVIEW
Landon M Klein, Nicholas V Cozzi, Paul F Daley, Simon D Brandt, Adam L Halberstadt
Substantial effort has been devoted toward understanding the psychopharmacological effects of tryptamine hallucinogens, which are thought to be mediated by activation of 5-HT2A and 5-HT1A receptors. Recently, several psychoactive tryptamines based on the N,N-diallyltryptamine (DALT) scaffold have been encountered as recreational drugs. Despite the apparent widespread use of DALT derivatives in humans, little is known about their pharmacological properties. We compared the binding affinities of DALT and its 2-phenyl-, 4-acetoxy-, 4-hydroxy-, 5-methoxy-, 5-methoxy-2-methyl-, 5-fluoro-, 5-fluoro-2-methyl-, 5-bromo-, and 7-ethyl-derivatives at 45 receptor and transporter binding sites...
February 27, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472863/%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-receptor-activation-suppresses-the-rat-phenethylamine-hallucinogen-induced-head-twitch-response-hallucinogen-induced-excitatory-post-synaptic-potentials-as-a-potential-substrate
#20
Gerard J Marek, Brian P Ramos
5-Hydroxytryptamine2A (5-HT2A ) receptors are enriched in layers I and Va of the rat prefrontal cortex and neocortex and their activation increases the frequency of glutamatergic excitatory post-synaptic potentials/currents (EPSP/Cs) onto layer V pyramidal cells. A number of other G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are also enriched in cortical layers I and Va and either induce (α1 -adrenergic and orexin2 ) or suppress (metabotropic glutamate2 [mGlu2 ], adenosine A1 , μ-opioid) both 5-HT-induced EPSCs and head twitches or head shakes induced by the phenethylamine hallucinogen 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI)...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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