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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691641/layering-of-stomach-contents-in-drowning-cases-in-post-mortem-computed-tomography-compared-to-forensic-autopsy
#1
Walther Gotsmy, Paolo Lombardo, Christian Jackowski, Eva Brencicova, Wolf-Dieter Zech
BACKGROUND: In forensic autopsy, the analysis of stomach contents is important when investigating drowning cases. Three-layering of stomach contents may be interpreted as a diagnostic hint to drowning due to swallowing of larger amounts of water or other drowning media. The authors experienced frequent discrepancies of numbers of stomach content layering in drowning cases between post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) and autopsy in forensic casework. Therefore, the goal of this study was to compare layering of stomach contents in drowning cases between PMCT and forensic autopsy...
April 24, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689739/pleuro-pericardial-communication-due-to-pigtail-catheters-in-extreme-preterm-infants-diagnosis-and-intervention
#2
Ranjit I Kylat
Pneumothorax in preterm infants is associated with an increased risk of chronic lung disease, intraventricular hemorrhage and mortality. In mechanically ventilated preterm infants, for the management of tension pneumothorax if needle aspiration is not successful a thoracostomy is needed. In the last two decades management of tension pneumothorax has changed from the use of traditional chest tubes to percutaneous pigtail catheter thoracostomy (PPCT) as the most commonly used technique. When compared to placement of traditional chest tubes, PPCT is touted as being faster requiring, less analgesia and less training for proficiency and having fewer complications...
2018: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687676/can-sudden-cardiac-death-in-the-young-be-predicted-and-prevented-lessons-from-autopsy-for-the-emergency-physician
#3
Jennifer L White, Anna Marie Chang, Sergi Cesar, Georgia Sarquella-Brugada
Sudden unexpected death in the young, though rare, is devastating for both the family and the community. Although only 1.3 to 8.5 cases of sudden cardiac death (SCD) occur per 100 000 young people, autopsy is often inconclusive. Many causes of SCD are related to autosomal dominant inherited risk, however; therefore, answers are important for survivors. Causes of autopsy-positive SCD in young patients include hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia. Autopsy-negative SCD has been related to inherited arrhythmogenic causes such as long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, Wolff- Parkinson-White syndrome, and idiopathic ventricular fibrillation...
June 2018: Emergencias: Revista de la Sociedad Española de Medicina de Emergencias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687407/ultradeep-single-molecule-real-time-sequencing-of-hiv-envelope-reveals-complete-compartmentalization-of-highly-macrophage-tropic-r5-proviral-variants-in-brain-and-cxcr4-using-variants-in-immune-and-peripheral-tissues
#4
Robin L Brese, Maria Paz Gonzalez-Perez, Matthew Koch, Olivia O'Connell, Katherine Luzuriaga, Mohan Somasundaran, Paul R Clapham, James Jarad Dollar, David J Nolan, Rebecca Rose, Susanna L Lamers
Despite combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV+ patients still develop neurological disorders, which may be due to persistent HIV infection and selective evolution in brain tissues. Single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology offers an improved opportunity to study the relationship among HIV isolates in the brain and lymphoid tissues because it is capable of generating thousands of long sequence reads in a single run. Here, we used SMRT sequencing to generate ~ 50,000 high-quality full-length HIV envelope sequences (> 2200 bp) from seven autopsy tissues from an HIV+/cART+ subject, including three brain and four non-brain sites...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687352/an-autopsy-report-of-an-adenoid-cystic-carcinoma-arising-in-the-trachea
#5
Gargi Kapatia, Kirti Gupta, Oshan Shrestha, Anil Kumar, Ashish Bhalla
While adenoid cystic carcinoma is a common malignancy to arise within the salivary glands (21.9%) (Kokemueller et al. in Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 33:25-31, 2004), it is seldom encountered as a tracheal mass and represents < 1% of all lung cancers. Tracheal tumors are an uncommon cause of dyspnoea due to their relatively rare occurrence (Baydur and Gottlieb in JAMA 234:829-831, 1975). They pose considerable diagnostic challenge clinically as their symptoms mimics more commoner ailments like asthma and chronic bronchitis...
April 23, 2018: Head and Neck Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687291/a-japanese-family-of-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-21-clinical-and-neuropathological-studies
#6
Hiroyuki Yahikozawa, Satoko Miyatake, Toshiaki Sakai, Takeshi Uehara, Mitsunori Yamada, Norinao Hanyu, Yasuhiro Futatsugi, Hiroshi Doi, Shigeru Koyano, Fumiaki Tanaka, Atsushi Suzuki, Naomichi Matsumoto, Kunihiro Yoshida
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 21 (SCA21) is a rare subtype of autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias, which was first identified in a French family and has been reported almost exclusively in French ancestry so far. We here report the first Japanese family with SCA21, in which all affected members examined carried a heterozygous c.509C > T:p.Pro170Leu variant in TMEM240. Their clinical features were summarized as a slowly progressive ataxia of young-adult onset (5-48 years) associated with various degree of psychomotor retardation or cognitive impairment...
April 23, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687211/dual-threat-of-epstein-barr-virus-an-autopsy-case-report-of-hiv-positive-plasmablastic-lymphoma-complicating-ebv-associated-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis
#7
Yusuke Koizumi, Ken-Ichi Imadome, Yasunori Ota, Hitoshi Minamiguchi, Yoshinori Kodama, Dai Watanabe, Hiroshige Mikamo, Tomoko Uehira, Seiji Okada, Takuma Shirasaka
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation causes serious diseases in immunocompromised hosts, such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We report on a case of plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH).A-53-year-old Japanese man was diagnosed with PBL and AIDS. In addition to combined antiretroviral therapy, HyperCVAD (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone)/high-dose methotrexate + cytarabine was initiated immediately. Partial remission was attained with chemotherapy...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686966/a-rare-case-of-suspected-intravascular-large-b-cell-lymphoma-forming-nodular-masses-in-the-brain-and-around-the-prostate-and-seminal-vesicle
#8
Takuto Ogasawara, Yoshinori Ikehata, Ryuichi Kato, Noriomi Miyao, Yasuhiro Konishi, Shinichiro Kon
Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is a rare subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Furthermore, tumorigenesis is extremely rare. An 80-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with nervous symptoms. Imaging tests showed a brain tumor and mass lesions in the seminal vesicle and retroperitoneum. Transrectal biopsy of the seminal vesicle helped diagnose the patient with DLBCL. The patient's general status deteriorated rapidly, and he died on the 23rd day after admission. An autopsy was performed and the pathological diagnosis was DLBCL, specifically suspected as IVLBCL, with nodular masses in the brain and seminal vesicle...
May 2018: Urology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686598/sleep-related-problems-as-a-nonmotor-symptom-of-dentatorubropallidoluysian-atrophy
#9
Hyeyun Kim, Ji Young Yun, Kyoung-Gyu Choi, Heasoo Koo, Hyun Jeong Han
Dentatorubropallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by an expansion of a cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) repeat encoding a polyglutamine tract in the atrophin-1 protein. Unlike other CAG repeat diseases, sleep related problems have not been reported in patients with DRPLA. There was a 65-year-old man and his family with DRPLA. They suffered from seizure, gait disturbance, and cognitive decline. The patients commonly showed dream enacting sleep disorder, insomnia. The results from overnight polysomnography showed rapid eye movement (REM) without atonia in patients with DRPLA...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686563/pulmonary-lymphangioleiomyomatosis-associated-with-aggressive-renal-angiomyolipoma
#10
Allison Cooper, Laura Baugh, Shannon Kelley, Howard Huang, Joseph Guileyardo
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare cystic pulmonary disease that may occur in association with mutations in the tuberous sclerosis genes or arise sporadically. The histologic hallmark of the disease is the "LAM" cell, a spindled to epithelioid smooth muscle-like cell that bears morphologic and immunohistochemical resemblance to the perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas). The origin of the "LAM" cell is unknown; emerging theories suggest that a member of the PEComa family, the renal angiomyolipoma, may be the primary source and that both LAM and angiomyolipomas are associated with the genetic syndrome tuberous sclerosis...
January 2018: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685008/medicamentous-thrombolysis-disguises-pulmonary-thromboembolism-as-a-cause-of-death
#11
I O A, A Ferencic, V Stemberga, G Zamolo, S Arbanas, I Dasek, M Perkovic, D Cuculic
We report the case of a 31-year-old female who was admitted to the emergency department with symptoms of cardiac arrest and ultimately died in spite of enormous resuscitation efforts. During resuscitation, pulmonary embolism was considered as a possible non-cardiac cause of cardiac arrest, and following its extremely unfavorable prognosis, the fatal outcome was not so surprising. However, since acute pulmonary emboli obstructing blood flow to a lobe or multiple lung segments was suspected, alteplase was indicated and administered...
March 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684950/-metastases-of-urothelial-carcinoma-with-trophoblastic-differentiation-that-responded-to-combination-chemotherapy-with-gemcitabine-and-oxaliplatin-a-case-report
#12
Masahiro Uchida, Koji Kawai, Masahiro Kurobe, Atsushi Ikeda, Shuya Kandori, Tsuyoshi Endo, Tomoaki Miyagawa, Takahiro Kojima, Masakazu Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki Nishiyama
A 70-year-old man was admitted with complaint of gross hematuria. Cystoscopy and computed tomography (CT) revealed a 2.5 cm nodular tumor in the urinary bladder. Pathological diagnosis after the transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) was invasive urothelial cancer with trophoblastic differentiation of pT1. The tumor was positively stained with human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). The serum HCG level was 12.8 IU/l in the fourth week after TURBT, and it increased to 35.7 IU/l in the 20th week after TURBT...
February 2018: Hinyokika Kiyo. Acta Urologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684846/changing-trends-in-suicides-using-helium-or-nitrogen-a-15-year-study
#13
Roger W Byard
A study was undertaken of autopsy cases of suicide where either helium or nitrogen gas had been used (taken from Forensic Science SA files, 2003-2017). 33 deaths involved helium (age range 19-94yrs, average 47yrs; M:F-2.7:1), compared to 23 cases of nitrogen inhalation (age range 29-93yrs, average 66yrs; M:F-2.3:1). The combined numbers of deaths due to both helium and nitrogen inhalation showed a steady increase (5: 2003-2007; 31: 2013-2017); however, while helium deaths plateaued (14: 2008-2012, 15: 2013-2017) nitrogen-related deaths increased 16-fold...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684118/spontaneous-endometriosis-in-cynomolgus-monkeys-as-a-clinically-relevant-experimental-model
#14
A Nishimoto-Kakiuchi, S Netsu, S Okabayashi, K Taniguchi, H Tanimura, A Kato, M Suzuki, T Sankai, R Konno
STUDY QUESTION: Does spontaneous endometriosis in cynomolgus monkeys have the characteristics required of a good experimental model? SUMMARY ANSWER: Spontaneous endometriosis in cynomolgus monkeys exhibited similar clinicopathological characteristics to the human disease and was useful as an experimental model. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The prevalence of endometriosis in autopsied cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) in a breeding colony was reported to be 28...
April 19, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683044/lethal-explosions-in-a-non-terrorist-civilian-setting
#15
Roger W Byard
A study was undertaken to investigate the range and nature of deaths that may result from explosions in a civilian population that has not been exposed to terrorist attacks or significant military activities. A search was conducted of autopsy files at Forensic Science SA, Adelaide, Australia, from July 2000 to June 2017 for all cases where death had been attributed to an explosion. Twenty cases were identified, consisting of 10 accidents, five suicides, two homicides, one murder-suicide with two decedents and one case where the manner of death was undetermined...
January 1, 2018: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682538/root-cause-analysis-of-persistently-high-maternal-mortality-in-a-rural-district-of-indonesia-role-of-clinical-care-quality-and-health-services-organizational-factors
#16
Mohammad Afzal Mahmood, Ismi Mufidah, Steven Scroggs, Amna Rehana Siddiqui, Hafsa Raheel, Koentijo Wibdarminto, Bernardus Dirgantoro, Jorien Vercruyssen, Hayfaa A Wahabi
Background: Despite significant reduction in maternal mortality, there are still many regions in the world that suffer from high mortality. District Kutai Kartanegara, Indonesia, is one such region where consistently high maternal mortality was observed despite high rate of delivery by skilled birth attendants. Method: Thirty maternal deaths were reviewed using verbal autopsy interviews, terminal event reporting, medical records' review, and Death Audit Committee reports, using a comprehensive root-cause analysis framework including Risk Identification, Signal Services, Emergency Obstetrics Care Evaluation, Quality, and 3 Delays...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682432/an-unusually-aggressive-large-cell-carcinoma-of-the-lung-undiagnosed-until-autopsy
#17
Kartikeya Rajdev, Abdul Hasan Siddiqui, Uroosa Ibrahim, Prateek Patibandla, Tahir Khan, Dany El-Sayegh
Large cell carcinoma (LCC) of the lung has a rapid mean volume doubling time (VDT) of around 67-134 days. In some cases of LCC where the VDT is extremely rapid, clinical presentation may mimic acute lung pathologies such as pneumonia. We describe a rare presentation of an aggressive LCC of the lung with an estimated VDT of around two weeks. A 52-year-old male with a history schizophrenia presented with fever, cough, and dyspnea for three weeks duration. His medical history was significant for a recent admission six weeks before current presentation for myocardial infarction (MI) and pneumonia...
February 19, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681083/novel-de-novo-zbtb20-mutations-in-three-cases-with-primrose-syndrome-and-constant-corpus-callosum-anomalies
#18
Caroline Alby, Lucile Boutaud, Bettina Bessières, Valérie Serre, Marlene Rio, Valerie Cormier-Daire, Judith de Oliveira, Amale Ichkou, Linda Mouthon, Christopher T Gordon, Maryse Bonnière, Charlotte Mechler, Patrick Nitschke, Christine Bole, Stanislas Lyonnet, Nadia Bahi-Buisson, Nathalie Boddaert, Laurence Colleaux, Philippe Roth, Yves Ville, Michel Vekemans, Féréchté Encha-Razavi, Tania Attié-Bitach, Sophie Thomas
Corpus callosum (CC) is the major brain commissure connecting homologous areas of cerebral hemispheres. CC anomalies (CCAs) are the most frequent brain anomalies leading to variable neurodevelopmental outcomes making genetic counseling difficult in the absence of a known etiology that might inform the prognosis. Here, we used whole exome sequencing, and a targeted capture panel of syndromic CCA known causal and candidate genes to screen a cohort of 64 fetuses with CCA observed upon autopsy, and 34 children with CCA and intellectual disability...
May 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680871/cystic-tumors-of-the-pituitary-infundibulum-seminal-autopsy-specimens-1899-to-1904-that-allowed-clinical-pathological-craniopharyngioma-characterization
#19
José M Pascual, Ruth Prieto, Maria Rosdolsky, Sewan Strauss, Inés Castro-Dufourny, Verena Hofecker, Eduard Winter, Rodrigo Carrasco, Walter Ulrich
A heterogeneous group of epithelial cystic tumors developed at the infundibulum and the third ventricle disconcerted pathologists at the dawn of the twentieth century. Very little was known at that time about the physiological role played by the pituitary gland, and there was almost complete ignorance regarding the function of the hypothalamus. Acromegaly, or enlargement of acral body parts, described in 1886 by Pierre Marie, was the only disease linked to primary hypertrophies of the pituitary gland, known as "pituitary strumas"...
April 21, 2018: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679840/estimation-of-stature-from-sternum-exploring-the-quadratic-models
#20
Ashish Saraf, Tanuj Kanchan, Kewal Krishan, Navneet Ateriya, Puneet Setia
Identification of the dead is significant in examination of unknown, decomposed and mutilated human remains. Establishing the biological profile is the central issue in such a scenario, and stature estimation remains one of the important criteria in this regard. The present study was undertaken to estimate stature from different parts of the sternum. A sample of 100 sterna was obtained from individuals during the medicolegal autopsies. Length of the deceased and various measurements of the sternum were measured...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
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