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Alifiya Kapasi, Sue E Leurgans, Bryan D James, Patricia A Boyle, Zoe Arvanitakis, Sukriti Nag, David A Bennett, Aron S Buchman, Julie A Schneider
Brain microinfarcts are common in aging and are associated with cognitive impairment. Anterior and posterior watershed border zones lie at the territories of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries, and are more vulnerable to hypoperfusion than brain regions outside the watershed areas. However, little is known about microinfarcts in these regions and how they relate to cognition in aging. Participants from the Rush Memory and Aging Project, a community-based clinical-pathologic study of aging, underwent detailed annual cognitive evaluations...
May 30, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Ahmad Alkhasawneh, Aysha Mubeen, Arun Gopinath
Lymphoproliferative disorders cause significant morbidity and mortality, either related to the disease itself or therapy complications. Some cases of lymphoma may have vague clinical presentation, especially in the absence of lymphadenopathy, and a clinical work up may not be conclusive. Our study focuses on autopsy cases of lymphoma patients, emphasizing clinically unsuspected cases. Autopsy records from the last 20 years at our institution were searched, and the clinical parameters were recorded. Fifteen cases of lymphoma were identified, and 5 cases were diagnosed at the time of autopsy...
June 23, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Ntombizodwa Ndlovu, Eustasius Musenge, Sung Kyun Park, Brendan Girdler-Brown, Guy Richards, Jill Murray
OBJECTIVE: We investigated trends and determinants of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in deceased South African miners. METHODS: Statutory autopsies are performed on miners for occupational lung disease compensation, irrespective of cause of death. Data were extracted from the PATHAUT (Pathology Automation System) autopsy database. PTB trends were analysed and explanatory variables (year of autopsy, age at death, gold employment duration, silicosis and HIV) were evaluated using binary logistic regression modelling...
June 22, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Q C Le Clerc
INTRODUCTION: Napoleon died of a cancer of the stomach. Another assumption can be proposed, that of an uronéphrologique pathology. MATERIAL AND METHOD: It is about a historical study basing on the report of autopsy of Antommarchi and the assumptions formulated according to the urinary and nephrologic symptoms presented during his life. RESULTS: Napoleon presented signs of nephropathy in a probable context of metabolic syndrome and many signs of dysurie early on probable stricture of the urethra related to the intensive practice of horse...
June 19, 2018: Progrès en Urologie
Jun-Ichi Takanashi, Kumi Yasukawa, Yuka Murofushi, Atsuko Masunaga, Hiroshi Sakuma, Masaharu Hayashi
Acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD) is the most common pediatric encephalopathy in Japan, however, the exact neuropathology remains uncertain. The postmortem neuropathology in a patient with AESD revealed reduction of myelinated axons with early stage of astrocytosis in the absence of neuronal loss, which suggests the primary pathological damage in AESD involves myelinated axons and astrocytes rather than cortical neurons. An increased number of gemistocytic astrocytes at the corticomedullary junction may cause reduced diffusion, leading to the so-called bright tree appearance on magnetic resonance imaging, characteristic to AESD...
June 18, 2018: Brain & Development
Chihiro Fujii, Kyoko Itoh, Kozo Saito, Yu Satoh, Masahiro Makino, Masanori Nakagawa, Kyohei Yamaguchi, Shinji Fushiki, Toshiki Mizuno
We have reported an autopsy case of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) that exhibited persisting active inflammatory lesions in the central nervous system (CNS) despite a 45-year-long treatment with oral corticosteroids. To our knowledge, our case had received the longest course of maintenance treatment. This case study suggests that the current treatment of NMO with immunosuppressive agents may offer a good prospect for improving life expectancy. On the other hand, it also suggest that microscopic active lesions which were clinically silent and difficult to detect by neurological examination or MRI studies may persist in the CNS in patients with NMO, despite prolonged and continuous immunosuppressive treatment...
June 2018: ENeurologicalSci
Faria Zafar, Ruksana Azhu Valappil, Sam Kim, Krisztina K Johansen, Anne Lynn S Chang, James W Tetrud, Peggy S Eis, Eli Hatchwell, J William Langston, Dennis W Dickson, Birgitt Schüle
The "Iowa kindred," a large Iowan family with autosomal-dominant Parkinson's disease, has been followed clinically since the 1920s at the Mayo Clinic. In 2003, the genetic cause was determined to be a 1.7 Mb triplication of the alpha-synuclein genomic locus. Affected individuals present with an early-onset, severe parkinsonism-dementia syndrome. Here, we present a descendant of the Iowa kindred with novel, disease-associated non-motor findings of reduced heart rate variability, complete anosmia, and a rare skin condition called colloid milium...
2018: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
V A Zinserling, M M Agapov, A N Orlov
Carbol fuchsin (Ziehl-Neelsen) staining is a major method used since the late nineteenth century to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the tissues. At the same time, the number of mycobacteria does not frequently show a clinical and morphological correspondence to the activity of the infectious process. OBJECTIVE: To reveal the morphological characteristics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in patients with long-lasting tuberculosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-four autopsies of verified fibrous-cavernous tuberculosis were examined...
2018: Arkhiv Patologii
Kyung-Moo Yang, Bong-Woo Lee, Jaeseong Oh, Seong Ho Yoo
Although the benefits of sauna bathing have been demonstrated in epidemiological studies, sauna deaths have been reported. The aim of this study was to determine the demographic and forensic characteristics associated with different blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) in sauna deaths in Korea. In this retrospective analysis, data were collected from a nationwide pool in Korea between January 2008 and December 2015 to determine the role of alcohol intoxication in sauna deaths based on the subjects' BAC and to evaluate the demographic and forensic characteristics associated with different BACs...
June 21, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Ann Sophie Schröder, Carolin Edler, Jan Peter Sperhake
The bacterium Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) can cause severe and life-threatening infections such as epiglottitis and meningitis. The course of the disease can be very rapid, resulting in sudden death. The incidence of Hib-induced epiglottitis in children has declined since the introduction of vaccinations in countries where such vaccinations are routinely administered. We herein present a case involving a 2.5-year-old boy who died suddenly at home. He had developed acute-onset throat and abdominal pain and a high fever...
June 20, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Stefano D'Errico, Massimo Martelloni, Francesco Pio Cafarelli, Giuseppe Guglielmi
Type 1 neurofibromatosis (NF 1), a rare genetic disease with autosomal dominant transmission, has typical dermatologic manifestations with pathognomonic Lisch nodules, and is rarely known for vascular alterations. Among these, aneurysmal dilatation is the most common form. We report a fatal case of massive hemothorax due to a spontaneous rupture of the left pulmonary artery branch micro-aneurysm in a NF 1 patient. Indeed, spontaneous rupture of these pathologic vessels is very rare in clinical practice and the literature, but, for its potentially life-threatening complications, there is the need for it to be taken into account in differential diagnosis...
June 20, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Daniel S Smyk, Jayantha C Herath
Vertebral artery laceration/dissection (VALD) resulting in fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a rare, but well-known phenomenon encountered in the forensic setting. Delayed ruptures are exceptionally rare, and pose several challenges to the forensic pathologist. In this paper we present a case of a 47-year-old male who collapsed suddenly following recent complaints of a headache and a reported seizure. He had a reported history of potential head trauma that occurred several days prior. Attempts at resuscitation were unsuccessful, and an autopsy examination was ordered...
June 20, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Shunsuke Koga, Naomi Kouri, Ronald L Walton, Mark T W Ebbert, Keith A Josephs, Irene Litvan, Neill Graff-Radford, J Eric Ahlskog, Ryan J Uitti, Jay A van Gerpen, Bradley F Boeve, Adam Parks, Owen A Ross, Dennis W Dickson
Corticobasal degeneration (CBD) is a clinically heterogeneous tauopathy, which has overlapping clinicopathologic and genetic characteristics with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). This study aimed to elucidate whether transactive response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) pathology contributes to clinicopathologic heterogeneity of CBD. Paraffin-embedded sections of the midbrain, pons, subthalamic nucleus, and basal forebrain from 187 autopsy-confirmed CBD cases were screened with immunohistochemistry for phospho-TDP-43...
June 20, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
Satoshi Katayama, Tadasu Takenaka, Aya Nakamura, Sinichi Sako, Akihiro Bessho, Nobuya Ohara
Pulmonary tumor thrombotic microangiopathy (PTTM) is a fatal, malignancy-related respiratory complication; we herein report a PTTM case induced by metastatic prostate cancer. An 81-year-old Japanese man developed dyspnea. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) revealed ground-glass opacities spread across bilateral lung fields. Pulmonary microvascular aspiration cytology detected prostate cancer cells. As PTTM was highly suspected, docetaxel chemotherapy was performed immediately. His respiratory condition and HRCT findings improved temporarily, but he died approx...
June 2018: Acta Medica Okayama
Y Y Li, W R Zhu, K Chai, J F Yang, F Fang, S R He, C Q Yang, H Wang
Objective: To determine the frequency and extent of left ventricular amyloid deposition in patients aged over 85 years with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Methods: A total of 43 patients aged 85 to 100 years old were enrolled in this study based on the autopsy database of Beijing Hospital from February 1, 2003 to October 31, 2016. The frequency and extent of left ventricular amyloid deposition and myocardial fibrosis were determined in left ventricular specimens from patients with antemortem diagnosis of HFpEF without clinically apparent amyloid ( n= 28) and from control subjects ( n= 15) post Congo red staining and Masson's trichrome staining...
June 24, 2018: Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing za Zhi
M S Santana, K P Nascimento, P A Lotufo, I M Benseãor, F C Meotti
Allantoin is the main product of uric acid oxidation and was found to be augmented in atherosclerotic plaque in human autopsy and in animal models of atherosclerosis. Uric acid is abundant in human plasma and is prone to oxidation in inflammatory conditions such as atherosclerosis. In this study, we found a significant increase in plasma uric acid (P=0.002) and allantoin (P=0.025) in participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) that presented common carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT) within the 75th percentile (c-IMT≥P75)...
2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Z W Zhang, Z Y Zheng, R Li, S Y Zhou, W Tang, J P Zhou, B Wang
OBJECTIVES: To analyse 73 medical malpractice cases of pediatrics for discussing the importance of forensic pathology in solving the issues such as medical malpractice of pediatrics. METHODS: From January 2002 to August 2016, 73 medical malpractice cases of pediatrics with age of death between 28 days old and 10 years old were collected from Institute of Judical Expertise of Nanjing Medical University. The relationship between causes of death and related medical institutions was retrospectively analysed...
April 2018: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
Youting Bao, Zhichao Liu, Meiying Guo, Butuo Li, Xindong Sun, Linlin Wang
Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) usually occurs in hematological disease, but more rarely develops in cases of malignant solid tumors. Due to its features on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that are atypical, EMH in tumor patients might easily be misdiagnosed as metastasis leading to the improper TNM staging and inappropriate therapy. Here, we reported the first case of pleural EMH occurring in a patient with esophageal carcinoma whose pleural lesion was first diagnosed as metastasis and confirmed EMH after the needle biopsy...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
Eiji Kakizaki, Ai Sonoda, Masahiro Sakai, Nobuhiro Yukawa
We developed a novel molecular tool for assisting the diagnosis of death by drowning and evaluated its validity in forensic practical cases. Two novel sets of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) primers were designed to detect either representative freshwater (Aeromonas) or marine (Vibrio, Photobacterium, Listonella) bacterioplankton (aquatic bacteria) in one tube using the LAMP technique. The assay involves only mixing template DNA with seven reagents and incubating at 64°C for 80min and does not require special or expensive equipment because detection is based on visual observation under natural light...
May 30, 2018: Forensic Science International
Fabian A Kari, Babak Saravi, Sonja Krause, Luisa Puttfarcken, Johannes Scheumann, Katharina Förster, Bartosz Rylski, Sven Maier, Ulrich Göbel, Matthias Siepe, Martin Czerny, Friedhelm Beyersdorf
OBJECTIVES: Anterior radiculomedullary arteries (ARMAs) link dorsal segmental arteries and the intraspinal compartment of the spinal collateral network. The number of thoracic ARMA is highly variable from one person to another. The impact of the number of ARMAs on spinal cord perfusion during thoracic aortic procedures is unknown. We investigated the influence of the number of thoracic ARMAs on spinal cord perfusion in an aortic surgical large animal model. METHODS: Twenty-six pigs were included (20 treatment animals, 6 sham animals, weight 34 ± 3 kg)...
July 1, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
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